# Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion Key Concept Newton s laws of motion describe the relationship between forces and the motion of an object. What You Will Learn Newton s first law of motion states that the motion of an object will change only if unbalanced forces act on the object. Newton s second law of motion states that the acceleration of an object depends on the object s mass and on the force exerted on the object. Newton s third law of motion states that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. Why It Matters Newton s laws of motion will help you understand why you and the objects around you move in certain ways. Imagine that you are playing softball. The pitch comes in, and crack you hit the ball hard! But instead of flying off the bat, the ball just drops to the ground. Is that normal? You would probably say no. You know that force and motion are related. When you exert a force on a softball by hitting it with a bat, the softball should move. In 1686, Sir Isaac Newton explained this relationship between force and the motion of an object with his three laws of motion. Newton s First Law An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Newton s first law of motion describes the motion of an object that has a net force of 0 N acting on it. This law is easier to understand if you consider its two parts separately. Part 1: Objects at Rest

2 An object that is not moving is said to be at rest. A chair on the floor and a golf ball on a tee are examples of objects at rest. Newton s first law states that objects at rest will stay at rest unless they are acted on by an unbalanced force. So, objects will not start moving until a push or a pull is exerted on them. A chair won t slide across the room unless you push the chair. And a golf ball won t move off the tee unless the ball is struck by a golf club, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 A golf ball will remain at rest on a tee until it is acted on by the unbalanced force of a moving club. Part 2: Objects in Motion The second part of Newton s first law is about objects moving with a certain velocity. Such objects will continue to move forever with the same velocity unless an unbalanced force acts on them. Think about driving a bumper car at an amusement park. Your ride is pleasant as long as you are driving in an open space. But the name of the game is bumper cars! Sooner or later, you are likely to run into another car, as shown in Figure 2. Your bumper car stops when it hits another car. But you continue to move forward until the force from your seat belt stops you.

3 Figure 2 Bumper cars let you have fun with Newton s first law. Friction and Newton s First Law The motion of an object will not change unless the object is acted on by an unbalanced force. So, you should be able to give your desk a push and send it sliding across the floor. If you push your desk, the desk quickly stops. Why? The desk stops because an unbalanced force changes its motion. That unbalanced force is friction. Friction changes the motion of objects. The friction between the desk and the floor slows the motion of the desk. Because of friction, observing the effects of Newton s first law is often difficult. For example, friction will cause a rolling ball to slow down and stop.

4 What must be true about the forces acting on an object if the motion of the object does not change? Inertia and Newton s First Law Newton s first law of motion is sometimes called the law of inertia. Inertia is the tendency of all objects to resist any change in motion. Because of inertia, an object at rest will remain at rest until a force makes it move. Likewise, inertia is the reason that a moving object stays in motion with the same velocity unless a force changes its speed or direction. For example, because of inertia, you slide toward the side of a car when the driver turns a corner. Inertia is also the reason why a plane, car, or bicycle cannot stop immediately. Why must a force be exerted on an object to change its velocity? Mass and Inertia Mass is a measure of inertia. An object that has a small mass has less inertia than an object that has a large mass. So, changing the motion of an object that has a small mass is easier than changing the motion of an object that has a large mass. For example, a softball has less mass and therefore less inertia than a bowling ball. Because the softball has a small amount of inertia, it is easy to pitch a softball and to change its motion by hitting it with a bat. Imagine how difficult it would be to play softball with a bowling ball! Figure 3 further shows the relationship between mass and inertia.

5 Figure 3 Inertia makes it harder to accelerate a car than to accelerate a bicycle. Inertia also makes it easier to stop a moving bicycle than a car moving at the same speed. Newton s Second Law of Motion The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied. Newton s second law describes the motion of an object when an unbalanced force acts on the object. As with Newton s first law, you should consider the second law in two parts. Part 1: Acceleration and Mass Suppose that you are using a cart to help your teacher move some heavy boxes. When the cart is empty, you have to exert only a small force on the cart to accelerate it. But

6 the same amount of force will not accelerate the fully loaded cart as much as the empty cart. Figure 4 shows part of Newton s second law. The length of the arrows shows the amount of acceleration of the cart. You can see that for the same force, the acceleration of an object decreases as its mass increases. On the other hand, the acceleration of an object increases as its mass decreases. Figure 4 If the force applied to the carts is the same, the acceleration of the empty cart is greater than the acceleration of the loaded cart. The acceleration of an object is always in the same direction as the net force applied. The cart in Figure 4 moved forward because the push was in the forward direction. Describe how the mass of an object is related to the object s acceleration.

