2/16/2016. Reflection and Refraction WHITEBOARD WHITEBOARD. Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "2/16/2016. Reflection and Refraction WHITEBOARD WHITEBOARD. Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall?"

Transcription

1 Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall? Reflection and Refraction Represent the path from the laser to the wall with an arrow. Why can t you see the beam of light itself but you can see the spot on the wall? Sprinkle chalk dust along the line of propagation. What are your observations? How would the shadow on the wall would look like with each ray model? (One sketch of each ray model, for each experiment) EXPERIMENT 1 EXPERIMENT 2 We can see objects (even tiny ones such as dust) illuminated by light. The path of light is a straight line from the source of light to the object and then (assuming that the behavior does not change) another straight line of reflected light from the object to our eyes) How would the shadow on the wall would look like with each ray model? 1

2 What How would you see on the wall. Explain using each ray model. EXPERIMENT 3 2

3 Ray model of light Ray diagrams Diagram that represents the travel of light from one location to another, drawn as a straight line and an arrow. Testing experiments show that model 1 is inconsistent with experimental evidence. Model 2 is supported: Each point on an extended light source emits light in many different directions. This light can be represented by multiple rays diverging from that point. Shadows and semi-shadows A sharp shadow is called an umbra. A shadow is a region behind the object where no light reaches. A semi-shadow is called a penumbra. A semi-shadow is a region where some light reaches and some does not. It appears as a fuzzy shadow. 3

4 On a sunny day, a streetlight pole casts a 9.6-m-long shadow on the ground. You have a meter stick that, when held vertical, casts a 0.70-m shadow. Use this information to determine the height of the pole. You place a lit candle several meters from the wall in an otherwise dark room. Between the candle and the wall (and close to the candle), you place a piece of stiff paper (or cardboard) with a small hole in it. Use the ray model of light propagation to predict what you will see on the wall. Pinhole camera Cardboard with a small hole in it is the foundation of the pinhole camera, also called a pin hole camera. It consists of a lightproof box with a very small hole in one wall and a photographic plate or film inside the box on the opposite wall. Before the invention of modern cameras that use lenses, pinhole cameras were used to make photographs. Light is a particle that propagates in straight lines, unless it is reflected or enters a new medium. Pioneered by Isaac Newton in his book Opticks Ray Model of Light Theories of Light Ray Model, Wave Model, Photon Model The Ray Model, although not perfect, explains a great deal of phenomena Reflection, refraction, mirrors, and lenses The Ray Model was the first attempt for scientists to model the behavior of light. 4

5 Light is fast! Really fast! 300,000,000 m/s 1/10 th of a second to go from NY to LA 1 light year = the distance that light travels in one year The speed of light in a vacuum is the speed limit of the universe c = 3x10 8 m/s (speed of light in a vacuum) Ray Model of Light One of the most important components of the Ray Model is the way that objects emit light. In a well-lit room, all objects are visible from every angle. Not only this, but every point on the object is visible from all directions! This is because when objects reflect light, the light rays are so numerous that each point on the surface of the object constantly emits light in all directions. The room is completely filled with light, constantly reflecting off of objects! Many, many rays However, we can only detect the ones that reach our eye! Reflection of light Light from a laser pointer shines on a mirror. In fact, there are so many rays constantly reflecting off of ordinary objects that the Ray Model assumes an essentially infinite number of light rays coming out in all directions. incident ray The Law of Reflection normal reflected ray When the mirror is curved, the normal line is basically just the radius of the mirror. incident ray θ i θ r normal mirror The ray reflects symmetrically across the normal line. The normal line is perpendicular to the surface of the mirror, mirror θ i θ r Think of the mirror as a part of a circle! and touches the point where the ray hits the mirror. reflected ray θ i = θ r 5

6 Reflection of light Law of reflection Incident light: light striking the mirror Normal line: a line perpendicular to the surface where the incident light hits the mirror Angle of incidence: the angle between the incident beam and the normal line Angle of reflection: the angle between the reflected beam and the normal line When a narrow beam of light, represented by one ray, shines on a smooth surface such as a mirror, the angle between the incident ray and the normal line perpendicular to the surface equals the angle between the reflected ray and the normal line. The incident beam, reflected beam, and the normal line are in the same plane. reflection = incidence Two mirrors stand on a table, with their faces forming an angle greater than 90 o. Place an phone on the table in front of mirror 2. Use the rule of reflection to predict how to aim a laser beam so that it hits first mirror 1 and then mirror 2, and finally hits the center of the target. Draw a top view Specular and diffuse reflection On a sunny day, if you look at a house with its lights off, the uncovered windows look almost black but the outside walls do not. How can we explain this difference? 6

7 Red eye effect REFRACTION When a camera flash illuminates the open iris, light reflects from the red blood vessels in the retina on the back of the eye. Some of this reflected light passes back out of the pupil and makes the pupil appear red Pearson Education, Inc. Refraction of light Ever wonder why this happens? At the shore of a lake, you see sunlight reflecting off the water's surface. You also see rocks and sea plants under the surface. To see them, light must have entered the water, reflected off the rocks and plants, returned to the water surface, and then traveled from the surface to your eyes. 7

