Combined Diet and Physical Activity Promotion Programs to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Among People at Increased Risk

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1 Combined Diet and Physical Activity Promotion s to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Among People at Increased Risk Results of Comparative Studies of Combined Diet & Physical Activity vs. Categorical Outcomes Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms Admiraal Weight loss goal >0% weight loss 66 (37%) 177 Risk Difference 18.2 pct pt (8.6, 27.8) 30 (19%) 158 >5% weight loss 19 (11%) 177 Risk Difference 2.5 pct pt (-3.8, 8.8) 13 (8%) 158 Bhopal DM, incident Progression to Type 2 DM 12 (15%) 85 OR 0.68 (0.27, 1.67) 17 (21%) 86 Normogylcemia Reversion to normal glucose tolerance 36 (44%) 85 OR 1.23 (0.62, 2.47) 32 (39%) 86 Costa DM, incident Incident DM cases 4 y 61 (18%) (29%) 219 De la Rosa 2008 No PMID Weight, percent Patients who lost 2% of body weight 17 (35%) 48 NS

2 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms 14 (33%) 43 Patients who gained 2% of body weight 9 (19% NS 13 (30%) 43 Eriksson DM, incident DM at followup 6 y 11% 161 RR 0.37 (0.20, 0.68) 29% 56 Iqbal Hydrie Death, all-cause 18 mo DM, incident 18 mo Total for all arms: Incidence 2.5 cases/1000 person-mo Absolute RR 10.7 Relative RR 71 (13.7, 90.3) Risk Ratio 0.39 (0.097, 0.863) 82 Incidence 8.6 cases/1000 person-mo Janus Weight loss goal 5% weight loss 12 mo 12 (31.6%) < (0%) Page 2 of 59

3 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms Knowler Death, all-cause In first 4 y follow-up deaths are considered AEs. No deaths were considered related to the intervention. Rate 0.10 events/ 100 person-y Rate 0.16 events/ 100 person-y Normoglycemia 1 Normal 2-h post-load glucose (<140 mg/dl) 0 y 0% 0% 51% % % % % % y 38% % Data from figure Page 3 of 59

4 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms Cumulative incidence of DM 1% % % 13% 5% 23% 14.4% 28.9% 4 y 21% < % CVD event, nonfatal 2 (2.2%) 1079 Rate 9.7 events/ 1000 persony NS 18 (1.7%) 1082 Rate 7.3 events/ 1000 persony Death, CVD Death due to CVD event Cumulative incidence on CVD event across all arms was nonsignificant. Page 4 of 59

5 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms DM, incident Rate Rate 4.8 cases/ 100 person-y Weight loss goal 7% weight loss 50% % 1079 Knowler DM, incident Incidence of DM 10 y Incidence rate 5.3 (4.8,5.8) Incidence rate 7.8 (7.2, 8.6) Ma DM, incident 1.25 y (more (less Weight loss goal 7% weight loss 1.25 y (more 37% % 81 Page 5 of 59

6 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms (less 36% % 81 (more 45% % 81 (less 30% % 81 Oldroyd Normoglycemia Reverted to normal glucose tolerance 13 (37%) (41%) mo 22% 37 17% mo 20% 37 13% 32 DM, incident Developed DM 34 mo Page 6 of 59

7 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms Pan CVD event Cumulative incidence of any first CVD event, combined intervention arms 6 y 23 (5%) 438 Incidence 0.9 cases/ 100 person-y HRR 0.96 (0.76, 1.44) 7 (5%) 138 Incidence 0.9 cases/ 100 person-y Death, all-cause Cumulative incidence of all-cause death, combined intervention arms 6 y 19 (4%) 438 Incidence 0.7 cases/ 100 person-y HRR 1.33 (0.45, 3.92) 5 (4%) 138 Incidence 0.6 cases/ 100 person-y 20 y 110 (25%) 438 Incidence 1.4 cases/ 100 person-y HRR 0.96 (0.65, 1.41) 40 (29%) 138 Incidence 1.7 cases/ 100 person-y Death, CVD Cumulative incidence of CVD mortality, combined intervention arms 6 y 4 (1%) 438 Incidence 0.2 cases/ 100 person-y NA 0 (0%) 138 Incidence 0.0 cases/ 100 person-y 20 y 55 (13%) 438 Incidence 0.6 cases/ 100 person-y HRR 0.83 (0.48, 1.40) 24 (17.4%) 138 Incidence 0.9 cases/ 100 person-y Page 7 of 59