7 Part 2: Acceleration and Force How can you give the loaded cart the same acceleration as the empty cart? You have to exert a greater force on the loaded cart than you exerted on the empty cart. Figure 5 shows that the loaded cart has a greater acceleration when it is pushed harder. This example shows the other part of Newton s second law. An object s acceleration increases as the force on the object increases. On the other hand, an object s acceleration decreases as the force on the object decreases. Figure 5 The acceleration of a loaded cart will increase when a larger force is exerted on it. Compare the forces needed to give the same rate of change in motion to two objects that have different masses.

8 Newton s Third Law of Motion Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. Newton s third law can be simply stated as follows: All forces act in pairs. For example, when your hand applies a force to a ball, the ball applies a force that is equal in size and opposite in direction to your hand. The law itself addresses only forces. But the way that force pairs interact changes the movement of objects. How do forces act in pairs? Figure 6 shows how one force pair helps move a swimmer through water. Action and reaction force pairs are present even when there is no movement. For example, you apply a force to a chair when you sit on it. Your weight pushing down on the chair is the action force. The reaction force is the force applied by the chair that pushes up on your body. The force applied by the chair is equal in size to your weight but opposite in direction. Figure 6 The action force and reaction force are a pair. The two forces are equal in size but opposite in direction. Force Pairs Applied to Objects

9 A force is always applied by one object on another object. This rule is true for all forces, including action and reaction forces. However, action and reaction forces in a pair do not act on the same object. If they did, the net force would always be 0 N. So, nothing would ever move! Look at Figure 6 again. The action force is applied to the water by the swimmer s hands. But the reaction force is applied to the swimmer s hands by the water. The forces do not act on the same object. Action and Reaction Force Pairs Newton s third law states that all forces act in pairs. When a force is exerted, there is always a reaction force. A force never acts by itself. Figure 7 shows some examples of action and reaction force pairs. In each example, the action force is shown in yellow and the reaction force is shown in red. Figure 7 Examples of Action and Reaction Force Pairs

10 Noticing the Effects of a Reaction Force Another example of a force pair is shown in Figure 8. Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses. If you drop a ball, gravity pulls the ball toward Earth. This force is the action force exerted by Earth on the ball. But gravity also pulls Earth toward the ball. The force is the reaction force exerted by the ball on Earth. Figure 8 The force of gravity between Earth and a falling object is a force pair. It s easy to see the effect of the action force the ball falls to Earth. Why don t you notice the effect of the reaction force Earth being pulled upward? To find the answer to this question, think about Newton s second law. It states that the acceleration of an object depends on the force applied to it and on the mass of the object. The force on Earth is equal to the force on the ball. But the mass of Earth is much larger than the mass of the ball. Thus, the acceleration of Earth is much smaller than the acceleration of the ball. The acceleration of Earth is so small that you can t see or feel the acceleration. So, it is difficult to observe the effect of Newton s third law on falling objects. Section Summary

11 Newton s first law of motion states that the motion of an object will not change if the forces on it are balanced. Objects at rest will not move unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Objects in motion will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Inertia is the tendency of matter to resist a change in motion. Mass is a measure of inertia. Newton s second law of motion states that the acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied. The greater the mass of an object is, the greater the force needed to achieve the same acceleration. Newton s third law of motion states that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object. Chapter Summary The Big Idea Unbalanced forces cause changes in motion that can be predicted and described. Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction Key Concept Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses. Gravity affects all matter, including the parts of the solar system.

12 Because gravity is a force, it can change the velocity of objects. The law of universal gravitation explains how distance, mass, and gravitational force are related. The weight of an object depends on gravity, but the mass of the object does not. Section 2 Gravity and Motion Key Concept Gravity can be an unbalanced force that causes predictable changes in motion. The acceleration due to gravity is the same for all objects near Earth s surface. Air resistance is a force that opposes the motion of objects through air. Projectile motion has two components horizontal motion and vertical motion.

