1 Phonemic Awareness Activities for All Students Michigan Reading Conference, Grand Rapids, MI Sunday, March 10, :30 am 12:30 pm Alisa Van Hekken, M.Ed, Presenter Michael Heggerty, Ed.D.
2 Please note: Participants are informed that all documents, including but not limited to handouts, slides, articles and other paper and electronic media used by Alisa Van Hekken in the course of conducting this inservice are owned exclusively by Literacy Resources, Inc. and that no reproduction (other than for classroom use with elementary students) or other such use of documents and materials is authorized without the explicit written consent of Dr. Michael Heggerty. Requests can be made to:
3 Research Findings: The lack of phonemic awareness is the MOST powerful determinant of the likelihood of failure to read. (Adams, 1990)
4 Terms clarification: Phonics vs. Phonemic Phonemic Awareness: Hear it and play with it Word Identification Skills (Phonics) See it and play with it **Common Core expects BOTH in Kindergarten**
5 What Does Research Tell Us about Reading? The National Reading Panel published their study of research in 2001 and identified five essential elements of early reading instruction: Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Text Comprehension
6 Research Findings: Phonemic awareness has been shown to be a very powerful predictor of later reading achievement. In fact, it [phonemic awareness] is a better predictor than more global measures such as IQ or general language proficiency. (Griffith and Olson, 1992)
8 Common Core State Standards Phonological Awareness - Kindergarten 2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). Recognize and produce rhyming words. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. 1 (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.) Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, onesyllable words to make new words. 1 Words, syllables, or phonemes written in /slashes/refer to their pronunciation or phonology. Thus, /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of the word. Print Concepts: the alphabet Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters of
9 Common Core State Standards Phonological Awareness 1 st Grade 2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends. Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).
10 Phonemic Awareness Skills Phonemic Awareness Skills (easiest to most difficult) I. Increasing Language Awareness II. Rhyming III. Identifying Onsets IV. Blending V. Identifying Final and Medial Phonemes VI. Segmenting VII. Substituting Phonemes VIII. Adding Phonemes IX. Deleting Phonemes *** Letter Naming: Dr. Heggerty strongly suggests adding 2-3 minutes of letter naming activities daily This is the only part of the lesson when the teacher shows letters Page iv in the yellow & blue book; page v in purple book
11 Research Findings: The most comprehensive reading program EXPLICITLY [sic] teaches about the sounds of language. It teaches children that words can be broken up into these smaller units of language, that the letters represent this unit of language phonics. ALL [sic] children can benefit from being taught directly how to break up spoken words into smaller units and how letters represent sounds. (Overcoming Dyslexia, Shaywitz, 1999)
12 About the curriculum Therefore Common Core says Phonemic awareness should be a TIER I, core curriculum for the whole class in lower grades, at least K-1, and possibly higher depending on your demographics and mobility. It can also be used as a TIER II intervention in smaller groups or TIER III as one-on-one.
13 Why Whole Group? Most core curriculum focus on one or two skills a day, which is what the NRP suggested. Dr. Heggerty created this program because he cannot support teaching only1-2 skills per day, given the reality that most of us are up against with our students and their needs.
14 The importance of Mother Goose There is a strong link between the nursery rhyme knowledge of Pre-K children and their future success in reading and spelling -MacLean, Bryant, and Bradley (1987)
15 So what are the Phonemic Awareness Skills? Phonemic Awareness Skills (easiest to most difficult) I. Increasing Language Awareness II. Rhyming III. Identifying Onsets IV. Blending V. Identifying Final and Medial Phonemes VI. Segmenting VII. Substituting Phonemes VIII. Adding Phonemes IX. Deleting Phonemes *** Letter Naming: Dr. Heggerty strongly suggests adding 2-3 minutes of letter naming activities daily This is the only part of the lesson when the teacher shows letters Page iv in the yellow & blue book;l page v in purple book
16 Letter Naming 2-3 minutes of letter naming activities per day Card Pack Have a variety for different fonts & pictures Teach both short & long sounds for vowels, hard & soft sounds for c & g Teach beginning & ending consonant blends, digraphs, trigraphs, special vowel sounds, irregular vowel sounds, prefixes & suffixes Resource for flashcards: Letter Cheer ABC Song Patterns Alphabet Books Excellent resource for bilingual classrooms: Spanish-English Transferability Sound Spelling Cards from InterLingual Solutions:
17 Something to think about When do you expect mastery of letter names and sounds?
18 The question is. Is it cute? or Does it count?
19 o o love o c c g g y y y y
20 Using Rhythm and Song Use rhythm and song whenever you can. We know from brain research that rhythm and song can help a student retain a skill or concept. There are many books available for purchase that you can use to introduce rhythm and songs. See the Book List in your handouts Get ready for Dr. Jean s Alphabet Aerobics!