8 Or this? These and many more phenomena can be understood by learning how light refracts Refract to change direction upon entering a new type of material This is responsible for all sorts of image distortions, and we can use it to our advantage! Every material has an index of refraction Symbol: n The index of refraction of a material is a measure of how slowly light travels in that material. The slower light goes in it, the higher its index of refraction will be! Index of refraction of material n = c v Speed of light in a vacuum Speed of light in the material n = c v Index of refraction of a material actually the ratio of how fast light travels in a vacuum divided by how fast light travels in the material. Some common indexes of refraction Whiteboard Quick Quiz Question! What range of values will n have? What values are impossible for n? Answer: Since c ( m/s) is the fastest possible speed for light to have (unhindered in a vacuum), v will always be less than c. This means that n for any material other than a vacuum must be a number greater tha! More dense materials tend to have a higher index of refraction (slower for light). Whiteboard Question! How fast does light travel in water? n = c v 8

9 Why does light travel slower in matter? When light travels through matter, it is constantly being absorbed and re-emitted by atoms. In general, more dense materials will hinder the speed of light. What do we know so far? When light travels from one medium to another, its frequency does not change (frequency depends on the source) v = λf However, its velocity and wavelength will change proportionally. As a result of this change in speed, it is easily observed that light will also change direction. When light travels from one medium to another, it refracts (changes direction). When light travels from one medium to another, it refracts (changes direction) air glass The ray above refracts twice: once entering the glass and once leaving the glass air To show how light refracts, we first need to know how to draw a normal line at the point where the ray strikes the new medium. A normal line is perpendicular to the surface, and crosses through the point where the ray hits the new material. Concepts of Refraction! If a ray goes from a fast medium into a slow medium, it bends toward the normal. If a ray goes from a slow medium into a fast medium, it bends away from the normal. Example: Normal lines on various surfaces θ i θ i v v v v v v θ r θ r θ refracted < θ incident θ refracted > θ incident 9

10 Concepts of Refraction! A useful analogy! Lower n to higher n. Light bends toward the normal. Higher n to lower n. Light bends away from the normal. When a car travels from the road (fast medium) to mud (slow medium), the tire that hits the mud first will slow down first. When a car travels from mud (slow medium) to the road (fast medium), the tire that hits the road first will speed up first. θ i θ r θ r n1 < n2 n1 > n2 This will cause the car to turn toward the normal (just like light!) This will cause the car to turn away from the normal (just like light!) Whiteboard Showdown Using the concepts of refraction and drawing the normal lines, estimate the complete path of the incoming ray as it enters and as it leaves the given object. A WORD OF CAUTION Refraction of light Light rays will never bend past the normal (see below). We can develop a mathematical relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction. The ray will always end up on the other side of the normal line. (Or along the normal line if it came in along the normal) 10

11 SNELL S LAW! The math! It s just so beautiful! sinq 1 = sinq 2 Rewriting it like If <, θ 2 < θ 1 = sinq 2 sinq 1 shows the concept If >, θ 2 > θ 1 θ 1 θ 2 This works for slowfast and fast-slow transitions BOTH! Gee, thanks Snell! θ 1 θ 2 θ 1 θ 2 Fast to slow, bends towards Slow to fast, bends away Refractive indexes sinq 1 = sinq 2 θ 1 The angles will always be between 0 and 90 This makes the sine function behave nicely, ranging between 0 and 1. θ 2 Ignore this madness =) Give it a go! air n diamond n Draw and label the complete path of the light ray through the block of diamond You will need to use some geometry here 30 n n sinq 1 = sinq sin30 = 2.417sinq 2 q 2 = sin -1 (sin30 / 2.417) 30 θ 2 12 Alternating interior angles show that 12 is also the incident angle for the second refraction This makes the second refraction just the reverse of the first! 11

12 But wait, there s more! Total internal reflection It doesn t all add up yet! Think about it if light goes from a slow medium to a fast medium At the critical angle of incidence, the refraction angle is 90 o. The refracted ray travels along the water-air interface. θ 1 θ 1 θ 1 If 1 < C, light is totally reflected. θ 2 θ 2 θ 2 There is a fundamental limit on how far we can go before the refracted ray can t bend any further! This is called the critical angle. What really happens when light hits a boundary What really happens when light hits a boundary What really happens when light hits an interface This is why you can see your reflection in a window, but also see light coming through the glass purdy cool, huh 12

13 Light traveling from a more optically dense medium to a less optically dense medium Light traveling from a more optically dense medium to a less optically dense medium (increasing 1) Increasing 1 to the point that light refracts at a 90 ( 1 = C) Total Internal Reflection θ 1 As θ 1 approaches the critical angle, θ 2 approaches 90. θ 2 Substituting into Snell s Law, we get sinq 1 = sinq 2 sinq c = sin90 sinq c = q c = sin -1 The critical angle! This gives ri to some trul beautiful resu 13