13 Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion Key Concept Newton s laws of motion describe the relationship between forces and the motion of an object. Newton s first law of motion states that the motion of an object will change only if unbalanced forces act on the object. Newton s second law of motion states that the acceleration of an object depends on the object s mass and on the force exerted on the object. Newton s third law of motion states that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.

### Newton s Laws of Motion. I. Law of Inertia II. F=ma III. Action-Reaction

Newton s Laws of Motion I. Law of Inertia II. F=ma III. Action-Reaction While most people know what Newton's laws say, many people do not know what they mean (or simply do not believe what they mean).

### Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram.

Name Period Chapter 2 The Laws of Motion Review Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram. Assess the information about gravity, mass, and weight. Read

Section Review Answers Chapter 12 Section 1 1. Answers may vary. Students should say in their own words that an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion maintains its velocity unless it experiences

### Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Isaac Newton is famous for three laws. They are about the way things move. He didn t write the laws. Other people called them Newton s Laws of Motion. Newton s First Law The first

### STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws TEK 8.6C: Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction

### ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration

CHAPTER 3 ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration LEARNING TARGET: You will determine the relationship between mass, acceleration, and gravitational force. PURPOSE: So far in the course, you ve

### Honors FORCE Study Guide KEY

Honors FORCE Study Guide KEY Answer the following questions for each objective in your notebook: Objective 1: Students will know the different types of forces and how they affect the movement of objects.

### A1. Draw force vectors (arrows) for the two forces depicted in the picture. A3. What kind of force is this? Circle one. balanced unbalanced 10 N 20 N

Name Block Date Newton s First Law of Motion Why? All motion on earth and throughout the universe can be explained using Isaac Newton s three laws of motion. They can be used to a) describe the interactions

### 3.1 Force, Mass, and Acceleration

Sir Isaac Newton discovered one of the most important relationships in physics: the link between the force on an object, its mass, and its acceleration. In this section, you will learn about force and

### 1. The unit of force, a Newton, is equal to a. The amount of mass in an object c. kg m/s b. Mass X Velocity d. kg m/s 2

Forces in Motion Test- FORM B Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The unit of force, a Newton, is equal to a. The amount of mass in an object

### Guiding Questions Activity 5. What is a force? What are Newton s laws of motion? Purpose: To define force and explore Newton s three laws of motion.

Guiding Questions Activity 5 What is a force? What are Newton s laws of motion? Purpose: To define force and explore Newton s three laws of motion. Note: Earlier we established through experimentation

### Newton s 3 rd Law Study Guide Chapter 7

1. The Big Idea is for every force there is an equal and opposite force 2. If you lean over and push on a wall, why don t you fall over? The wall pushes back on you 3. When you paddle a kayak, your paddle

### April 07, 2015. Force motion examples.notebook MOTION AND FORCES. GRAVITY: a force that makes any object pull toward another object.

Force motion examples.notebook April 07, 2015 MOTION AND FORCES GRAVITY: a force that makes any object pull toward another object Feb 15 12:00 PM 1 FRICTION: a force that acts to slow down moving objects

### Chapter 12 - Forces and Motion

Chapter 12 - Forces and Motion A. What is a force? 1. It is a push or pull. 2. Force can cause resting objects to move. 3. Force can cause acceleration by changing the object s speed or direction. 4. Newtons

### Name Period Chapter 10 Study Guide

Name _ Period Chapter 10 Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Unbalanced forces do not change an object s motion. 2. Friction depends on the types of surfaces

### Here is a list of concepts that you will need to include in your observations and explanations:

NEWTON S LAWS Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) is probably one of the most remarkable men in the history of science. He graduated from Cambridge University in England at the age of 23. Records indicate that

### 356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich

Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

### Isaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included

80 Newton s Laws of Motion R EA D I N G Isaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included important discoveries about light, motion, and gravity. You may have heard the legend about how

### Unsaved Test, Version: 1 1

Name: Select the term that best completes the statement. A. force B. net force C. unbalanced force D. Newton's first law E. motion F. inertia 1. is the change of position over time. Date: 2. The overall

### Newton's First Law. Newton s Laws. Page 1 of 6

Newton's First Law Newton s Laws In previous units, the variety of ways by which motion can be described (words, graphs, diagrams, numbers, etc.) was discussed. In this unit (Newton's Laws of Motion),

