Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes"

Transcription

1 Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics: 1. Made of cells 2. Based on universal genetic code 3. Obtain and use energy 4. Change over time 5. The ability to reproduce 6. The ability to grow and develop 7. Respond to stimuli in the environment 8. Maintain stable internal environment Cell Theory 1. The cell is the most basic unit of life 2. Living organisms are composed of one or more cells 3. All cells arise from pre-existing, living cells Prokaryotic Cells Lack a nucleus and the membranous organelles found in complex cells; DNA is a circle Example: bacteria, including cyanobacteria Plasma Membrane - Membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins; functions to regulate the entrance and exit of molecules from cell Eukaryotic Cells Have a nucleus and the other membranous organelles of complex cells; DNA is linear Example: animal cells, plant cells Organelles - Specialized structure within cells (e.g., nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum) o Nucleus - The distinctive organelle of a eukaryotic cell, consisting of a membranous envelope in which the chromosomes reside o Endoplasmic Reticulum - Membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in cells, sometimes having attached ribosomes. Rough ER has ribosomes; smooth ER does not o o o Mitochondria - Membranous organelle in which aerobic cellular respiration produces the energy carrier ATP Ribosomes - Minute particle that is attached to endoplasmic reticulum or occurs loose in the cytoplasm and is the site of protein synthesis Golgi apparatus Stacked set of membranes that modifies, transports, and packages materials for export

2 Plant Cells Eukaryotic cells that have features and organelles not present in animal cells: Cell Wall - Protective barrier outside the plasma membrane of plant and certain other cells Vacuole - Membranous cavity, usually filled with fluid Chloroplasts - Membranous organelle that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis Organization of Life Life is organized from the simplest to the complex: 1. Cells 2. Tissues 3. Organs 4. Organ Systems 5. Organism Properties of Water Topic 2: The Chemical Basis for Life Life could not exist without water. Most of an organism s cells are made up of water. Water makes up over 65% of the human body. One side of the water molecule is positively charged and the other is negatively charged. These opposite charges make water a polar molecule. The negative oxygen of one water molecule is attracted to the positive hydrogen of another molecule forming a hydrogen bond. In other words water likes to stick to itself. Water sticking to water is called cohesion. Water sticking to something else is called adhesion. Hydrogen bonds give water a high specific heat and also cause water to expand upon freezing. When water expands it becomes less dense than when in the liquid state, allowing ice to float. Because water is a polar molecule, it can dissolve ionic compounds, like NaCl (table salt) and other polar molecules. Water is known as the universal solvent. 2

3 Carbon Organic compounds contain carbon. Carbon has four electrons in its outer shell to share with other atoms. When electrons are shared, they form a covalent bond. Carbon is special because it can form four covalent bonds with atoms of other elements or other carbon atoms. Carbon s structure allows the formation of large, complex molecules called macromolecules, or polymers, which are made of chains of smaller molecules called monomers. Dehydration synthesis reactions remove water molecules to join monomers together into polymers Hydrolysis reactions add water molecules to break polymers apart into monomers Macromolecules Four major classes of macromolecules exist, shown in the table below: Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic Acids Proteins Elements C, H, O in 1:2:1 ratio C, H, and a little O C, H, O, N, P C, H, O, N, S Monomer Monosaccharide Fatty Acids, Glycerol Nucleotide Amino Acid Polymer Polysaccharide Fats, Oils, Waxes Polynucleotide chain Polypeptide chain Examples Glucose, Galactose, Sucrose, Fructose, Starch, Cellulose Functions Short-term energy storage, Structure of cell walls Monomers of macromolecules: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids Long-term energy storage, cell membranes, insulation DNA, RNA Encode genetic information, Protein synthesis Fibrous proteins, Globular proteins Cell structures, Animal structures, Cell function, Enzymes Carbohydrate (glucose) Lipid (phospholipid) Nucleic Acid (nucleotide) Protein (amino acid) 3