14 The index of refraction for diamonds is very high compared to ordinary glass (2.4 vs 1.5) As a result, the critical angle for light to be reflected totally as it travels from diamond to air is small (24 vs 42 for regular glass). Therefore most light is rereflected back from a diamond. This gives the characteristic brilliance to a diamond FIBER OPTICS APPLICATION OF TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION Thanks Russell Fiber optics We can understand fiber optics by using total internal reflection. Fiber optic filaments are used in telecommunications to transmit high-speed light-based data and in medicine to see inside the human body during surgery. Draw the reflected and refracted rays below. Indicate angles. air n = 1.00 air n = water n = water n =

15 Pro Tip If you ever get DOMAIN ERROR when you try to calculate the critical angle, it means you have flipped the indices of refraction. You can never take the inverse sine of a number that is not between -1 and 1! Light from a coin at the bottom of a fountain reaches your eye at an angle of 27.0 below the horizontal. Determine at which angle you should look to see the coin. Answer: 42.1 You shine a laser light into the water at an incident angle of 42 relative to the horizontal. Determine the angle of the light in the water relative to the normal line. Answer: 34.0 What is the critical angle for total internal reflection of light going from water (n=1.333) into glass of refractive index 1.56? Answer: Not possible Answer: 45 15

16 A mosquito fish hides from a kingfisher bird at the bottom of a shallow lake, 0.40 m below the surface. A leaf has blown onto the lake and floats above the mosquito fish. How big should the leaf be so the kingfisher cannot see its prey from any location above the water? Answer: C = 45 R = 0.46 m The equation below describes a physical process. Make up a problem for which the equation would provide a solution (Sketch it) 1.33 sin 2 = 1.60 sin 60 : Fiber optics Imagine that you have a long glass block of refractive index 1.56 surrounded by air. Light traveling inside the block hits the top horizontal surface at a 41 o angle. What happens next? The light is totally internally reflected during the first incidence on the upper surface. From there in moves down and to the right and hits the bottom surface at 41 16

17 Prisms Prisms for reflection The refractive index of prism glass is greater for violet light and smaller for red light. Prisms reflect almost 100% of the light incident on them, whereas mirrors reflect somewhat less tha00%. Prisms do not tarnish like mirrors. Prisms can invert an image that is, make it appear upside down. Mirages On a hot day, hot air may hover just above the pavement. This hot air is less dense and has a lower index of refraction than the cooler air above it. When light from the sky passes through air with a gradually changing index of refraction, its path gradually bends, leading us to perceive that the source of light is at a different location than it actually is. Mirages Color of the sky Particle model of light Due to their sizes, atmospheric particles reflect blue light more efficiently than other colors. 17

18 Wave model of light Wave model and refraction Imagine a light wave moving in a less optically dense medium 1 and reaching an interface with a denser medium 2 at a nonzero angle of incidence. 18

17.1 Reflection and Refraction

17.1 Reflection and Refraction 17.1 Reflection and Refraction How do we describe the reflection and refraction of light? Reflection and Refraction Investigation 17.1 We observe the law of reflection every day. Looking in a mirror, we

More information

Objectives 426 CHAPTER 10 LIGHT AND OPTICAL SYSTEMS

Objectives 426 CHAPTER 10 LIGHT AND OPTICAL SYSTEMS Objectives Explain what is meant by the curvature and focal length of mirrors and lenses. Explain how curvature and focal length are related. Use light rays to trace light from an object to a mirror to

More information

12.1 What is Refraction pg. 515. Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another?

12.1 What is Refraction pg. 515. Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another? 12.1 What is Refraction pg. 515 Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another? Bending Light The light traveling from an object in water

More information

REFLECTION & REFRACTION

REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION OBJECTIVE: To study and verify the laws of reflection and refraction using a plane mirror and a glass block. To see the virtual images that can be formed by the reflection and refraction

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

It bends away from the normal, like this. So the angle of refraction, r is greater than the angle of incidence, i.

It bends away from the normal, like this. So the angle of refraction, r is greater than the angle of incidence, i. Physics 1403 Lenses It s party time, boys and girls, because today we wrap up our study of physics. We ll get this party started in a bit, but first, you have some more to learn about refracted light.