### LAWS OF FORCE AND MOTION

reflect Does anything happen without a cause? Many people would say yes, because that often seems to be our experience. A cup near the edge of a table suddenly crashes to the fl oor. An apple falls from

### Newton s Laws of Motion

Kari Eloranta 2015 Jyväskylän Lyseon lukio November 30, 2015 Kari Eloranta 2015 2.2.4 Newton s First Law of Motion Definition of Newton s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) An object at rest remains

### Newton s Laws of Motion. Cara Boseski Jennifer Lanzerotti

Newton s Laws of Motion Cara Boseski Jennifer Lanzerotti Truth is ever to be found in the simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things. WHO is Isaac Newton: Isaac Newton was a well known

### Newton s Laws of Motion

Section 3.2 Newton s Laws of Motion Objectives Analyze relationships between forces and motion Calculate the effects of forces on objects Identify force pairs between objects New Vocabulary Newton s first

### 2. (P2.1 A) a) A car travels 150 km in 3 hours, what is the cars average speed?

Physics: Review for Final Exam 1 st Semester Name Hour P2.1A Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time 1. (P2.1 A) What is your average speed if you run 140

### NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

Name Period Date NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION If I am anything, which I highly doubt, I have made myself so by hard work. Isaac Newton Goals: 1. Students will use conceptual and mathematical models to predict

### October 01, Thinking Questions on Newton's laws. Thinking Questions on Newton's Laws

Thinking Questions on Newton's Laws http://www.physicsclassroom.com/reviews/newtlaws/newtlawsprint.cfm 1. Which of the following statements are true of inertia? List all that apply. Inertia is a force.

### Newton s 3 rd Law Study Guide Chapter 7

1. The Big Idea is 2. If you lean over and push on a wall, why don t you fall over? 3. When you paddle a kayak, your paddle pushes on the water. What makes the kayak move forward? Section 7.1 Forces and

### Forces and Motion: Accelerate your Mass of Students

TEACHER GUIDE Forces and Motion: 60 Minute Physical Science Lesson Science- to- Go! Program Grades: 1-5 Forces and Motion: Accelerate your Mass of Students Description Make sure you have plenty of room

### At the skate park on the ramp

At the skate park on the ramp 1 On the ramp When a cart rolls down a ramp, it begins at rest, but starts moving downward upon release covers more distance each second When a cart rolls up a ramp, it rises

### A Place Where Learning is Fun! Student Manual Middle School

A Place Where Learning is Fun! Student Manual Middle School 1 TO BE READ ON THE BUS ON YOUR WAY TO CAROWINDS! Your bus pulls up to the entrance of Carowinds and you are about to jump out of your seat with

### Chapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4 Newton s s Laws: Explaining Motion Newton s Laws of Motion The concepts of force, mass, and weight play critical roles. A Brief History! Where do our ideas and theories about motion come from?!

### Friction and Gravity. Friction. Section 2. The Causes of Friction

Section 2 Friction and Gravity What happens when you jump on a sled on the side of a snow-covered hill? Without actually doing this, you can predict that the sled will slide down the hill. Now think about

### A Place Where Learning is Fun! Student Manual Elementary School

A Place Where Learning is Fun! Student Manual Elementary School 1 TO BE READ ON THE BUS ON YOUR WAY TO CAROWINDS! Your bus pulls up to the entrance of Carowinds and you are about to jump out of your seat

### Newton s Laws of Motion

Physics Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion 4.1 Objectives Explain Newton s first law of motion. Explain Newton s second law of motion. Explain Newton s third law of motion. Solve problems

### 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

CHAPTER 1 SECTION Matter in Motion 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is gravity? How are weight and mass different?