21 Increasing Language Awareness Repeating a sentence NURSERY RHYMES Breaking a sentence into separate, spoken words Clapping words in a sentence Counting words in a sentence This is found in the Kindergarten program for weeks 1-8 and in the Primary program for weeks 1 8.
22 Rhyming Repeating rhyming words Weeks 1 15; Weeks 1-2, 31 Recognizing rhyming words Weeks 16-35; Wks. 3-4, 18, 23-27, 29; Wk. 1, 6-7, 9, 12, 15-18, 20, 24, 27-29, Repeating rhyming words out of a series of words K Wks. 5-12, 24; Wk. 4, 6-7, 9, 20, 27, 28 Isolating the non-rhyming word out of a series of words K Wks ; Wk. 8, 17, 18, 28 Producing a rhyming word with a familiar word K: Rimes Wks.13-17, 19-22, Wk , 13, 19, 20, 23, 26, 30 Producing a rhyming word with an unfamiliar or nonsense word K Wks. 3-12, 28, 30 Rimes Wks.13-17, 19-22, 32-35; Wk. 2-3, 14, 21, 22, 25,
23 Rhyming Categories: Think of categories in which children are sure to know the correct word. Examples: parts of your body, things you eat, things in your desk or room, colors, students in the classroom, etc. T: /bellow/ S: not /bellow/, /yellow/ Variations on Thumbs Up / Thumbs Down: Eyes Open / Eyes Closed Mouth Open / Mouth Closed Stand Tall / Squat Down Palms Up / Palms Down
24 Identifying Onsets (Beginning Sounds) Isolating onset phonemes (sounds) in spoken words Identifying same onset phonemes (sounds) in a series of words The difference between rime and rhyme Onset Rime Rhyme Rime b - ack = back Pete - ete t - ime = time seat - eat feet - eet
25 Identifying Final and Medial Sounds Isolating final phonemes (sounds) in spoken words PreK: Weeks 1-12, 23-28, 30, 32, 34 K: Weeks 1-6, 11-12, & 33 (digraphs) 25-26, & 32 (blends) Isolating medial phonemes (sounds) in spoken words PreK: Weeks 13-22, 29, 31, 33, 35 K: Weeks 13-22, 29, 30 & 32 (blends), 31, 33 (digraphs) Identifying same final phonemes in a series of words K: Weeks 7-10, 27-28, 34-35
26 punch it out!
27 Roller Coaster for Three Sound Words and/or Syllable Be sure to work into multisyllabic words when doing the final sound skill. Students need to be trained to hear the sounds in bigger words as well. Medial roller coasters only work with three sound words or syllables. For an example See Week 13 (pg.25) in blue book
28 Blending Blending individual words into compound words Weeks 1 4, 13-14; Weeks 1-4, 25; Weeks 1-2 Blending syllables into spoken words Weeks 5-8, 15-16; Weeks 5-8, 26; Weeks 3-4 Blending onset with rime into spoken words Weeks 9-12, 17-18; Weeks 9-12, 27; Weeks 5-6 Blending phonemes (sounds) into spoken words 2-phoneme words: Weeks 19-27; cvc words: phoneme words: Weeks 13-14, Wk. 8; cvc words: 15-22, Wk & more phonemes: Weeks 23-24, 28-35; Wk Hand Motion: Model using 2 palms together to chop phonemes
29 Segmenting Segmenting individual words in compound words PreK: Weeks 1 4, 13-14; K: Weeks 1-4, 25 Segmenting syllables in spoken words PreK: Weeks 5-8, 15-16; K: Weeks 5-8 Segmenting onset and rime in spoken words PreK: Weeks 9-12, 17-18; K: Weeks 9-12, 27 Segmenting phonemes in spoken words PreK: 2-phoneme words: Weeks 19-27, cvc words: K: 2-phoneme words: Weeks 13-14, cvc words: 15-22, 4 & more phonemes: Weeks 23-24, 26, (with counting phonemes) Hand Motion: Model using 2 palms together to chop phonemes
30 Blending & Segmenting Phonemes Elkonin boxes: Use chips or pennies to show phonemes, then students write the letters that make those sounds Can be for any number of sounds add boxes What slides up can also slide back (double duty!!) Great to use for intervention with student s writing help them sound out words Blending Activity in K book Week 21
31 Substituting Substituting words in compound words K: Weeks 1-4, 25, Wks. 1-2, 22, Substituting syllables in words K: Weeks 5-8, 26; Wks. 3-4, Substituting the initial phonemes (sounds) in spoken words PreK: Weeks K: Weeks 9-24, (blends); Wks. 5-18, Substituting the final phonemes (sounds) in spoken words PreK: Weeks Primary: Wk. 31 Substituting the medial phonemes (sounds) in spoken words K: Weeks: Wks , 30 Hand Motion: Use 2 fists to demonstrate substituting the word parts or phonemes