8 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms DM, incident Incident DM by WHO criteria 6 y 58 (46%) 126 Incidence 9.6 cases/ 100 person-y NA < (68%) 133 Incidence 15.7 cases/ 100 person-y DM, incident Cumulative incidence of DM, combined intervention arms 6 y 187 (43%) 438 Incidence 7.9 cases/ 100 person-y HRR 0.49 (0.33, 0.73) 91 (66%) 138 Incidence 14.1 cases/ 100 person-y 20 y 324 (80%) 407 Incidence 6.9 cases/ 100 person-y HR 0.57 (0.41, 0.81) 125 (93%) 135 Incidence 11.3 cases/ 100 person-y Penn Normoglycemia Reversion to normoglycemia on one occasion RR 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) Reversion to normoglycemia on two consecutive occasions RR 1.5 (0.8, 3.0) DM, incident DM incidence 5 51 Incidence 32.7/ 1000 person-y RR 0.45 (0.2, 1.2) 1 51 Incidence 67.1/ 1000 person-y Page 8 of 59

9 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms DM incidence, less loss to follow-up 7 51 RR 0.54 (0.2, 1.2) Ramachandran DM, incident 12 mo Ramachandran Normoglycemia Number of subjects with normoglycemia 35 (36%) (24%) 133 DM, incident Cumulative incidence of DM at year 3 39% 120 RR 28.5 (20.5, 37.3) % 133 Roumen Death, all-cause 0 1 DM, incident 11 (18%) 61 RR 0.52 (0.25, 1.10) (32%) 60 4 y RR 0.53 (0.29, 0.97) 0.04 Page 9 of 59

10 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms Touomilehto CVD event incident CV events (fatal and non-fatal); include acute coronary events, CHD, stroke and HTN Adj HR Incidence rate P value 0.89 (0.62, 1.27) 22.9 (17.7, 29.7) Adj HR Incidence rate P vale 0.87 (0.60, 1.27) 22.0 (16.9, 28.7) Death, allcause Adj HR 0.21 (0.09, 0.52) Incidence rate 2.2 (1.0, 4.9) P value Adj HR Incidence rate P value 0.39 (0.20, 0.79) 3.8 (2.0, 7.0) DM, incident Cumulative incidence 1.9 (0.2, 3.6) Cumulative incidence 6.1 (3.2, 9.0) Cumulative incidence 3.6 (3.2, 9.2) 3 At 6 years, 1 participant died but it is unclear to which arm they were assigned. Page 10 of 59

11 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms Cumulative incidence 14.4 (9.9, 18.6) Cumulative incidence 9.1 (5.4, 12.6) Cumulative incidence 20.9 (15.5, 25.9) 4 y Cumulative incidence 10.9 (6.4, 15.2) Adj HR 0.54 (0.37, 0.78) Incidence rate Cumulative incidence Incidence rate 23.0 (16.9, 28.6) y Cumulative incidence 20.0 (8.8, 29.8) Cumulative incidence 34.4 (21.9, 44.9) 6 y Cumulative incidence Incidence rate 20.0 (8.8, 29.8) 32 cases/ 1000 persony Adj HR 0.4 (0.3, 0.7) ARR 15% (7.2, 23.2) Adj < Cumulative incidence Incidence rate 42.6 (26.0, 55.5) 78 cases/ 1000 persony 7 y Incidence rate 4.3 (3.4, 5.4) Adj HR 0.57 (0.43, 0.76) Page 11 of 59

12 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms Incidence rate 7.4 (6.1, 8.9) 9 y Incidence rate 4.5 (3.8, 5.5) HR (0.478, 0.789) <0.001 Absolute RR Incidence rate 7.2 (6.1, 8.5) Weight loss goal Participants meeting the goal of a >5% reduction in weight 43% % 257 Vermunt DM, incident DM incidence mo P value P value 0.14 Pediatric RCT Patrick BMI z- score (more intense) 20 (less intense 1) 19 Page 12 of 59

