World War II Origins and Home Front. Chapters 34-35

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1 World War II Origins and Home Front Chapters 34-35

2 Origins of WWII Soviet Union 1917 Russian Revolution Communism - Vladimir Lenin 1924 Lenin dies Joseph Stalin comes to power

3 Origins of WWII - Dictators Soviet Union Stalin Totalitarian Communism government totally controls all aspects of society State planning of economy State-owned collective farms Brutal methods to strengthen control Forced private farmers onto collective farms People that resisted were sent to labor camps Secret police rounded up and killed opponents Great Purge = millions dead

4 Origins of WWII - Italy Many big problem after WWI High inflation and labor strikes = poor economy Feared a communist take over Felt insulted by Treaty of Versailles Italy received much less territory than they expected Mussolini is a military hero proud national figure

5 Origins of WWII - Dictators Italy Mussolini Fascism Extreme nationalism: state comes first individual liberty is secondary Strongly oppose communism and democracy Favor military values, use of violence, and strong leaders Gaining control Great public speaker Blackshirt squads terrorized rival political groups Outlawed labor unions and opposing political parties Censored the press

6 Origins of WWII - Japan Before WWI Started to industrialize Needed raw materials from other countries Strong military to get these resources The Great Depression Worldwide = hurt Japanese economy Again needed military to gain land a resources Overthrow Army officers overthrow civilian government

7 Origins of WWII - Dictators Japan General Hideki Tojo Militarism Military has increased power Military plays a strong role in government Gaining Power Called for aggressive military action abroad Political assassinations Military took control of civilian government

8 Origins of WWII - Germany War-Guilt Clause HATED being blamed for WWI Reparations Paying costs of WWI Economic troubles Nationalism Hitler used Germany s problems to increase nationalistic feelings Scapegoat someone else to blame (Jews) 1932 Nazi party won more seats in parliament Hitler becomes Chancellor

9 Origins of WWII - Dictators Germany Hitler Nazism Form of fascism Extreme racism, particularly aimed at Jews Desire to expand living space for Aryans Centralized government with him as leader Worked to build Germany s military power Scapegoats Blamed Jews for Germany s problems Sent Jews and other undesirables to concentration camps

10 WWII - Germany Rearmed threaten neighbors Germany occupies Rhineland (border with France) not allowed according to Treaty of Versailles League of Nations does nothing Germany demands Sudetenland (German speaking area of Czechoslovakia) Great Britain and France still recovering from WWI Hitler convinced them this would be it Czechoslovakia objects, but oh well Appeasement give in to keep the peace

11 WWII The U.S. Isolationism Don t want to get involved Good Neighbor Policy Western Hemisphere we will stay out of each other business Congress passed Neutrality Acts in 1936 and 1937 To keep us out of European affairs

12

13 Action and Reaction

14 Action and Reaction

15 Action and Reaction

16 Germany Soviet Union Sign a Nonaggression Pact 1939 Hitler already had plans to invade Poland He did not want to fight on 2 fronts Stalin wanted more power and a secure border Hitler told Stalin he would give the Soviet Union part of Poland Hitler did not really plan to live up to the pact, just buying time He wanted the Soviet farm land and disliked communism

17 Action and Reaction

18 The U.S. Neutrality difficulties September 1940: Axis powers Germany, Italy, Japan Tripartite Pact agree to go to war if anyone is attacked by a country not yet in the war = U.S. The U.S. would be fighting on 2 fronts Europe and Asia September 1940: U.S. has first peace time draft rearming to get ready just in case March 1941: Lend-Lease Act Britain is out of money so we lend not sell weapons June 1941: Germany attack Soviet Union G.B. support USSR we send supplies to USSR too under Lend-Lease Act

19 Action and Reaction

20 Home Front War Production Board (WPB) Wartime production ends depression Financing the war with Taxes and Bonds Rationing Limit foods, gas, and other goods https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9w2jkgs-ugs

21 Home Front Women Workforce most in service, clerical, sales some in shipyards, welding, industry Women s Army Corp (WAC) Mostly in nursing support roles

22 Home Front African Americans Double V campaign Fight for democracy overseas and at home Tuskegee Airman Opportunity in the armed forces Returned home to racism

23 Home Front Japanese Internment Executive Order ,000+ Japanese Americans moved from west coast to inland internment camps Korematsu v. United States 1980s - $20,000 paid to decendants

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