4 Enzymes Some proteins function as enzymes, which are catalysts that allow reactions to occur at rates thousands of times per second. Enzymes lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. With lowered activation energy, the reactants can be changed to products at a much faster rate. The substrate is the substance that the enzyme helps to react. The active site is the region on the enzyme to which the substrate binds, which catalyzes the change from substrate to product. Enzymes are substrate specific and are compared to a lock-and-key fit: The reaction rate refers to how fast or slow the reaction occurs. Enzymes function best at an optimal temperature, ph, and enzyme concentration. The reaction rate will slow if the enzyme is in less than optimal conditions. Denaturation is the process of an enzyme becoming inactive due to factors that alter the enzyme s structure. A denatured enzyme does not catalyze a reaction. ATP Topic 3: Bioenergetics Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is a small molecule that provides energy to reactions throughout the cell. For this reason, ATP is known as the energy currency of cells. When a phosphate group is removed from ATP by hydrolysis, energy is released. When a phosphate group is added to ATP by dehydration synthesis, energy is stored. Autotrophs(producers) make their own energyfrom the Sun through photosynthesis; plants, some bacteria Heterotrophs(consumers) must get their energy from other sources; animals 4

5 Photosynthesis Process by which plants convert Sun s energy, H 2 O and CO 2 into glucose and oxygen Takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells Chlorophyll is the molecule that receives the Sun s energy Two major reactions in photosynthesis: 1. Light Dependent Reactions a. Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, which uses the energy to split water; Oxygen is released to the outside b. Some ATP is made, which will be used in the Light Independent Reactions 2. Light Independent Reactions (also called the Calvin Cycle) a. CO 2 is usedto make glucose b. ATP is used Cellular Respiration Process by which glucose is broken down to release ATP (energy) Takes place in the mitochondria of plant and animal cells Three major reactions in cellular respiration: 1. Glycolysis; occurs in cytoplasm; glucose is split apart and small amount of energy released 2. Kreb s cycle; occurs in mitochondria; glucose subunits are broken down into CO 2 and released 3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC); occurs in mitochondria; creates ATP Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis and cellular respiration complement each other: they are the same reactions, but occurring in reverse (the reactants of one are the products of the other) Photosynthesis equation: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Cellular Respiration equation: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy (ATP) Fermentation In the absence of oxygen, some organisms will use the products of glycolysis and go through fermentation Alcoholic fermentationmakes alcohol and CO 2 as the byproducts Lactic acid fermentationmakes lactic acid as the byproduct 5

6 Topic 4: Transport and Homeostasis Membranes of the Cell The cell membrane, or plasma membrane, is made up of two layers of phospholipids and is called a phospholipid bilayer. It surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, controlling what enters and exits. The cell membrane is semi-permeable, meaning some substances cross more easily than others and some substances cannot move across it at all. Passive Transport Does not use energy Moves from a high concentration to a low concentration Examples: 1. Diffusion: The movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density 2. Facilitated Diffusion: Transport proteins help molecules diffuse through the membrane 3. Osmosis: The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion A solution with higher solute concentration is hypertonic relative to one with lower solute concentration. Conversely, a solution with lower solute concentration is hypotonic relative to one with higher solute concentration. If two solutions have the same concentration they are isotonic. Water will move from a hypotonic to a hypertonic solution. Solute - substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution Hypertonic - solution with a higher concentration of solute and a lower concentration of water Hypotonic - solution with a lower concentration of solute and a higher concentration of water Isotonic solution with equal concentration of solute and water 6

7 Active Transport Requires energy (ATP) Moves from a low concentration to a high concentration Examples: 1. Sodium-Potassium Pump: Moves sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell 2. Endocytosis: The movement of a large substance into a cell by means of a vesicle 3. Exocytosis: The movement of material out of a cell by means of a vesicle Homeostasis Homeostasis refers to the maintenance of a constant internal state. Glucose, water, temperature, and ph levels in the blood are maintained at constant levels Homeostatic mechanisms are processes by which organisms monitor and maintain constant states Internal conditions are not perfectly constant. They vary slightly as the body returns them to set points through dynamic equilibrium Negative feedback loop any change in a system causes the system to return to its original state Positive feedback loop amplifies a change to the system, causing it to move farther from its original state 7

8 Biology Keystone Module A Review Questions: 1. Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 2. Compare cellular structures and their functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 3. Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biological organization (i.e., organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and multicellular organisms). 4. Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on Earth (e.g., freezing point, high specific heat, cohesion). 5. Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules. 6. Describe how biological macromolecules form from monomers. 7. Compare and contrast the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in organisms. 8. Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction. 9. Explain how factors such as ph, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function. 10. Describe the fundamental roles of plastids (e.g., chloroplasts) and mitochondria in energy transformations. 11. Compare and contrast the basic transformation of energy during photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 12. Describe the role of ATP in biochemical reactions. 13. Describe how the structure of the plasma membrane allows it to function as a regulatory structure and/or protective barrier for a cell. 14. Compare and contrast the mechanisms that transport materials across the plasma membrane (i.e., passive transport -- diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion; active transport -- pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis). 15. Describe how endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and other membrane-bound cellular organelles facilitate transport of materials within cells. 16. Explain how organisms maintain homeostasis (e.g., thermoregulation, water regulation, oxygen regulation). 8

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Incoming Human Anatomy & Physiology I (Biol 2401) Student Knowledge Expectations for Basic Chemistry and Cell Biology Effective Fall 2015

Incoming Human Anatomy & Physiology I (Biol 2401) Student Knowledge Expectations for Basic Chemistry and Cell Biology Effective Fall 2015 Incoming Human Anatomy & Physiology I (Biol 2401) Student Knowledge Expectations for Basic Chemistry and Cell Biology Effective Fall 2015 Prior to enrolling in Human Anatomy & Physiology I (Biol 2401),

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

Biology, I: Midterm Review Mrs. DiMarcella

Biology, I: Midterm Review Mrs. DiMarcella Unit 1: Foundations of Biology Biology, I: Midterm Review Mrs. DiMarcella The Science of Life (pages 4-29).................................. 2 o The World of Biology o Themes in Biology o The Study of

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Function Learning Guide

Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Function Learning Guide Name: Team: Block: Date Due Assignment page # Parent initials Teacher initials Lesson 1 Notes & Learning Targets 1 & 2 Lesson 2 Notes & Learning Targets 3 & 4 Lesson 3 Notes & Learning Targets 5 & 6 Lesson

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Chapter 3 Chemistry of Life

Chapter 3 Chemistry of Life Chapter Outline Chapter 3 Chemistry of Life Section 1: Matter and Substances KEY IDEAS > What makes up matter? > Why do atoms form bonds? > What are some important interactions between substances in living

More information

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following?

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? Organic Molecules and Water 1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? A. organization B. shape C. movement D. all of these 2. Technology Enhanced Questions

More information

KEY. BI 212 Summer Exam I. July 27 th 2015

KEY. BI 212 Summer Exam I. July 27 th 2015 KEY BI 212 Summer 2015 Exam I July 27 th 2015 On your scantron, please fill in: 1. Your name (First and Last) 2. Exam I 3. Date 4. Lab section: MW at 1 section 010; MW at 4 section 011; TR at 1 section

More information

Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS

Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN B1. Analyze the functional inter-relationships of cell structures. 1) Describe the function and structure of these organelles.

More information

Study Guide B. Answer Key. Chemistry of Life

Study Guide B. Answer Key. Chemistry of Life Chemistry of Life Answer Key SECTION 1. ATOMS, IONS, AND MOLECULES 1. An element is a certain type of atom. 2. Sketch should resemble one of the illustrations in Figure 1.2 in Section 1. Nucleus should

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

Bacteria. Prokaryotic Cells. Very small cells Have cell wall No nucleus No membrane bound organelles

Bacteria. Prokaryotic Cells. Very small cells Have cell wall No nucleus No membrane bound organelles Cells Chapter 7 The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things New cells are produced from existing cells Bacteria Prokaryotic

More information

1. Define and give an example of the following:

1. Define and give an example of the following: Name: KEY Date: / / HR: Section 1 Chemistry of Life CHAPTER 3 CELL PROCESSES REVIEW 1. Define and give an example of the following: a. Atoms invisible particles that make up all mater; made from protons,

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Instructional Resources/Materials: Cell vocabulary cards printed (class set) Enough for each student (See card sort below)

Instructional Resources/Materials: Cell vocabulary cards printed (class set) Enough for each student (See card sort below) Grade Level/Course: 7 th grade Life Science Lesson/Unit Plan Name: Cell Card Sort Rationale/Lesson Abstract: Cell vocabulary building, students identify and share vocabulary meaning. Timeframe: 10 to 20

More information

Cell Organelles. a review of structure and function

Cell Organelles. a review of structure and function Cell Organelles a review of structure and function TEKS and Student Expectations (SE s) B.4 Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized

More information

Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 5e (Belk) Chapter 2 Science Fiction, Bad Science, and Pseudoscience: Water, Biochemistry, and Cells

Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 5e (Belk) Chapter 2 Science Fiction, Bad Science, and Pseudoscience: Water, Biochemistry, and Cells Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 5e (Belk) Chapter 2 Science Fiction, Bad Science, and Pseudoscience: Water, Biochemistry, and Cells 1) Which feature is present in all known living things? A)

More information

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org Chapter 3 Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 3.1: Introduction to Cells Lesson 3.2: Cell

More information

Carbohydrates: Sugars and starches they serve as energy and food source compounds Made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen

Carbohydrates: Sugars and starches they serve as energy and food source compounds Made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Cell Processes (chemistry and respiration) Organic compounds they always contain carbon 4 types that you need to know: Lipids (fats, oils and waxes), Carbohydrates, Proteins and nucleic acids Inorganic

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

Cell Processes. Chapter Review

Cell Processes. Chapter Review Name Date Class Chapter Review Cell Processes Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Select the term from the following list that matches each description. active transport energy enzyme inorganic compound

More information

Organelles. Organelles. Two Types of Cell. Cell Organelle. Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Both cells function similarly

Organelles. Organelles. Two Types of Cell. Cell Organelle. Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Both cells function similarly Cell Organelle Two Types of Cell Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells 1. Animal Cell 2. Plant Cell Both cells function similarly Organelles Organelle

More information

1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called.

1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called. Cell Membranes 1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called. 2. Due to the repellent nature of the polar water molecules, the tails of the phospholipids

More information

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: 1) A cell with 1% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 5% solute concentration.

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: 1) A cell with 1% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 5% solute concentration. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Homeostasis and Transport - (BIO.A.4.1.1 ) Plasma Membrane, (BIO.A.4.1.2 ) Transport Mechanisms, (BIO.A.4.1.3 ) Transport Facilitation Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY SECTION 4-1 REVIEW THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY Define the following terms. 1. cell 2. cell theory Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the

More information

Biology EOC Review. Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and cellular basis of life.

Biology EOC Review. Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and cellular basis of life. Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and cellular basis of life. Analyze the matter-energy relationships of living and non-living things: 1. What are the differences

More information

The human respiratory system includes the nose, the larynx, and the lungs. This body system helps maintain homeostasis by

The human respiratory system includes the nose, the larynx, and the lungs. This body system helps maintain homeostasis by Study Island 1. During heatstroke, the body can't dispose of excess heat. As a result, the homeostatic balance is disturbed, and internal body temperatures can reach as much as 110. Heatstroke is dangerous

More information

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life AP Biology 2008-2009 animal cells Eukaryotes - organelles Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Allows certain materials and of the cell. The cell membrane is selectively permeable

Allows certain materials and of the cell. The cell membrane is selectively permeable Overview The cell membrane forms a barrier around the cell and separates it from the outside environment What is the main function of the cell membrane? Allows certain materials and of the cell The cell

More information

Section 2 1 The Nature of Matter (pages 35 39)

Section 2 1 The Nature of Matter (pages 35 39) Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Section 2 1 The Nature of Matter (pages 35 39) Key Concepts What three subatomic particles make up atoms? How are all of the isotopes of an element similar? What are the

More information

Homeostasis & Cell Transport

Homeostasis & Cell Transport In order to maintain life, organisms must regulate the balance of materials inside and outside of the cell. This is accomplished by the transport of materials through the plasma membrane. Homeostasis &

More information

Cells and Their Organelles

Cells and Their Organelles Cells and Their Organelles The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell membrane is semi-permeable, allowing

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular Chapter 4- Cells Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells Unicellular Multicellular Multicellular organisms are composed of one or more types of tissues Different types of tissues are grouped

More information

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Name PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Cell Structure Identify animal, plant, fungal and bacterial cell ultrastructure and know the structures functions. Plant cell Animal cell

More information

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. 7.2 Cell Structure Lesson Summary Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. Cytoplasm is the fluid portion of a cell. Organelles are structures that have specialized

More information

Name Class Date. What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What is the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell?

Name Class Date. What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What is the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell? CHAPTER 1 2 SECTION Cells: The Basic Units of Life Eukaryotic Cells BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Cells (ScienceGHSGT1) 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration?

Cells (ScienceGHSGT1) 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration? Name: Date: 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration? A. cell wall B. cytoplasm C. mitochondrion D. cell membrane 2. All cells must have a A. cell membrane.

More information

The Structure and Function of Cells

The Structure and Function of Cells The Structure and Function of Cells The Cell is the basic functional unit of ALL living things. There are 2 basic types of cells: 1. Eukaryotic Cells = contain plasma membrane (cell membrane), organelles,

More information

Cells Composite. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Cells Composite. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Cells Composite Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Homeostasis is the regulation of body processes to maintain a relatively constant internal

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. 7.2 Cell Structure Lesson Objectives Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus. Describe the role of vacuoles, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton. Identify the role of ribosomes, endoplasmic

More information

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

More information

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 UNIT 1: Biochemistry Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 Organelles are internal structures that carry out specialized functions, interacting and complementing each other. Animal and plant

More information

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties Atom- - smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties -Atoms are made up of 3 smaller particles. These smaller particles are: protons particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus

More information

Membrane Structure and Function

Membrane Structure and Function Membrane Structure and Function Part A Multiple Choice 1. The fluid mosaic model describes membranes as having A. a set of protein channels separated by phospholipids. B. a bilayer of phospholipids in

More information

7-3 Cell Boundaries. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries

7-3 Cell Boundaries. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Every living cell exists in a liquid environment. The cell membrane regulates movement of dissolved molecules from the liquid on one side of the membrane to the liquid

More information

8th Grade Life Science Study Guide for Final Exam Fall 2013

8th Grade Life Science Study Guide for Final Exam Fall 2013 Study Guide for Final Exam Fall 2013 The following study guide is to help guide your studying for the final. The guide is organized into units and sections. You should study from your book, and then refer

More information

Biochemistry. All living things are made up of four major kinds of biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Biochemistry. All living things are made up of four major kinds of biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Biochemistry All living things are made up of four major kinds of biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates - made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY FOR MICROBIOLOGY Charles D. Winters / Science Photo Library WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? An understanding of chemistry is essential to understand cellular structure and function,

More information

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions. thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Keystone Biology Exam Information: Module A: Cell and Cell Processes

Keystone Biology Exam Information: Module A: Cell and Cell Processes Keystone Biology Exam Information: Module A: Cell and Cell Processes Basic Biological Principles- Day 1 Describe the characteristics of life shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Compare cellular

More information

Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes

Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes P All cells have Cell membrane - phospholipid bilayer surrounding cell parts Cytoplasm - everything between cell membrane + nucleus P Most cells have Nucleus - brain of

More information

Name Date Class. This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria.

Name Date Class. This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria. Looking Inside Cells This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria. Use Target Reading Skills Before you read, preview Figure 12. Then write two questions

More information

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage?

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage? Energy Transport Study Island 1. During the process of photosynthesis, plants use energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. These products are, in turn, used by the

More information

Test Booklet. Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes. Student name:

Test Booklet. Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes. Student name: Test Booklet Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes Student name: Author: Jennifer Holm School: Lincoln High School Printed: Tuesday February 09, 2016 1 Which describes the cell theory? A Cells are

More information

The Structure & Function of Cells

The Structure & Function of Cells The Structure & Function of Cells The Cell is the basic functional unit of ALL living things. There are 2 basic categories of cells: 1. Eukaryotic Cells= contain plasma membrane (cell membrane), organelles,

More information

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C. Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

More information

Biological cell membranes

Biological cell membranes Unit 14: Cell biology. 14 2 Biological cell membranes The cell surface membrane surrounds the cell and acts as a barrier between the cell s contents and the environment. The cell membrane has multiple

More information

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall 2016 Name: Unit 1: Scientific Method Term Definition Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Constant 1. Holly wants to know which plant food is the best for

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds can be

More information

8.2 Cell Transport. **The cell must move different substances into and out of the cell. **8.2 discusses the different methods of cell transport

8.2 Cell Transport. **The cell must move different substances into and out of the cell. **8.2 discusses the different methods of cell transport 8.2 Bellringer.. (1)In your own words, define passive, active, and transport Now, imagine sitting in a boat that is moving downstream with the current. Then, imagine a small motor to move the same boat

More information

GCSE Additional Science

GCSE Additional Science GCSE Additional Science Module B4 The processes of life: What you should know Name: Science Group: Teacher: R.A.G. each of the statements to help focus your revision: R = Red: I don t know this A = Amber:

More information

Section 7 1 Life Is Cellular (pages )

Section 7 1 Life Is Cellular (pages ) Chapter 7 Cell Structure and Function Section 7 1 Life Is Cellular (pages 169 173) Key Concepts What is the cell theory? What are the characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Introduction (page 169)

More information

Section 2 1 The Nature of Matter (pages 35 39)

Section 2 1 The Nature of Matter (pages 35 39) Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Section 2 1 The Nature of Matter (pages 35 39) Key Concepts What three subatomic particles make up atoms? How are all of the isotopes of an element similar? What are the

More information

Biology. Biology. Slide 1 of 49. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Biology. Slide 1 of 49. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology Biology 1 of 49 2 of 49 Comparing the Cell to a Factory 1. Eukaryotic Cell Structures A.Organelles: Structures within a eukaryotic cell perform important cellular functions B. Cytoplasm: * Gel/liquid

More information

copyright cmassengale Macromolecules

copyright cmassengale Macromolecules Macromolecules 1 2 Properties of Life Living organisms: are composed of cells are complex and ordered respond to their environment can grow and reproduce obtain and use energy maintain internal balance

More information

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular Chapter 4- Cells Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells Unicellular Multicellular Multicellular organisms are composed of one or more types of tissues Different types of tissues are grouped

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Being Eu-nique What are the characteristics of eukaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells differ from each other depending on their structure and function. Structure is the arrangement of parts. Function is the

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B

Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B 2 Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B Classes of Compounds Inorganic compounds Water, salts, and many acids and bases Do not contain carbon Organic compounds Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids

More information

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous

More information

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form.

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form. Biology 1 Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Name Date our Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

Cell Structure & Function

Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure & Function The Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Bacteria Nerve Cell Red Blood Cell Microscopes and Cells 1600 s. Anton

More information

Table of Contents. North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart... 6

Table of Contents. North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart... 6 Table of Contents North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart........ 6 Objectives Chapter 1 Cell Biology................................. 9 Lesson 1 Cell Structure...............................

More information

Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4

Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4 Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - Buffers play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in organisms. - To maintain homeostasis, unicellular organisms grow, respond to the

More information

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the

More information

3. What are some features plants and animals have in common?

3. What are some features plants and animals have in common? UNIT 3: The Cell Cellular Organelles Name: Biology I Date: Bellringer/ Catalyst: Today in class we will be talking about the different parts found inside different types of cells. Answer the questions

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to:

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to: and Work Metabolic Pathways Enzymes Features Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Membrane Transport Diffusion Osmosis Passive Transport Active Transport Bulk Transport Todays Outline -Releasing Pathways

More information

UNIT 3 NOTES Cell Organelles

UNIT 3 NOTES Cell Organelles UNIT 3 NOTES Cell Organelles Organelle Structure Function Name: Organelle Diagrams (how to recognize) Composed of a bi-layer of phospholipids with proteins embedded in it Holds cell together and gives

More information

A Tour of the Cell. An Overview of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are fundamentally similar.

A Tour of the Cell. An Overview of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are fundamentally similar. A Tour of the Cell Microscopes as Windows on the World of Cells Light microscopes can be used to explore the structures and functions of cells. When scientists examine a specimen on a microscope slide

More information

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry Name Period Biology Biochemistry Date Assignment Points Earned Possible Points Chapter 2 Vocabulary 25 Unique Properties of Water Notes 5 Writing Prompts 1 & 2 7 Organic Molecules: Lipids / Carbohydrates

More information

AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz

AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz 2016-17 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which six elements provide most of the mass of the

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

Post-test questions. 1. What does the cell theory state?

Post-test questions. 1. What does the cell theory state? Post-test questions 1. What does the cell theory state? All living things are made up of cells The cell is also the functional unit of life All living cells come from pre-existing cells 2. What are cells?

More information

A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The general design of membranes is known as the fluid mosaic model. Phospholipids form a continuous

More information

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 5 THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following can be made into crystal? (a) A Bacterium (b) An Amoeba (c) A Virus (d) A Sperm 2. A cell will swell up if (a)

More information

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department B4 The Processes of Life B4 Key Questions How do chemical reactions take place in living things? How do plants make food? How do living organisms obtain energy? How do chemical reactions take place in

More information