13 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms (less intense 2) mo (more intense) (less intense 1) (less intense 2) BMI BMI percentile (more intense) 20 Mean (less intense 1) 19 Mean (less intense 2) 19 Mean 18 Mean Page 13 of 59

14 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm Events N Analyzed Metric Results Between Arm Comparison P value between arms 12 mo (more intense) (less intense 1) (less intense 2) 15 Mean Mean Mean Mean Savoye Normoglycemia FBG <130 mg/dl h OTT <120 mg/dl DM, incident Abbreviations adj, adjusted AE, adverse events CHD, coronary heart disease CV(D), cardiovascular (disease) DM, diabetes mo, month HTN, hypertension OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test, not reported PA, physical activity y, year Page 14 of 59

15 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Continuous Outcomes Author, Year, PMID Outcome Name Outcome Description Timepoint Arm (N Analyzed) Baseline Final Change P value betweenarms Admiraal h OTT 2h OTT in mmol/l (177) (158) SBP SBP (177) (158) DBP DBP (177) (158) FPG FPG in mmol/l (177) (158) HbA1c HbA1c in % (177) (158) HDL-c HDL-c in mmol/l (177) (158) LDL-c LDL-c in mmol/l (177) (158) Total cholesterol total (177) Page 15 of 59

16 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s cholesterol in mmol/l (158) Triglycerides triglycerides in mmol/l (177) (158) Weight, absolute weight in kg (177) (158) Weight, % % change in weight (177) (158) 0.6 BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (177) (158) Bhopal h OTT 2h plasma glucose in mmol/l (85) 8.21 (86) 8.33 (85) 8.21 (86) 8.33 (85) Adjusted mean difference (86) FBG FPG in mmol/l (85) 5.77 Page 16 of 59

17 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (86) 5.82 (85) 5.77 (86) 5.82 (85) Adjusted mean difference (86) SBP SBP (85) (86) (85) (86) (85) Adjusted mean difference (86) DBP DBP (85) (86) (85) (86) (85) Adjusted mean difference (86) Page 17 of 59

18 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (85) (86) (85) (86) (85) Adjusted mean difference (86) Cezaretto SBP SBP 9 mo (75) <0.05 (60) DBP DBP 9 mo (75) <0.05 (60) FPG FPG in mg/dl 9 mo (75) (60) HDL-c HDL-c in mg/dl 9 mo (75) (60) Page 18 of 59

19 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s LDL-c LDL-c in mmhg 9 mo (75) (60) Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mmhg 9 mo (75) (60) Triglycerides triglycerides in mmhg 9 mo (75) (60) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 9 mo (75) (60) Costa BMI BMI in kg/m 2 4 y (333) 31.2 (219) 31.3 Gillison Weight, absolute weight in kg 12 mo (54) (52) Iqbal Hydrie Weight, absolute weight in kg 9 mo (107) NS Page 19 of 59

20 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (108) mo (107) (108) 0.93 Islam BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (54) (48) SBP SBP 3 mo (51) (47) (51) (47) DBP DBP 3 mo (51) (47) (51) (47) Janus h OTT 2h OTT in mmol/l 12 mo SBP SBP 3 mo Page 20 of 59

21 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s 12 mo DBP DBP 3 mo mo FPG FPG in mmol/l 3 mo mo HbA1c HbA1c in % 3 mo mo HDL-c HDL-c in mmol/l 3 mo mo Page 21 of 59

22 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s LDL-c LDL-c in mmol/l 3 mo mo Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mmol/l 3 mo mo Triglycerides triglycerides in mmol/l 3 mo mo Weight, absolute weight in kg 3 mo mo BMI BMI in kg/m 2 3 mo Page 22 of 59

23 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s mo < Kanaya SBP SBP (113) (117) mo (113) (117) FBG FBG in mg/dl (113) (117) mo (113) (117) HDL-c HDL-c in mg/dl (113) (117) mo (113) Page 23 of 59

24 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (117) LDL-c LDL-c in mg/dl (113) (117) mo (113) (117) Triglycerides triglycerides in mg/dl (113) (117) mo (113) (117) Weight, absolute weight in kg (113) (117) mo (113) (117) Page 24 of 59

25 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Knowler SBP SBP < < < DBP DBP < < < FPG FPG in mg/dl 6mo <0.001 Page 25 of 59

