Chapter Energy & Enzymes

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1 ANSWERS Chapter Energy & Enzymes 1. Define energy and identify the various forms. Energy is the capacity to do work. Forms light, heat, electricity, motion. 2. Summarize the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. The 1 st Law says that the total amount of energy before & after every conversion is always the same, or energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The 2 nd Law says that the entropy of a system always increases, or spreads out spontaneously. During energy conversions, the universe becomes more disordered. There is a decrease in the amount of useful energy every time it changes form because some of it disperses as heat. 4. Draw figure 5.4. Living things do not use heat to drive cellular work. Energy flows through the world of life in one direction. 3. Why does energy tend to disperse in a system? Energy tends to spread out until no part of a system holds more than another part. Entropy continues to increase until the energy is evenly distributed, and there is no from one area to another. 4. G = H - T S G = change in Gibbs free energy H = change in enthalpy S = change in entropy T = absolute temperature in Kelvin Define free energy amount of energy available to do work. Define enthalpy amount of total heat content in a system (used and released). Define entropy amount of energy that is dispersed within a system.

2 5. Compare and contrast endergonic (endothermic) and exergonic (exothermic) reactions. Endergonic reactions convert molecules with lower free energy to molecules with higher free energy, so they require a net input of energy in order to proceed. Exergonic reactions convert molecules with higher free energy to molecules with lower free energy, so they end up with a net energy output. 6. Draw and label Figure 5.9 to explain how cells store and retrieve free energy. 7. Use the formula from #4 to calculate the change in Gibbs free energy for the following chemical reaction: ATP ADP + Pi Pi = inorganic phosphate group The reaction occurs at 98.6 F, the change in heat is 19,070 calories, and the change in entropy is 90 cal/k. C = ( F 32) x (5/9) K = C = 66.6 x (5/9) = = 310K 8. Is this reaction endergonic or exergonic? Explain. This is an exergonic reaction because the change in free energy is negative meaning that free energy is released. The reactant (ATP) has more free energy than the products (ADP & P). There was a breaking of bonds between the last phosphate groups during hydrolysis & energy was released.

3 9. Label the enzyme-catalyzed reaction with the following terms: Enzyme C Product(s) D Substrate/Reactant A Active Site B 10. Enzymes can help bring on the substrate s transition state (reactive/unstable condition) by lowering the energy of activation (EA = energy needed to begin a reaction). List the four mechanisms by which enzymes can lower the activation energy. 1. helping substrates bind together at the active site 2. orienting substrates in positions that favor a reaction 3. inducing a fit between enzyme & substrate where the enzyme changes shape to improve the fit between them 4. the active site may repel water & keep it from interfering with reactions 11. Using the graph below, explain how enzymes affect activation energy and compare the two curves, explaining which is with the enzyme. In a process called catalysis, enzymes speed up the rate of reactions by lowering the amount of energy needed to start the reaction. The curves show the same reaction, but the lower curve is when an enzyme is introduced. This enzyme lowers the energy of activation, and the reaction proceeds more quickly 12. Explain what happens when an enzyme denatures, and give causes as to why this may happen. Enzyme shape depends on H bonds & other interactions that heat, some salts, shifts in ph, or detergents can disrupt. Such disruption causes enzymes to denature, which means they lose their shape. Once an enzyme s shape unravels, so does its function.

4 13. What are the two types of metabolic pathways? Draw an example of each. Linear Pathway Cyclic Pathway 14. Why is feedback inhibition important for living organisms? Feedback inhibition works by deactivating an enzyme using the product of the reaction the enzyme catalyzes. This is one way that cells conserve energy & resources by making only what they need. This type of inhibition is done as a regulatory mechanism to meet the metabolic needs of the cell or organism. Many mechanisms, such as bile acid synthesis in the liver and cellular respiration, use feedback inhibition on a regular basis. One purpose of feedback inhibition is to prevent too much of the product from being made. Feedback inhibition balances production of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Feedback inhibition is also necessary to prevent enzymes from breaking down too many molecules that are energy sources for the cell, such as glucose. The regulation of metabolism keeps cell components in proper balance and conserves metabolic energy and material. 15. Label each type of enzyme inhibitor either competitive or noncompetitive-allosteric.

5 16. Oxidation-reduction reactions play an important role in electron transport chains that are part of the cellular processes of both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Summarize what a redox reaction is. A reaction where 1 molecule accepts electrons (it becomes reduced) from another molecule (which becomes oxidized). In biology, we are always referring to hydrogen when gaining or losing E-. Reduce = gaining E- Oxidation = losing E- Leo the Lion goes GRRRR = Lose E- Oxidation, Gain Reduction OIL RIG = oxidizing is losing, reducing is gaining 17. Enzymes often require assistance from inorganic cofactors or organic coenzymes. Many coenzymes carry chemical groups, atoms, or electrons from 1 reaction to another. Explain how the coenzyme heme catalyzes reactions. A heme is a small organic compound with an iron atom at its center. The enzyme catalase uses heme to breakdown hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) when two H2O2 molecules oxidize (lose E-) which then reduces the heme s iron atom (gains E-). Heme is the electron carrier in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. 18. Design a diagram to explain the ATP-ADP cycle. Include these 9 labels: ATP, ADP, energy in, endergonic, energy out, exergonic, phosphate group (Pi), phosphorylation, hydrolysis. Energy In Energy Out

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