Road to War & World War II. Chapter 35 & 36

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1 Road to War & World War II Chapter 35 & 36

2 London Conference During the 1930s we were really only worried about the U.S. & ourselves London Economic Conference (1933) Hoped to form a global plan to fight the Depression Wanted to stabilize exchange rates FDR initially supportive, but changed his tune The conference collapsed and anger was directed at the U.S.

3 Philippines & Foreign Policy Cost a lot of $ to maintain overseas possessions Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) Would give the Philippines independence after a 12-yr. period of political tutoring The U.S. would keep its naval bases there FDR also formally recognized the Soviet Union Hoped for trade and an ally against Japan and Germany

4 Good Neighbor Policy Armed intervention in Latin America not making any friends Decided to just line up support for the US Withdrew US troops from Haiti Withdrew Platt amendment from Cuba- kept Guantanamo Mexico nationalized its oil fields Many in the U.S. demanded armed intervention Mex. eventually paid the former owners in the US

5 Trade in the 1930s Cordell Hull- Sec. of State Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act (1934) Lowered tariff to increase trade Only if other country agreed to lower theirs (21 did by 1939) Led to free trade atmosphere after WW II

6 Rise of Dictators Worldwide USSR- Joseph Stalin- Communist Italy- Benito Mussolini- Fascist Mussolini- attacked Ethiopia in 1935 Oil and to restore national pride League of Nations didn't act Germany- Adolf Hitler- Fascist Japan- Military Govt.- terminated naval treaty, built a big navy

7 Isolationism Still Alive As 1930's went on blame for WW I was put on arms & munitions manufacturers & bankers "Merchants of Death" Investigated by the Nye Committee Said if the U.S. got out of this business, would avoid war Our trade in these areas always got us into trouble

8 Neutrality Acts The sentiment in the U.S. was still towards isolationism Neutrality Acts (1935, 1936, 1937) When President said a state of war existed between 2 countries (open to presidential interpretation) Couldn't sail on belligerent ship, sell munitions or make loans to a country at war No distinction between aggressor and victim

9 Spanish Civil War Spanish rebels led by Francisco Franco started a civil war aided by Germany & Italy Able to test new military tactics and machinery Spanish Govt. aided by Soviets US refused to help the govt. of Spain All the while the US military was sagging

10 Japanese Aggression Japan started a war with China, already invaded Manchuria Quarantine Speech economic embargoes on aggressor nations (like Japan) Panay Incident (1937) A clearly marked U.S. naval vessel (U.S.S. Panay) was attacked in China by Japanese planes 2 dead, 30 wounded Japan apologized & paid quickly

11 Hitler & German Aggression Hitler began violating the Versailles Treaty Compulsory military service in Germany Moved German troops troops into the Rhineland Began persecution of Jews Built a huge military took over Austria peacefully The Anschluss

12 Appeasement Moved into the northwest corner of Czechoslovakia - Sudetenland- Something needed to be done to stop him Munich Conference- Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain (G.B.), Daladier (France) Policy of appeasement - let him have it as long as he promises to do no more 6 months later, Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia

13 Map of the Sudetenland

14 Start of WWII After Hitler took all of Czechoslovkia, France & G.B. told him any more would mean war Next would be an attack on Poland and no one thought Hitler would do that Attacking Poland would mean a two front war (Soviets on the east) How did Hitler avoid this? Sept. 1, Germany invades Poland Sept. 3, WWII officially underway

15 U.S. Neutrality FDR declared U.S. neutrality Neutrality Act of 1939 cash & carry law We would sell arms to democracies in Europe They need to pay cash and come get them Was great for the U.S. economy

16 World War II in Europe Soviets took Finland as a buffer April, 1940 Hitler took Denmark and Norway Late June - France surrendered Miracle at Dunkirk Soon after, Winston Churchill named P.M of Great Britain

17 U.S. Reaction We begin a naval build up just in case Is the start of a two-ocean navy Selective Service & Training Act U.S. s first peacetime draft U.S. and Latin America agreed to uphold the Monroe Doctrine Still clinging to isolationsim

18 Battle of Britain An air war for control of the British Isles German Luftwaffe vs. the British RAF The Royal Air Force won and stopped an attack of the British mainland

19 1940 Election Dems nominate FDR again (3rd term) GOP nominates Wendell Willkie

20 Neutral Any More? G.B. was running out of $ Lend-Lease Bill U.S. would give equipment to the Allies which would be returned or paid for later An economic declaration of war Got U.S. factories going for later war production Germany began sinking U.S. ships

21 Two-Front War Hitler planned on defeating France and G.B. and then attacking the U.S.S.R. Lost his patience and invade the Soviet Union (oil & other resources) Soviets now got Lend-Lease aid The German invasion of the Soviet Union stalled when winter hit

22 World War II - Late 1941

23 Atlantic Conference FDR & Churchill met off Newfoundland Atlantic Charter Opposed territorial gains No territorial changes unless the people affected wanted them Self-determination Set the groundwork for the U.N.

24 Pearl Harbor Japan was allied with Germany and needed resources U.S. froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. b/c of their aggression in the Pacific We knew an attack was coming somewhere - most thought the Philippines WRONG! Attack came Dec. 7, 1941 Over 2,400 killed

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