26 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s < y < HbA1c HbA1c in % < < Page 26 of 59

27 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s < < y HDL-c HDL-c in mmol/l < Triglycerides triglycerides in mmol/l Page 27 of 59

28 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s < Weight, absolute weight in kg 94.1 < < BMI BMI in kg/m < < Page 28 of 59

29 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Weight, % % change in weight -7.1 < < Knowler SBP SBP (862) (886) y (827) (848) y (910) (932) DBP DBP (862) (886) y (827) Page 29 of 59

30 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (848) y (910) (932) FPG FPG in mmol/l (862) (886) y (847) (870) y (537) (558) HbA1c HbA1c in % (862) (886) y (845) (869) Page 30 of 59

31 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s 10 y (536) (558) HDL-c HDL-c in mmol/l (862) (886) y (827) (848) LDL-c LDL-c in mmol/l (862) (886) y (827) (848) Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mmol/l 10 y (910) 4.92 (921) 4.97 Triglycerides triglycerides in mmol/l (862) Page 31 of 59

32 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (886) y (827) (848) y (910) (921) Weight, absolute weight in kg (862) (886) y (827) (848) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (862) (886) y (827) (848) Page 32 of 59

33 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s Kulzer h OTT 2h OTT in mg/dl (91) (91) SBP SBP (91) (91) DBP DBP (91) (91) FBG FBG in mg/dl (91) (91) HDL-c HDL-c in mg/dl (91) (91) Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mg/dl (91) (91) Triglycerides triglycerides in mg/dl (91) Page 33 of 59

34 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (91) Weight, absolute weight in kg (91) (91) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (91) (91) Ma SBP SBP 1.25 y (more (less DBP DBP 1.25 y (more (less FPG FPG in mg/dl 1.25 y <0.001 Page 34 of 59

35 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (more (less HDL-c HDL-c in mg/dl 1.25 y 2.9(more (less LDL-c LDL-c in mg/dl 1.25 y (more (less Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mg/dl 1.25 y (more Page 35 of 59

36 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (less Triglycerides triglycerides in mg/dl 1.25 y (more (less Weight, absolute weight in kg 0.25 y (more < (less < y (more < (less < Page 36 of 59

37 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s 1.25 y (more < (less (more (less Weight, % % change in weight 0.25 y (more -5.8 < (less -4.9 < y (more -7.2 < Page 37 of 59

38 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (less -4.7 < y (more -6.6 < (less (more (less BMI BMI in kg/m y (more < (less < Page 38 of 59

39 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s 0.5 y (more < (less < y (more < (less (more (less Moore h OTT 2h OTT in mmol/l (127) <0.10 (82) Page 39 of 59

40 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s SBP SBP (81) NS (56) DBP DBP (81) <0.01 (56) FPG FPG in mmol/l (142) <0.05 (83) HDL-c HDL-c in mmol/l (114) <0.10 (65) LDL-c LDL-c in mmol/l (114) <0.10 (64) Triglycerides triglycerides in mmol/l (114) NS (64) Weight, absolute weight in kg (180) <0.01 Page 40 of 59

41 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (72) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (179) <0.01 (70) Ockene FBG FBG in mg/dl (147) Median (142) Median -1.5 HbA1c HbA1c in % (147) 5.76 Median (142) 5.77 Median Weight, absolute weight in kg 86.3 Median Median 0.29 BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (147) Median (142) Median 0.11 Oldroyd h OTT 2h OTT in mmol/l (35) (32) Page 41 of 59

42 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s 12 mo (32) (30) mo (30) (24) SBP SBP (35) (32) DBP DBP (35) (32) FPG PFG in mmol/l (35) (32) mo (32) (30) mo (30) Page 42 of 59

43 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (24) HbA1c HbA1c in % (35) (32) HDL-c HDL-c in mmol/l (35) NS (32) Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mmol/l (35) (32) mo (31) (29) mo (29) (24) Triglycerides triglycerides in mmol/l (35) NS (32) Weight, absolute weight in kg Page 43 of 59

44 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (35) (32) mo (32) (30) mo (30) (24) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (35) (32) Pan h OTT 2h OTT in mmol/l 6 y (126) (133) FPG FPG in mmol/l 6 y (126) (133) Weight, absolute weight in kg 6 y (126) -2.5 (133) -1.0 Page 44 of 59