### Ch.4 Forces. Conceptual questions #1, 2, 12 Problem 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30, 38, 39, 41, 42, 47, 50, 56, 66

Ch.4 Forces Conceptual questions #1, 2, 12 Problem 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30, 38, 39, 41, 42, 47, 50, 56, 66 Forces Forces - vector quantity that changes the velocity

### Unit 4: Force and Motion Test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Unit 4: Force and Motion Test 1. 3. In Science class, a student has been given a small ball

### Force and Motion Test

Force and Motion Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (1 point each) 1. Your best guess of how an experiment might turn out

### Newton s Laws Force and Motion

CLIL Project Physics in English Anno scolastico 2013-2014 Newton s Laws Force and Motion Lecture 2 Classe 3 a A Linguistico Istituto Superiore Marini-Gioia - AMALFI Content of the unit: Newton s Laws DYNAMIC

### PHYSICS MIDTERM REVIEW

1. The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of planet X is 19.6 m/s 2. If an object on the surface of this planet weighs 980. newtons, the mass of the object is 50.0 kg 490. N 100. kg 908 N 2. If

### Changes to Push, Pull, Go

Changes to Push, Pull, Go Since publication of the Push, Pull, Go Teacher s Guide, corrections have been made to the information in the unit s printed materials. Please replace the corresponding pages

### Newton s Third Law. Newton s Third Law of Motion. Action-Reaction Pairs

Section 4 Newton s Third Law Reading Preview Key Concepts What is Newton s third law of motion? How can you determine the momentum of an object? What is the law of conservation of momentum? Key Terms momentum

### Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion 1. All except one of the following require the application of a net force. Which one is the exception? A. to change an object from a state of rest to a state

### Unit 3. Forces Part 1

Unit 3 Forces Part 1 1 Vocabulary: Force Acceleration Mass Net Force Balanced Forces Unbalanced Forces Friction Air resistance Gravity Weight Inertia Action Force Reaction Force Concepts: How does a force

### Warm up. Forces. Sir Issac Newton. Questions to think about

Warm up Have you ever tried to pull something that just wouldn t budge? Describe a situation in which you pulled or tried to pull something. What made the job easier? Forces Sir Issac Newton Newton said

### Notes: Mechanics. The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy

Notes: Mechanics The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy I. Force A push or pull. a) A force is needed to change an object s state of motion. b) Net force- The sum (addition) of all the forces acting on an

### Chapter 06 Multi-format Test

Name: Class: Date: Chapter 06 Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. The inertia

### 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was

### CHAPTER 2 Scientists Ideas NEWTON S LAWS

CHAPTER 2 Scientists Ideas NEWTON S LAWS When scientists study the interactions between objects they sometimes find it convenient to analyze and explain them in terms of the forces the objects exert on

### b. Velocity tells you both speed and direction of an object s movement. Velocity is the change in position divided by the change in time.

I. What is Motion? a. Motion - is when an object changes place or position. To properly describe motion, you need to use the following: 1. Start and end position? 2. Movement relative to what? 3. How far

### Forces. When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it.

Forces When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it. Forces can Cause an object to start moving Change the speed of a moving object Cause a moving object to stop moving Change

### 1. What would a graph showing balanced forces look like? Draw a position vs. time

Forces, Motion, and Investigation 5, 7, and 9 LT 1 I can use data to show what happens when a constant net force is applied to an object. 1. What would a graph showing balanced forces look like? Draw a

### Force. A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another.

Force A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another. Force Weight is the force of the earth's gravity exerted

### Newton's First and Second Laws

Name -------------- Class _ Date ------ Newton's First and Second Laws KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions What makes an object's motion change? What is inertia? What affects how much

### Newton s Laws Pre-Test

Newton s Laws Pre-Test 1.) Consider the following two statements and then select the option below that is correct. (i) It is possible for an object move in the absence of forces acting on the object. (ii)

### Newton s Laws of Motion (Ch 5)

Newton s Laws of Motion (Ch 5) Force Isaac Newton 1642-1727 English physicist & mathematician By the age of 31, discovered: laws of motion universal gravitation calculus Eccentric read Coming of Age in

### Review Vocabulary force: a push or a pull. Vocabulary Newton s third law of motion

Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

### Experimenting With Forces

Have you heard the story about Isaac Newton and the apple? Newton was a scientist who lived about 300 years ago. He made many important discoveries about how and why things move. The apple story goes like

### Quiz 10 Motion. Name: Group:

Quiz 10 Motion Name: Group: 1. Two balls are released at the same time on the two tracks shown below. Which ball wins? a. The ball on the low road b. The ball on the high road c. They tie 2. What will

### Name: Date: 7. A child is riding a bike and skids to a stop. What happens to their kinetic energy? Page 1

Name: Date: 1. Driving down the road, you hit an insect. How does the force your car exerts on the insect compare to the force the insect exerts on the car? A) The insect exerts no force on the car B)

### Newton s Laws of Motion. Chapter 4

Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 4 Changes in Motion Section 4.1 Force is simply a push or pull It is an interaction between two or more objects Force is a vector so it has magnitude and direction In the

### 25 N to the right. F gravity

Have you heard the story about Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree? According to the story, an apple fell from a tree and hit him on the head. From that event, it is said that Newton discovered the

### Forces and Motion. Force

Forces and Motion Forces and motion are very important. You may not know but forces are used in everyday life for example: walking, pushing and pulling. Forces cause things to move. Motion is simply a

### Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? A: Everything in the universe has gravity.