More information

Light - Geometric Optics. lecture notes and demonstrations

Light - Geometric Optics. lecture notes and demonstrations Light - Geometric Optics Nature of light Reflection Refraction Dispersion A. Karle Physics 202 Nov. 20, 2007 Chapter 35 Total internal reflection lecture notes and demonstrations Demonstrations: Speed

More information

Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics

Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics 1. Orange light has a frequency of 5.0 10 14 hertz in a vacuum. What is the wavelength of this light? (A) 1.5 10 23 m (C) 6.0 10 7 m (B) 1.7 10 6 m (D) 2.0

More information

Refraction and Lenses. Snell s Law Total internal reflection Dispersion Absorption Scattering

Refraction and Lenses. Snell s Law Total internal reflection Dispersion Absorption Scattering Refraction and Lenses Snell s Law Total internal reflection Dispersion Absorption Scattering Refraction Two things happen when a light ray is incident on a smooth boundary between two transparent materials:

More information

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

More information

Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light

Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light 1.1 The Challenge of light 1. Pythagoras' thoughts about light were proven wrong because it was impossible to see A. the light beams B. dark objects C. in the dark D. shiny objects 2. Sir Isaac Newton

More information

Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets. Wave Nature of Light

Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets. Wave Nature of Light Wave Nature of Light Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets Chapter 24 Wavelength Changes Wavelength of light changes in

More information

Amplitude Y is the maximum value of the wave variable ( displacement in this case ).

Amplitude Y is the maximum value of the wave variable ( displacement in this case ). NATURE OF VISIBLE LIGHT: Our current knowledge is that light exhibits a dual nature or behavior. It behaves as electromagnetic ( EM for short ) waves or as a particles ( photons ). General description

More information

(text on screen) VO In diffuse reflection, parallel incident light rays are reflected in different directions.

(text on screen) VO In diffuse reflection, parallel incident light rays are reflected in different directions. Physics 1401 Mirrors You ve probably heard the old saying, The end is in sight. Well, that saying applies doubly to our class. Not only do we start the final unit that ends our year of physics but today

More information

Chapter 17 Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17 Light and Image Formation Chapter 7 Light and Image Formation Reflection and Refraction How is an image in a mirror produced? Reflection and Image Formation In chapter 6 we studied physical optics, which involve wave aspects of

More information

Physics 1653 Final Exam - Review Questions

Physics 1653 Final Exam - Review Questions Chapter 22 Reflection & Refraction Physics 1653 Final Exam - Review Questions 1. The photon energy for light of wavelength 500 nm is approximately A) 1.77 ev B) 3.10 ev C) 6.20 ev D) 2.48 ev E) 5.46 ev

More information

Physics 202 Homework 8

Physics 202 Homework 8 Physics 202 Homework 8 May 22, 203. A beam of sunlight encounters a plate of crown glass at a 45.00 angle of 0.35 incidence. Using the data in Figure, find the angle between the violet ray and the red

More information

11/15/2016. Electromagnetic (EM) waves are waves caused by oscillations occurring simultaneously in electric and magnetic fields

11/15/2016. Electromagnetic (EM) waves are waves caused by oscillations occurring simultaneously in electric and magnetic fields Electromagnetic (EM) waves are waves caused by oscillations occurring simultaneously in electric and magnetic fields A 2D transverse wave The EM and Visible Spectra They DO NOT require any medium in order

More information

1. Reflection, Refraction, and Geometric Optics (Chapters 33 and 34) [ Edit ]

1. Reflection, Refraction, and Geometric Optics (Chapters 33 and 34) [ Edit ] 1 of 17 2/8/2016 9:34 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics, 14e Young/Freedman Instructor Resources etext Study Area ( RUPHY228S16

More information

Solution Derivations for Capa #13

Solution Derivations for Capa #13 Solution Derivations for Capa #13 1) A super nova releases 1.3 10 45 J of energy. It is 1540 ly from earth. If you were facing the star in question, and your face was a circle 7 cm in radius, how much

More information

STOP for science. Light is a wave. Like waves in water, it can be characterized by a wavelength.

STOP for science. Light is a wave. Like waves in water, it can be characterized by a wavelength. INTRODUCTION Most students have encountered rainbows, either spotting them directly on those special days when the raindrops fall while the Sun still finds cloudless regions to peek through, or at least

More information

PHY208FALL2008. Week3HW. Is Light Reflected or Refracted? Due at 11:59pm on Sunday, September 21, [ Print ] View Grading Details

PHY208FALL2008. Week3HW. Is Light Reflected or Refracted? Due at 11:59pm on Sunday, September 21, [ Print ] View Grading Details Assignment Display Mode: View Printable Answers PHY208FALL2008 Week3HW [ Print ] Due at 11:59pm on Sunday, September 21, 2008 View Grading Details The next exercise is about reflection and refraction of

More information

PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XI

PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XI PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XI Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 4.0 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and

More information

Chapter 30 Reflection and Refraction

Chapter 30 Reflection and Refraction Chapter 30 Reflection and Refraction Slide 30-1 Geometrical optics When light or other electromagnetic waves interact with systems much larger than the wavelength, it s a good approximation to Neglect

More information

Physics 1230: Light and Color

Physics 1230: Light and Color Physics 1230: Light and Color Exam 1 is finished, Avg: 84 +/- 10.5 Solutions on the web and scores on CULearn. HW4: Due Thursday, 5PM Lecture 6: Reflection, mirror images, and refraction. Reading: Chapter

More information

Ray Optics 11/96. Physical Science 101 Name Section. Partner s Name

Ray Optics 11/96. Physical Science 101 Name Section. Partner s Name Physical Science 101 Name Section Partner s Name Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to study the laws of reflection and refraction for flat surfaces and to find out how converging lenses and converging

More information

Law of Reflection. The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r)

Law of Reflection. The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) Light GCSE Physics Reflection Law of Reflection The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) Note: Both angles are measured with respect to the normal. This is a construction line

More information

Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams

Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams The Law of Reflection There is nothing really mysterious about reflection, but some people try to make it more difficult than it really is. All EMR will reflect

More information

Chapter 24. Wave Optics

Chapter 24. Wave Optics Chapter 24 Wave Optics Wave Optics The wave nature of light is needed to explain various phenomena. Interference Diffraction Polarization The particle nature of light was the basis for ray (geometric)

More information

Michael Svec Students will understand how images are formed in a flat mirror.

Michael Svec Students will understand how images are formed in a flat mirror. Unit Title Topic Name and email address of person submitting the unit Aims of unit Indicative content Resources needed Teacher notes Forming Images Physics Light and optics Michael Svec Michael.Svec@furman.edu

More information

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

More information

Light: Three models. Huygens s/maxwell wave model. Newton s particle model (rays) Einstein s photon model

Light: Three models. Huygens s/maxwell wave model. Newton s particle model (rays) Einstein s photon model Light Light: Three models Newton s particle model (rays) Models light as bits of energy traveling very fast in straight lines. Huygens s/maxwell wave model Models light at waves (transverse EM waves).

More information

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1 Look around you. What do you see? You might say "people, desks, and papers." What you really see is light bouncing off people, desks, and papers. You can only see objects

More information

Physics 1402 Reflection and Refraction

Physics 1402 Reflection and Refraction Physics 1402 Reflection and Refraction At the end of our last program, I showed you this little pink pig, and you saw that my fingers go right through it. So it must be an image. Well, here s the real

More information

Turnbull High School Physics Department. CfE. National 4 /National. Physics. Unit 1: Waves and Radiation. Section 3: Light

Turnbull High School Physics Department. CfE. National 4 /National. Physics. Unit 1: Waves and Radiation. Section 3: Light Turnbull High School Physics Department CfE National 4 /National 5 Physics Unit 1: Waves and Radiation Section 3: Light Name: Class: 1 National 5 Unit 1: Section 3 I can state the law of reflection and

More information

Lecture 14 Images Chapter 34

Lecture 14 Images Chapter 34 Lecture 4 Images Chapter 34 Preliminary topics before mirrors and lenses Law of Reflection Dispersion Snell s Law Brewsters Angle Law of Reflection Dispersion Snell s Law Brewsters Angle Geometrical Optics:Study

More information

Light and its effects

Light and its effects Light and its effects Light and the speed of light Shadows Shadow films Pinhole camera (1) Pinhole camera (2) Reflection of light Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size

More information

After a wave passes through a medium, how does the position of that medium compare to its original position?

After a wave passes through a medium, how does the position of that medium compare to its original position? Light Waves Test Question Bank Standard/Advanced Name: Question 1 (1 point) The electromagnetic waves with the highest frequencies are called A. radio waves. B. gamma rays. C. X-rays. D. visible light.

More information

Lab 9. Optics. 9.1 Introduction

Lab 9. Optics. 9.1 Introduction Lab 9 Name: Optics 9.1 Introduction Unlike other scientists, astronomers are far away from the objects they want to examine. Therefore astronomers learn everything about an object by studying the light

More information

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

More information

Specular Reflection" !i =!r" Physics 202 Spring 2010 Lecture 25. Two types of reflection. Reflection from a mirror

Specular Reflection !i =!r Physics 202 Spring 2010 Lecture 25. Two types of reflection. Reflection from a mirror Physics 202 Spring 2010 Lecture 25 Today s topics: reflection and mirrors refraction and lenses Two types of reflection Specular reflection: reflection off a smooth surface Diffuse reflection: reflection

More information

Ray Tracing: the Law of Reflection, and Snell s Law

Ray Tracing: the Law of Reflection, and Snell s Law Ray Tracing: the Law of Reflection, and Snell s Law Each of the experiments is designed to test or investigate the basic ideas of reflection and the ray-like behavior of light. The instructor will explain

More information

Homework #12 Cameras and Lights in Maya Due Thursday, November 29 th 20 points (10 points if late)

Homework #12 Cameras and Lights in Maya Due Thursday, November 29 th 20 points (10 points if late) Upcoming Deadlines Have clicker ready Homework #12 Cameras and Lights in Maya Due Thursday, November 29 th 20 points (10 points if late) Homework #13 Creating Stereoscopic 3D Images Due Thursday, December

More information

LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003.

LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003. LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003. STANDARDS: Students know an object is seen when light traveling from an object enters our eye. Students will differentiate

More information

Unit 7 Practice Test: Light

Unit 7 Practice Test: Light Unit 7 Practice Test: Light Name: Multiple Guess Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used in

More information

Physics 101 HW#10 Solutions Koskelo

Physics 101 HW#10 Solutions Koskelo Physics 101 HW#10 Solutions Koskelo 1.) a.) Light slows down when it enters a material. What is actually going on (on a microscopic scale) that causes this to happen? The light is actually passed from

More information

The Theory of The Rainbows

The Theory of The Rainbows Thao Dang Physic 464 Project Report The Theory of The Rainbows I) Abstract: The purpose of the project is to help students apply their knowledge that they learn form optics class to real life. The Theory

More information

Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer

Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this experiment is to study the phenomenon of dispersion i.e. to determine the variation of refractive index of the glass

More information

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the

More information

SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics

SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics Page 1 SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics The Big Ideas: Light has characteristics and properties that can be manipulated with mirrors and lenses for a range of uses. Society

More information

Physics 102 Extra practice problems Fall The next two questions pertain to the following situation:

Physics 102 Extra practice problems Fall The next two questions pertain to the following situation: The next two questions pertain to the following situation: Three charges are placed located as shown in the figure to the right. The grid spacing is in meters.. y 10. 1. Calculate the x-component of the

More information

Final Exam information

Final Exam information Final Exam information Wednesday, June 6, 2012, 9:30 am - 11:18 am Location: in recitation room Comprehensive (covers all course material) 35 multiple-choice questions --> 175 points Closed book and notes

More information

THE REFRACTION OF LIGHT: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

THE REFRACTION OF LIGHT: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS CHAPTER 26 THE RERACTION O LIGHT: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 1. REASONING AND SOLUTION Since the index of refraction of water is greater than that of air, the ray in igure 26.2a

More information

Physics 1230: Light and Color

Physics 1230: Light and Color Physics 1230: Light and Color Exam 1 is tomorrow, Wed. June 9, in class. Covers material from Chapter 1, pgs 1-25, Lectures and Homework 1-3. HW4 will be up soon. Due Thursday, 5PM Lecture 5: Shadows,

More information

Q1. Both X-ray machines and CT scanners are used to produce images of the body.

Q1. Both X-ray machines and CT scanners are used to produce images of the body. Q. Both X-ray machines and CT scanners are used to produce images of the body. (a) The diagram shows an X-ray photograph of a broken leg. Before switching on the X-ray machine, the radiographer goes behind

More information

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

More information

LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION QUESTION BANK IN SCIENCE CLASS-X (TERM-II) 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION CONCEPTS To revise the laws of reflection at plane surface and the characteristics of image formed as well as the uses of reflection

More information

Spherical Mirror and Lens W.S.

Spherical Mirror and Lens W.S. Spherical Mirror and Lens W.S. Refer to the following information for the next question: The radius of curvature of any spherical mirror is R. The distance VC = R is the mirror's radius along its principal

More information

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

More information

Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,

More information

Physics 9 Fall 2009 DIFFRACTION

Physics 9 Fall 2009 DIFFRACTION Physics 9 Fall 2009 NAME: TA: SECTION NUMBER: LAB PARTNERS: DIFFRACTION 1 Introduction In these experiments we will review and apply the main ideas of the interference and diffraction of light. After reviewing

More information

Basic Optics System OS-8515C

Basic Optics System OS-8515C 40 50 30 60 20 70 10 80 0 90 80 10 20 70 T 30 60 40 50 50 40 60 30 C 70 20 80 10 90 90 0 80 10 70 20 60 50 40 30 Instruction Manual with Experiment Guide and Teachers Notes 012-09900B Basic Optics System

More information

Lenses. Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil.

Lenses. Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil. Lenses Notes_10_ SNC2DE_09-10 Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil. ) Most lenses are made of transparent glass

More information

Seeing is Believing (Making a Pin-Hole Camera) Grade 7 Activity Plan

Seeing is Believing (Making a Pin-Hole Camera) Grade 7 Activity Plan Seeing is Believing (Making a Pin-Hole Camera) Grade 7 Activity Plan 1 Seeing is Believing (Pinhole Camera) Objectives: 1. To demonstrate that light needs to be reflected off of particles in order for

More information

Part I: Diffraction Patterns a Home Experiment

Part I: Diffraction Patterns a Home Experiment Physics E-1b Experiment 5: Wave Optics Spring 2007 Introduction Preparation: Before coming to lab, read the lab handout and all course required reading in Giancoli through Chapter 25. Then answer the bold

More information

Refraction, Reversibility, Dispersion and Total Internal Reflection. Part I: Refraction of Light and the Reversibility of Snell s Law

Refraction, Reversibility, Dispersion and Total Internal Reflection. Part I: Refraction of Light and the Reversibility of Snell s Law Refraction, Reversibility, Dispersion and Total Internal Reflection Overview: This lab has three parts. The first part focuses on the way that the velocity of light changes as light passes into a different