45 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s BMI BMI in kg/m 2 6 y (126) 26.3 (133) 26.2 Penn Weight, absolute weight in kg (43) (40) (43) 93.4 NS (40) 90.6 (43) 93.4 NS (40) y (43) 93.4 NS (40) y (43) 93.4 NS (40) 90.6 BMI BMI in kg/m 2 NS Page 45 of 59

46 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s 4 y 5 y NS NS NS NS Ramachandran SBP SBP 12 mo (271) Mean difference 0.04 (266) DBP DBP 12 mo (271) Mean difference (266) Page 46 of 59

47 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s HDL-c HDL-c in mmol/l 12 mo (271) Mean difference (266) Total cholesterol cholesterol in mmol/l 12 mo (271) Mean difference (266) Triglycerides triglycerides in mmol/l 12 mo (271) Mean difference (266) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (271) Mean difference (266) Roumen h OTT 2h OTT in mmol/l (52) (54) (52) (54) (52) Page 47 of 59

48 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (54) SBP SBP (52) (54) (52) (54) (52) (54) DBP DBP (52) (54) (52) (54) (52) (54) Page 48 of 59

49 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s FPG FPG in mmol/l (52) (54) (52) (54) (52) (54) HbA1c HbA1c in % (Total: 99) (Total: 99) (Total: 99) (Total: 99) (Total: 99) (Total: 99) HDL-c HDL-c in mmol/l (52) Page 49 of 59

50 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (54) (52) (54) (52) (54) LDL-c LDL-c in mmol/l (Total: 96) (Total: 96) (Total: 96) (Total: 96) (Total: 96) (Total: 96) Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mmol/l (Total: 98) (Total: 98) Page 50 of 59

51 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (Total: 98) (Total: 98) (Total: 98) (Total: 98) Triglycerides triglycerides in mmol/l (Total: 97) (Total: 97) (Total: 97) (Total: 97) (Total: 97) (Total: 97) Weight, absolute weight in kg (52) (54) (52) Page 51 of 59

52 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (54) (52) (54) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (52) (54) (52) (54) (52) (54) Sakane h OTT 2h OTT in mmol/l (123) (131) (103) (110) Page 52 of 59

53 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s FPG FPG in mmol/l (123) (131) (103) (110) Weight, absolute weight in kg (123) (131) (103) (110) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (123) (131) (103) (110) Touomilehto, h OTT 2h plasma glucose in mg/dl (256) Page 53 of 59

54 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (250) (256) (250) (231) (203) SBP SBP (256) (250) (256) (250) 86 0 DBP DBP (256) (250) 86-3 (256) (250) 86-3 Page 54 of 59

55 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s FPG FPG in mg/dl (256) <0.001 (250) (256) (250) (231) mmol/l (203) mmol/l HbA1c HbA1c in % (256) (250) (231) (203) HDL-c HDL-c in mg/dl (256) (250) 47 1 (256) Page 55 of 59

56 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (250) 47 3 (231) mmol/l (203) mmol/l Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mg/dl (256) (250) (256) (250) (231) mmol/l (203) mmol/l Triglycerides triglycerides in mg/dl (256) (250) (256) (250) Page 56 of 59

57 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (231) mmol/l (203) mmol/l Weight, absolute weight in kg (256) <0.001 (250) (256) (250) < y (265) (257) BMI BMI in kg/m 2 (256) < (250) (231) < Page 57 of 59

58 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s (203) Savoye h OTT 2h OTT in mg/dl (31) (27) FPG FPG in mg/dl (31) (27) SBP SBP (31) (27) DBP DBP (31) (27) HbA1c HbA1c in % (31) (27) HDL-c HDL-c in mg/dl (31) (27) Page 58 of 59

59 Diabetes Prevention and : Combined Diet & Physical Activity s Evidence Table, Results of s vs. s LDL-c LDL-c in mg/dl (31) (27) Total cholesterol total cholesterol in mg/dl (31) (27) Triglycerides triglycerides in mg/dl (31) (27) BMI the BMI z score (31) <0.001 (27) Abbreviations BMI, body mass index DBP, diastolic blood pressure FPG, fasting plasma glucose HDL-c, high density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol mo, month, not reported OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test SBP, systolic blood pressure; y, year Page 59 of 59

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