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1 fully. Then answer t~e q~esiions that follow. trade route known as the triangular trade A developed among the American colonies, Africa, and the West Indies. Over a period of 200 years, the middle passage of the triangular trade brought millions of Africans to work as slaves in the Americas. The vast majority of slaves brought to North America was bound for plantations in the Southern colonies. However, the Northern.colonies also played a major part in this pattern. Manufacturers there turned West Indian sugar and molass~s into rum. Some of this rum then was sent to Africa as the first leg of the triangular trade and was used to buy slaves. ~ ~N ~ H New England Colonies Middle Colonies Southern Colonies % The Colonies Come of Age 57

2 Name The Triangular Trade continued Interpreting Text and Visuals 1. Why was the trade route of rum, slaves, and sugar and molasses called the Triangular Trade? 2. Of what ctid the middle passage consist? 3, What were the destinations of the African slaves? Why do you think some were kept in the West Indies? 4. Which section of colonial America had the smallest percentage of Africans in 1750? 5.Which sectiou of the colonies showed a huge increase in the percentage of its African population in about 1750? 6.What happened to the African population in New England and the Middle colonies between 1650 and Why? 7. Explain the increase in the percentage of the African population in the Southern colonies cluring the years shown. 58 UNIT 1, CHAPTER 3

3 Name Date The North Develops Commerce Class Score RETEACItlNG ACTIVITY Chapter 2, Section 3 Directions: Study the diagram. Then use it to answer the questions below. Next, refer to the paragraph about fanning in the Northern colonies to f dl in the chart at the bottom of the page. After completing these activities, you will better understand about life in the Northern colonies. food, lumber, ~. Exports: Goods sent out of a country for sale or trade ~ Imports: Goods brought into a country from another for sale Or trade 1. A triangle of trade developed between the Nortbem colonies, 2. Goods produced in a country or colony that are purchased by and shipped to other countries are 3.The main exports from Africa to the West Indies were 4. Three exports of the Northern colonies to the West Indies were, and 5. Imports from the West Indies to the colonies were and Farmlng ~in the Northern Colonies Farming in the colonies involved the entire family. Women assumed the main responsibility for cooking, baking sewing, spinning, weaving; washing, and candlemaking. Men generally were responsible for clearing the fields, plant ing, harvesting, and keeping the farm in good condition. Both men and women took part in child rearing, which was serious and strict. Children were taught to honor their GOd and their parents and to work hard in all they did. Women s Responsibilities Men s Responsibilites Shared Responsibility Copyright MeDougal, Littell & Comi~any 83

4 Name Date Slavery Flourishes in the South Class Score RETEACH1NG ACTIVITY Chapter 2, Section 2 Directions: Read each passage carefully. Then, on the line provided, write the letter of the sentence that best states the main idea of the passage. You will then better understand some conditions of slavery. 1. Slavery differed from indentured servitude in four important ways. First, the master owned the slave as living property, in the same way one might own a horse. Second, slavery was for life, not just for a number of years. Third, the children of slaves were slaves themselves. Fourth, family members could be sold to different owners and separated for life. a. Indentured servants eventually gained their freedom. b. In purchasing a slave, a master bought rights to the person, the products of the person s labor, and the person s future children. c. Slaves never earned their freedom. 2. In South Carolina, Indians were enslaved from the earliest times. Occasionally, English settlers enslaved Indian prisoners of war. More often, Indians themselves sold members of enemy tribes to the English. However, most captives were difficult to control because they had friends and relatives nearby, and they knew the way to return to their own lands. Captive Indians had much better knowledge of the fields and forests than the colonists did. The Indians could escape easily, and they were very hard to recapture. a. Indian slaves were difficult to hold captive because they knew the land well enough to escape easily into the forests. b. African slaves worked harder and were therefore more desirable than Indian slaves. c. Indian slaves were primarily prisoners of war put into the labor force. 3. Slavery existed in West Africa before the Europeans arrived there. However, in African societies slavery was very different from slavery in colonial America. For example, in Africa there was tittle plantation slavery; slaves held many positions and most had legal fights. Some slaves were household workers, while others worked in the fields. Some were soldiers in important units. Some slaves even served as governors of regions. People became slaves in Africa because they had been kidnapped, were prisoners of war, or were poor people seeking a protective master: Slavery in Africa did not happen to a person because he or she happened to be black. a. Some slaves became regional governors. b. Slaves work included household work and military service. e. Slavery in Africa differed from that in America in that it was not based on skin color. 4. Because there were few towns in Virginia, many jobs that were usually done in towns were performed on plantations instead. The slaves who did these jobs were mainly Virginia born, and many were artisans. Artisans are skilled workers in trades in which they use their hands. Among the slave artisans were blacksmiths and carpenters who were proud of their skills and usually knew more about their work than their overseers did. Unlike field laborers, artisans were not constantly watched; instead, they had independence and mobility. a. Most slave artisans were born in Virginia. b. Plantations in early Virginia were independent or self-contained because there were few towns. e. Slave artisans were skilled in a trade and generally had more self-pride and freedom from harassment than field laborers. Copyright MeDougal, LitteU & Company 81

5 expanding into new territory as it grew. The I 1608 Ft. St. Jean 1634, 1668 L Montr6al 1642 Trois Rivi~res! ! ) uid, 1625 ~saoo, 1623 ~ New Dover,!622 Portsmouth, 1624 Salem, 1626 Boston, ~20 E n g l an d Ft. Vincennes ~ 1736 Ft. St.Joseph 1686 Ft. Detroit!70! ~ Ft. Miami \~ 1704 ~t~ Ft 0 \" Ft. Duquesne ~ Ft. Hards, c. c. t750~[ ~#~t,/kingston / New Amsterdam, ) 1679 Philadelphia, 1681 ~ Ft. Christina, 1638 (Wilmington) 1729,Annapolis), St. Mary s, 1634 Middle Plantation (Williamsburg), 1633 Jamestown, 1607 Middle Colonies Norfolk, 1682 Roanoke Is., inew Bern, 1710 LEGEND: English Settlements: ] Until 1660 ] ] )~ Ft. Tombeche, ;avannah, 1733 =t. King George, ~ 1735 Southern Colonies Forts and Outposts English French Spanish Scale: 1 inch =!96 miles ~L~ Ft. St. Lo.uis, 1702 Pensacola St. Mark Ft. Frederica, N

6 Colonial Settlement Why might there be problems between the Spanish and English in Georgia? 2. When the English wanted to move into the Ohio Valley why do you think the French might have been less than happy? 3. According to the map Roanoke Island is the oldest English colony (1585). However, we recognize Jamestown as the oldest English colony. Why? 4. The British have a large population and very little territory. The French have a small population and a massive territory. Why do you think this could lead to conflict?

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