### 8th Grade Motion, Forces and Energy

Read and answer each question carefully. 1) The amount of matter in an object is known as its A) mass. B) force. C) weight. D) size. 2) An object is in motion if it is moving relative to A) the object's

### 350 CHAPTER 12 Force and Newton s Laws (l)globus Brothers Studios, NYC, (r)stock Boston. Figure 1 A force is a push or a pull.

Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

### Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Conceptual Questions 1) Which of Newton's laws best explains why motorists should buckle-up? A) the first law

### Concepts in Physics. Wednesday, September 16th

1206 - Concepts in Physics Wednesday, September 16th Notes First assignment has two errors: 1.) d is obsolete and 1.) b iii had a mistake. It is now fixed on the webpage Please bring the completed assignments

### Physics 160 Biomechanics. Newton s Laws

Physics 160 Biomechanics Newton s Laws Questions to Think About Why does it take more force to cause an object to start sliding than it does to keep it sliding? Why is a ligament more likely to tear during

### Forces. Lecturer: Professor Stephen T. Thornton

Forces Lecturer: Professor Stephen T. Thornton Reading Quiz: Which of Newton s laws refers to an action and a reaction acceleration? A) First law. B) Second law. C) Third law. D) This is a trick question.

### Physics 101 Prof. Ekey. Chapter 5 Force and motion (Newton, vectors and causing commotion)

Physics 101 Prof. Ekey Chapter 5 Force and motion (Newton, vectors and causing commotion) Goal of chapter 5 is to establish a connection between force and motion This should feel like chapter 1 Questions

### Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion Forces Forces as vectors Resolving vectors Explaining motion - Aristotle vs Newton Newton s first law Newton s second law Weight Calculating acceleration Newton s third law Moving

### Reading Comprehension Skills Preview the Book How to Read Charts Cause and Effect

TM Red Edition Grade 3 4 reading level Purple Edition Grade 4 5 reading level Objectives Describe how forces can change the motion of objects. Explain what happens when many forces act on one object at

### PHYSICS 149: Lecture 4

PHYSICS 149: Lecture 4 Chapter 2 2.3 Inertia and Equilibrium: Newton s First Law of Motion 2.4 Vector Addition Using Components 2.5 Newton s Third Law 1 Net Force The net force is the vector sum of all

### Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued

Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion continued Clicker Question 4.3 A mass at rest on a ramp. How does the friction between the mass and the table know how much force will EXACTLY balance the gravity

### THE NATURE OF FORCES Forces can be divided into two categories: contact forces and non-contact forces.

SESSION 2: NEWTON S LAWS Key Concepts In this session we Examine different types of forces Review and apply Newton's Laws of motion Use Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation to solve problems X-planation

### WEEK 8: PASSIVE FORCES AND NEWTON S LAWS

Name Date Partners WEEK 8: PASSIVE FORCES AND NEWTON S LAWS OBJECTIVES To explore interaction forces between objects as described by Newton s third law of motion. To explore tension forces and understand

### Why be science literate? (my perspec7ve)

Homework Why be science literate? (my perspec7ve) Different viewpoint h

### Physics Project Newton s First Law of Motion

Physics Project Newton s First Law of Motion Submitted by: Shannon Carpenter Michigan State University Teacher Education Student Modified from Center of Excellence for Science and Mathematics Education

### GED Science Focus Sheet: Lesson 9

GED Preparation/Science Focus Sheet: Lesson 9 FOCUS: Physical Science Introduction to Physics Properties of Motion: Newton s Law Energy & Force: Lever & Fulcrum Heat and forms of energy ISSUES/ACTIVITIES:

### Newton's Laws. Galileo's Inclined Plane Experiment

Newton's Laws I. Newton's First Law A. Galileo's Work In the early 1600's, the Italian Physicist Galileo Galilee made one of the most important discoveries in history. Galileo discovered that when he rolled

### 1206EL - Concepts in Physics. Friday, September 18th

1206EL - Concepts in Physics Friday, September 18th Notes There is a WebCT course for students on September 21st More information on library webpage Newton s second law Newton's first law of motion predicts

### Newton's First Law. Driving Questions. Background. Materials and Equipment. Safety. For each student or group: Name Period Date

Name Period Date Newton's First Law Driving Questions What factors affect the motion of objects? Aristotle (384 BC to 322 BC) believed that the natural state of an object was to be at rest and therefore

### Physics 11 Chapter 4 HW Solutions

Physics 11 Chapter 4 HW Solutions Chapter 4 Conceptual Question: 5, 8, 10, 18 Problems: 3, 3, 35, 48, 50, 54, 61, 65, 66, 68 Q4.5. Reason: No. If you know all of the forces than you know the direction

### BROCK UNIVERSITY. PHYS 1P21/1P91 Solutions to Mid-term test 26 October 2013 Instructor: S. D Agostino

BROCK UNIVERSITY PHYS 1P21/1P91 Solutions to Mid-term test 26 October 2013 Instructor: S. D Agostino 1. [10 marks] Clearly indicate whether each statement is TRUE or FALSE. Then provide a clear, brief,

### Physics 101. Chapter 5: Newton s Third Law

Physics 101 Today Chapter 5: Newton s Third Law First, let s clarify notion of a force: Previously defined force as a push or pull. Better to think of force as an interaction between two objects. You can

### NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Background: Aristotle believed that the natural state of motion for objects on the earth was one of rest. In other words, objects needed a force to be kept in motion. Galileo studied

### CHAPTER 3: INERTIA. 1. Purpose of Experiments with Inertia. 2. Inertia. 3. Experiments with Inertia. 4. Other Activities. 5. The Importance of Inertia

CHAPTER 3: INERTIA 1. Purpose of Experiments with Inertia 2. Inertia 3. Experiments with Inertia 4. Other Activities 5. The Importance of Inertia 6. Bibliography 7. Research Topics Montessori Research

### Key for Physics first semester final (questions , save honorable ones)

Key for Physics first semester final (questions 20-512, save honorable ones) 20. Reaction time only appears in the equation for reaction distance and therefore braking distance., which means it only affects

### TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003. Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003

Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003 TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003 5 1. A 1.5-kilogram lab cart is accelerated uniformly from rest to a speed of 2.0 meters per second in 0.50 second. What is the magnitude

### Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky?

October 19, 2015 Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky? Key Words Newton s Laws of motion, and Newton s law of universal gravitation:

### Concept Review. Physics 1

Concept Review Physics 1 Speed and Velocity Speed is a measure of how much distance is covered divided by the time it takes. Sometimes it is referred to as the rate of motion. Common units for speed or

### E Physics: A. Newton s Three Laws of Motion Activity: Newton s Third Law of Motion

Science as Inquiry: As a result of their activities in grades 5 8, all students should develop Understanding about scientific inquiry. Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry: identify questions,

### Midterm 1. C The speed of the cart is constant. For this to happen the forces acting on it must be balanced.

Midterm 1 1. Shown below is a speed-time graph for a cart moving in front of the motion sensor. For convenience it has been divided into four sections (A,B,C,D). During each of the four separate periods

### 7 TH GRADE SCIENCE REVIEW

7 TH GRADE SCIENCE REVIEW The motion of an object is always judged with respect to some other object or point. When an object changes position over time relative to a reference point, the object is in

### Newton s Laws of Motion. Presented by: - Rakhi Gupta(166) Tamanpreet Kaur(211)

Newton s Laws of Motion Presented by: - Rakhi Gupta(166) Tamanpreet Kaur(211) Contents of the Presentation Newton s First law of Motion Balance and Unbalanced Force Newton s Second law of Motion Free Falling

### KEY NNHS Introductory Physics: MCAS Review Packet #1 Introductory Physics, High School Learning Standards for a Full First-Year Course

Introductory Physics, High School Learning Standards for a Full First-Year Course I. C O N T E N T S T A N D A R D S Central Concept: Newton s laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion