Enzymes and Metabolism

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1 Enzymes and Metabolism AP Biology Chapter 8 Metabolism Metabolism are all the chemical reactions in an organism Forming bonds between molecules dehydration synthesis synthesis of new muscle tissue by linking amino acids ANABOLIC reaction Breaking bonds between molecules hydrolysis digestion CATABOLIC reactions

2 Metabolic Reactions and Energy Some reactions releases energy Exergonic High organization (high energy state) to Low organization (low energy state) Exothermic reactions release energy in the form of heat Catabolic reactions release energy - Metabolic Reactions and Energy Some reactions store (require) energy Endergonic Low organization (low energy state) to High organization (high energy state) Endothermic reactions require the input of energy in the form of heat Will feel cool to the touch Anabolic reactions require energy Energy is stored in the bonds

3 Free Energy Free energy is the part of a system s energy that is able to perform work when the temperature of a system is uniform ΔG = Gibb s Free Energy When a reaction will result in energy released, this is shown with a negative change in Free energy (ΔG < 0) Final Energy - Initial energy is negative Energy is lost by the system When a reaction will result in energy invested, this is shown with a positive change in Free energy (ΔG > 0) Final Energy - Initial energy is positive Energy is gained by the system How to Organisms Use Energy Organisms use energy by coupling endergonic reactions (needing energy) with exergonic reaction (releasing energy) They take the energy release by the breaking of bonds to form new bonds Exergonic (Catabolic) + + energy Endergonic (Anabolic) + + energy

4 ATP The primary source of energy for cells in energy coupling is ATP ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) Adenosine Ribose sugar Three phosphate groups A phosphate group will be hydrolyzed to make ADP (Adenosine Triphosphate) The reaction results in the release of energy How much energy is needed? If Free-energy of a coupled reaction is negative, the reaction can happen. If Free-energy of a coupled reaction is positive, the reaction still needs more energy. How much ATP (ΔG = -7.4kcal/mol) would be required to drive an endergonic reaction with ΔG = 63 kcal/mol?

5 Spontaneity of Reactions and Activation Energy Reactions that are exergonic are considered SPONTANEOUS High to Low Energy Downhill Reactions that are endergonic are considered NONSPONTANEOUS Low to High Energy Uphill Even a spontaneous reaction requires some energy invested to get it started. The amount of energy required to start a reaction is called the ACTIVATION ENERGY Striking the match A reaction can move forward more quickly if we can lower the activation energy. Catalysts/Enzymes Lower Activation Energy Catalysts speed up reactions by without being altered in the process Not a product or part of a reactant Catalysts speed up reactions by lowering activation energy The don t change the free energy Enzymes are biological catalysts Made of protein

6 Enzymes as Catalysts The reactant that the enzyme works on is the SUBSTRATE The active site is the part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate. Together, they are called an ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX Enzymes put strain on the bonds of the reactants causing them to be less stable After the substrate is converted into its product, the enzyme is released. Enzymes are Sensitive To the Environment The shape of an enzyme is very important It has to be the The protein structure of an enzyme is highly sensitive to changes in ph and temperature. If the enzyme changes shape, it won t fit in the active site on the substrate quite right or not at all.

7 Cofactors Many enzymes need non-protein helpers The non-protein helpers are called cofactors Zinc, Iron, Copper If the helpers are organic they are called coenzymes Vitamins Inhibitors Inhibitors block the action of an enzyme Competitive Inhibitors Compete for active site Noncompetitive inhibitors Attach somewhere other an active site and change the shape of the active site lock Changing shape of the active site makes it not work

8 Regulation of Enzymes Enzyme regulators attach at an allosteric site Allosteric site is a specific site, but not the active site. When bound it makes the enzyme the proper the shape for activation or changes it so it s not the right shape making it inactive. Sometimes the end product is the regulator. This is called feedback inhibitors. Feedback Inhibition

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