32 Adding Phonemes: Adding & Deleting Phonemes Adding words to make compound words PreK: Weeks 1-4, 13-14; K: Weeks 1-4, 25 Primary: Wks. 1-2, 20, 26 Adding syllables to words or word parts PreK: Weeks 5-8, 15-16; K: Weeks 5-8, 26, Primary: Wks. 3-4, 9-10, , 28, (suffixes) Adding initial phonemes to spoken words PreK: Weeks 9-12, 17-35; K: Weeks 9-24, 27-31, 33 Primary: Wks. 5-8, 11-19, 21-22, Adding final phonemes to spoken words K: Wks. 32, Deleting Phonemes: Deleting words from compound words PreK: Weeks 1-4, 13-14; K: Weeks 1-4, 25 Deleting syllables from spoken words PreK: Weeks 5-8, K: Weeks 5-8, 26 Deleting initial phonemes from spoken words PreK: Weeks 9-12, 17-35; K: Weeks 9-24, 27-31, 33 Primary 21-23, 25, Deleting final phonemes from spoken words K: Wks. 32, , 25 Hand Motion: Use open palms to show where you are adding or deleting
33 PreK Center Activity Each day, a center activity is suggested but not required. Connected to nursery rhyme that week Focus on: Matching rhyming objects at center Drawing/coloring pictures of rhyme Discussing characters Making connections
34 Lesson Structure Each lesson is Focused on a scaffolded scope and sequence Focused on a specific skill or review Cumulatively built Just a note: / b / virgules mean to use the sound not the name Let s see what a Phonemic Awareness lesson looks like
35 Using Poetry & Children s Books (locate the Great Children s Books pages in your handouts) Any time you can use poetry or a trade book that plays with words, it reinforces that in real life authors are doing the same skills that we are asking the students to do in phonemic awareness. Books like Hop on Pop, Green Eggs and Ham, Mary Had a Little Jam, etc., are wonderful extensions for reinforcing phonemic awareness skills in print. There are just SO many of these books. Start collecting!! A list of suggested materials is included in your handouts
36 Helping Students who Struggle: Response to Intervention (RtI) Using Phonemic Awareness as a Tier II intervention: Determine the specific area of need for an individual student or small group of students, and focus your instruction to help student reach mastery. Nonnegotiable Skills which must get intervention: Letter names and sounds mastery Onsets (Beginning Sounds, including blends & digraphs) Blending Segmenting Final and medial Sounds
37 Intervention Resources Leap Frog Letter Factory & Talking Words DVDs Letters and Sounds Mastery activities: Name tags Letter & Sound hop Kiss Your Brain & Sing to Learn CDs Dr. Jean songs Multisensory activities Water painting on the sidewalk or desktop chalkboard Sand trays, rice tray, plastic screens, paint/hair gel in bag Provide a concrete connection: Example for Cc: cotton balls, crayons, candy, cupcakes
38 We Should See Transferability from Phonemic Awareness Skills into Print Skills Phonemic Awareness Skills Language Awareness Rhyming Onset Fluency Blending Final and Medial Sounds Segmenting Substituting Adding Deleting **Letter Naming Word Identification Skills Sight Vocabulary Letter/Sound Correspondence Structural Analysis Rime Patterns Compound Words Syllabication Prefixes / Suffixes Chunking Vocabulary Listening Speaking Reading Writing **We should see evidence of a child s phonemic awareness skills in his/her writing**
39 Connecting Phonemic Awareness to Spelling 1. Teacher says the word. 2. Student repeat the word. 3. Teacher chops the word. 4. Student chops the word. 5. Student picks up pencil and writes the word. Example. Teacher says: Did Student repeats: Did Teacher chops: /d/ /i/ /d/ Student repeats: /d/ /i/ /d/ S: Proceeds to pick up a pencil and write the word
40 Remember You need to pre-read the lessons or prepare your words in advance It is difficult to mess up Phonemic Awareness lesson, as long as you are focused on the right sounds This is language play, so there should be laughter and everyone should be having fun!
41 A few resources Phonemic Awareness: The Skills That They Need to Help Them Succeed! PreK, K, and Primary curriculum in English and Spanish Dr. Jean CDs: Phonemic Awareness in Young Children - A Classroom Curriculum. (1998) Marilyn Adams, et al. Paul A. Brookes Publishing Co. Phonics from A to Z - A Practical Guide. Wiley Blevins 1998 Scholastic,
42 Thank you for joining my session today! Please me with any questions! Alisa Van Hekken Website for Resources & ordering:
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