More information

PREVIOUS 8 YEARS QUESTIONS (1 mark & 2 marks) 1 mark questions

PREVIOUS 8 YEARS QUESTIONS (1 mark & 2 marks) 1 mark questions 230 PREVIOUS 8 YEARS QUESTIONS (1 mark & 2 marks) 1 mark questions 1. An object is held at the principal focus of a concave lens of focal length f. Where is the image formed? (AISSCE 2008) Ans: That is

More information

Nicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 12 Waves

Nicholas J. Giordano.  Chapter 12 Waves Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 12 Waves Wave Motion A wave is a moving disturbance that transports energy from one place to another without transporting matter Questions

More information

Optics and Geometry. with Applications to Photography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004

Optics and Geometry. with Applications to Photography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004 Optics and Geometry with Applications to Photography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004 1 Useful approximations This paper can be classified as applied

More information

PS-7.2 Compare the nature and properties of transverse and longitudinal/compressional mechanical waves.

PS-7.2 Compare the nature and properties of transverse and longitudinal/compressional mechanical waves. PS-7.1 Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with matter (including transverse and longitudinal /compressional waves). Understand that a wave is a repeating disturbance

More information

UNIT 31: INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION

UNIT 31: INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION Name St.No. - Date(YY/MM/DD) / / Section Group # UNIT 31: INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION Interference of two circular waves, snapshots of absolute value of (real,scalar) wave field for different wave lengths

More information

Physics 25 Exam 4 December 1, 2009 Dr. Alward

Physics 25 Exam 4 December 1, 2009 Dr. Alward 1. Two slits are separated by 2.00 10 5 m. They are illuminated by light of wavelength 5.60 10 7 m. If the distance from the slits to the screen is 6.00 m, what is the separation between the central bright

More information

and that for the minima is min ( m 1 2). Divide the second equation by the first and solve for the order of the maximum, m.

and that for the minima is min ( m 1 2). Divide the second equation by the first and solve for the order of the maximum, m. USEFUL FORMULAE AND DATA 1. Wien s Law: pt = 2.90 10-3 m K 2. v=c/n, is the speed of light in a material with an index of refraction n 3. Snell s Law: n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2, where subscripts 1 stands for

More information

Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV

Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The

More information

Study Guide for Exam on Light

Study Guide for Exam on Light Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

More information

Exampro GCSE Physics. P3 - Medical Applications of Physics Self Study Questions - Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 90.

Exampro GCSE Physics. P3 - Medical Applications of Physics Self Study Questions - Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 90. Exampro GCSE Physics P3 - Medical Applications of Physics Self Study Questions - Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 90 Marks: 90 Comments: Page of 32 Q. The diagram shows a glass prism. (i) Explain

More information

NNIN Nanotechnology Education

NNIN Nanotechnology Education NNIN Nanotechnology Education Lesson 1: Refraction Tank Teacher s Preparatory Guide Purpose: This lab will help students understand and measure the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction of a beam

More information

Light and Optics Investigations. Level A Investigations. Level B Investigations

Light and Optics Investigations. Level A Investigations. Level B Investigations Light and Optics Investigations Level A Investigations A-1 Introduction to Light How can you make light and how can you study it? Students learn how light is produced by examining the effects of adding

More information

Chapter 23. Ray Optics. Chapter 23. Ray Optics. What is specular reflection? Chapter 23. Reading Quizzes

Chapter 23. Ray Optics. Chapter 23. Ray Optics. What is specular reflection? Chapter 23. Reading Quizzes Chapter 23. Ray Optics Chapter 23. Ray Optics Our everyday experience that light travels in straight lines is the basis of the ray model of light. Ray optics apply to a variety of situations, including

More information

Physics I Honors: Chapter 13 Practice Test

Physics I Honors: Chapter 13 Practice Test Physics I Honors: Chapter 13 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum

More information

not to be republished NCERT WAVE OPTICS Chapter Ten MCQ I

not to be republished NCERT WAVE OPTICS Chapter Ten MCQ I Chapter Ten WAVE OTICS MCQ I 10.1 Consider a light beam incident from air to a glass slab at Brewster s angle as shown in Fig. 10.1. A polaroid is placed in the path of the emergent ray at point and rotated

More information

Light Reflection of Light

Light Reflection of Light Light Reflection of Light 1. (a) What do you understand by the following terms? (i) Light (ii) Diffused light. (b) By giving one example and one use explain or define (i) regular reflection (ii) irregular

More information

ConcepTest Reflection

ConcepTest Reflection ConcepTest 23.1 When watching the Moon over the ocean, you often see a long streak of light on the surface of the water. This occurs because: Reflection 1) the Moon is very large 2) atmospheric conditions

More information

Ch 24 Wave Optics. concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53

Ch 24 Wave Optics. concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53 Ch 24 Wave Optics concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53 Light is a wave so interference can occur. Interference effects for light are not easy to observe because of the short

More information

EM Waves Practice Problems

EM Waves Practice Problems EM Waves Practice Problems PSI AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following theories can explain the bending of waves behind obstacles into shadow region? (A) Particle theory of light (B)

More information

Pre-Lab Assignment: Interference, Measuring Wavelengths, and Atomic Spectra

Pre-Lab Assignment: Interference, Measuring Wavelengths, and Atomic Spectra Name: Lab Partners: Date: Pre-Lab Assignment: Interference, Measuring Wavelengths, and Atomic Spectra (Due at the beginning of lab) Directions: Read over the lab handout and then answer the following questions

More information

Optics Workshop. Jason Harlow. Apr. 27, 2012 Session A, 10:45am-noon Time Room. University of Toronto, Senior Lecturer in Physics

Optics Workshop. Jason Harlow. Apr. 27, 2012 Session A, 10:45am-noon Time Room. University of Toronto, Senior Lecturer in Physics Optics Workshop Apr. 27, 2012 Session A, 10:45am-noon Time Room Jason Harlow University of Toronto, Senior Lecturer in Physics jharlow@physics.utoronto.ca ` This Workshop Every individual should have a

More information

Name (printed) Destructive Interference. Constructive Interference

Name (printed) Destructive Interference. Constructive Interference Name (printed) LAB TWO DIMENSIONAL WAVE INTERFERENCE INTRODUCTION Tap a stick repeatedly in the water of a pond and you get what you ve always come to expect a succession of circular waves. It makes sense,

More information

b. In Laser View - click on wave. Pose an explanation that explains why the light bends when it enters the water.

b. In Laser View - click on wave. Pose an explanation that explains why the light bends when it enters the water. Sierzega/Ferri: Optics 5 Observation Experiments: Light Bending Go to: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation /bending-light You have a laser beam (press the button to turn it on!) that is shining from

More information

Wave Optics. Interference of Light waves

Wave Optics. Interference of Light waves Interference of Light waves A. Karle Physics 202 Dec. 4, 2007 Chapter 37 and Chapter 38.1-3 PART I 37.1 Introduction 37. 2 Double slit 37. 3 (maxima, minima, high level only) 37. 5 Phase change, 37. 6

More information

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Geometrical optics is the treatment of the passage of light through lenses, prisms, etc. by representing the light as rays. A light ray from a source goes in a straight line through

More information

How can I predict how big my reflection will appear in a mirror? Think about it and we might try your solution.

How can I predict how big my reflection will appear in a mirror? Think about it and we might try your solution. How can I predict how big my reflection will appear in a mirror? Think about it and we might try your solution. Introduction to Optics Lecture 12 (See Giancoli Chapter 23) Refraction Phenomena Silas Laycock,

More information

The diagram below shows the image formed on the film when Moana takes a picture.

The diagram below shows the image formed on the film when Moana takes a picture. WAVES: LENSES QUESTIONS LENSES AND REFRACTION (2015;2) Tom uses a convex lens as a magnifying glass. He puts a petal of a flower 2.0 cm in front of the lens to study it. The lens has a focal length of

More information

Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10. Lecture 29A. There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it. --Edith Wharton Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

More information

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION L2 REFLECTION AND REFRACTION General aims OBJECTIVES When you have finished studying this chapter you should understand the nature of reflection and refraction of light and the simple laws which govern

More information

Students at MIT did a feasibility study. See Light: Geometric Optics

Students at MIT did a feasibility study. See  Light: Geometric Optics Ch-23-1 Chapter 23 : Light - Geometric Optics Questions 1. Archimedes is said to have burned the whole Roman fleet in the harbor of Syracuse, Italy, by focusing the rays of the Sun with a huge spherical

More information

Light Energy. Countdown: Experiment 1: 1 tomato paste can (without top or bottom) table lamp white poster board, 7 x 9

Light Energy. Countdown: Experiment 1: 1 tomato paste can (without top or bottom) table lamp white poster board, 7 x 9 Light Energy Grade Level: 5 Time Required: 1-2 class periods Suggested TEKS: Science - 5.8 Suggested SCANS: Information. Acquires and evaluates information. National Science and Math Standards Science

More information

Light and Sound. Pupil Booklet

Light and Sound. Pupil Booklet Duncanrig Secondary School East Kilbride S2 Physics Elective Light and Sound Name: Pupil Booklet Class: SCN 3-11a - By exploring the refraction of light when passed through different materials, lenses

More information

Gouvernement du Québec Ministère de l Éducation, ISBN

Gouvernement du Québec Ministère de l Éducation, ISBN Gouvernement du Québec Ministère de l Éducation, 2004 03-00910 ISBN 2-550-41889-1 Legal deposit Bibliothèque nationale du Québec, 2004 CE DOCUMENT REMPLACE LE DOCUMENT 38-3990A PUBLIÉ EN JUILLET 2000.

More information

Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

More information