# FUSION NEUTRON DEUTERIUM HELIUM TRITIUM.

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1 FUSION AND FISSION

2 THE SUN Every second, the sun converts 500 million metric tons of hydrogen to helium. Due to the process of fusion, 5 million metric tons of excess material is converted into energy in each second. This means that every year, 157,680,000,000,000 metric tons are converted into energy.

3

4 Nuclear Fusion Nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy depending on the masses of the nuclei involved..

5 FUSION DEUTERIUM NEUTRON HELIUM TRITIUM

6 Nuclear Fusion Iron and nickel nuclei have the largest binding energies per nucleon of all nuclei and therefore are the most stable.

7 Nuclear Fusion The fusion of two nuclei lighter than iron or nickel generally releases energy. The fusion of nuclei heavier than them absorbs energy.

8 Complete the Reaction 1H 1 H 1 H element atomic number (protons) 1H 2 He 4 B e 2 He 6 C 2 He 6 C 2He 4 B e 2 He 8 O

9 Energy needed for Fusion The thermal activity of a gas is described by its temperature measurement which is really an indication of its velocity/energy. Thermal energy is represented by the height that the upper magnet. The upper ring has a potential energy given by PE = mgh at its drop point which is converted into kinetic energy (KE = 1/2 mv2) As the magnet falls towards the lower magnet. The two magnets click lightly when the kinetic energy is just greater than the magnetic energy that holds them apart. Since Kinetic Energy = Potential Energy (ignoring frictional components), the gravitational pull and mass of the upper magnet are constant, then the height needed to overcome the magnetic repelling force is proportional to that magnetic repelling force.

10 Energy needed for Fusion PE =mg x h 2 -h 1 Upper Drop Position PE = KE = Fxh 1 F=force of repulsion F=PE/h 1 Ring Magnets Float Position Lower Magnet h 1 h 2 Wood Block

11 Fusion Changes Mass to Energy E=mc kg Helium H H e 1kg Hydrogen

12 Cookie Fusion Procedure Cut 2 squares of wax paper 10 cm on a side Cut 5 cm wide slice of cookie dough (atom) Find the mass of the atom and record on the table Place the atom one cm away from the edge of a wax paper square Repeat step 2 thru 4 for a second atom Place the atoms about 2 cm from each other Place both atoms on a plate and microwave for 1 minute Remove the new element and let cool for 2 minutes Find the mass of the new element Complete the table

13 Cookie Fusion Atom 1 Atom 2 Total Difference Mass Before Cooking Mass After Cooking

14 Learning Check What process creates energy in the Sun? Fusion of hydrogen into helium in the Sun s core generates the Sun s energy. How long ago did fusion generate the energy we now receive as sunlight? Fusion created the energy we receive today about a million years ago. This is the time it takes for photons and then convection to transport energy through the solar interior to the photosphere. Once sunlight emerges from the photosphere, it takes only about 8 minutes to reach Earth.

15 Learning Check

16 NUCLEAR FISSION A reaction in which an atomic nucleus of a radioactive element splits by bombardment from an external source, with simultaneous release of large amounts of energy, used for electric power generation

17 Nuclear Fission Neutron induced in U 235 Fission is Exothermic The sum of the masses of the resulting nuclei is less than the original mass (about 0.1% less) The missing mass is converted to energy according to E=mc 2

18 Neutrons may: 1 - Cause another fission by colliding with a U 235 nucleus Creates two smaller nuclides and free neutrons The free neutrons potentially collide with nearby U 235 nuclei May cause the nuclide to split as well Each split (fission) is accompanied by a large quantity of E-N-E-R-G-Y 2 - Be absorbed in other material 3 - Lost in the system If sufficient neutrons are present, we may achieve a chain reaction

19 U.S. Electrical Power Production by Source Source: EIA (2004)

20 Nuclear Fuel Costs Nuclear Fuel Costs Include Uranium Enrichment Manufacturing Waste Disposal Total Nuclear Fuel Cost is Only About 0.5 cents per kilowatt-hour Uranium accounts for only about 20% of this cost or 0.1 cents per kilowatt-hour Increasing Uranium Cost has Minimal Impact

21 Review Nuclear fission: A large nucleus splits into several small nuclei when impacted by a neutron, and energy is released in this process Nuclear fusion: Several small nuclei fuse together and release energy.

22 Draw a Double Bubble Map of Fusion and Fission fusio n fissio n Differences Similarities Differences

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