# Algorithm (DCABES 2009)

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1 People Tracking via a Modified CAMSHIFT Algorithm (DCABES 2009) Fahad Fazal Elahi Guraya, Pierre-Yves Bayle and Faouzi Alaya Cheikh Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Gjovik University College Gjovik, Norway 1

2 Outline Introduction Problem Statement Tracking Algorithms Mean-shift tracking CAMSHIFT tracking Extended CAMSHIFT tracking Implementation Experimental Results Conclusion 2

3 Introduction 3 Multi-Camera Cooperated Object Detection, Tracking, and Event Analysis

4 Introduction ti (Applications) Motion-based recognition: Human identification based on gait, automatic object detection, etc. Automated Video surveillance: Monitoring a scene to detect suspicious activities or unlikely events Video indexing: Automatic annotation and retrieval of the videos in multimedia databases Human-computer interaction: Gesture recognition, eye gaze tracking for data input to computers, etc. Traffic monitoring: Real-time gathering of traffic statistics to direct traffic flow Vehicle navigation: Video-based path planning and obstacle avoidance capabilities 4

5 Problem Statementt t Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4 Can we estimate the position of the object? Can we estimate its velocity? Can we predict future positions? 5

6 Problem Statement Given a Sequence of Images/frames Find center of moving object Camera might be moving or stationary We Assume: We can find object in individual frames The Problem: Track across multiple frames A fundamental problem in the field of video analysis 6

7 Tracking Algorithms 7 a) Point Tracking by Bayesian Filters (Differ in representing probability densities (pdf)) Kalman Filters Particle Filters Grid-based approach Multi-hypothesis(MHT) filter b) Kernel Tracking Mean-shift tracking Continuously Adaptive Mean-shift (CAMSHIFT) Modified CAMSHIFT with Motion Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi Feature Tracker (KLT) Support Vector Machines (SVM) Tracker Eigen Tracking c,d) SilhouetteTracking Contour evolution state space models Contour evolution by variational methods Shape Matching hough transform

8 Mean shift Tracking Introduced by Y. Cheng. in Mean Shift, Mode Seeking, and Clustering PAMI 1995 Mean shift algorithm climbs the gradient of a probability distribution to find the nearest domain mode Collins CVPR i PAMI

9 Mean shift Tracking Given a likelihood image, find the optimal location of the tracked object The likelihood image is generated by computing, at each pixel, the probability that the pixel belongs to the object based on the distribution ib i of the feature Obtain mean-shift vector y by maximizing the Bhattacharyya coefficient, i which h is equivalent to minimizing i i i the distance maximize: 9 where Bhattacharyya coefficient for a single bin u

10 Continuously Adaptive Mean-SHIFT (CAMSHIFT) Tracking Modified form of Mean-shift tracking algorithm Introduced by GR Bradski. in Computer vision face tracking for use in a perceptual user interface. Intel Technology Jounal 1998 Differs from Mean-shift: Search window adjusts itself in size. If we have well-segmented distributions(face) then CAMSHIFT will automatically adjust itself for the size of face as the person moves closer or further from camera. search window size M * N centre ( x, y ) c c Re-centre the search window, rescale its size Both search window size and centre are stable Target Current search window size is the object size; its centre is the centre of object Initialization Control End Condition Satisfied? Yes Resolution Found 10 No

11 CAMSHIFT Tracking 1. Choose the initial location of the 2D mean shift search window 2. Calculate the color probability distribution in the 2D region centered at the search window location in an ROI slightly larger than mean shift window size 3. Run Mean Shift algorithm to find the search window center. Store the zeroth moment(m00) area or size and centriod location 4. For the next video frame, center the search window at the mean location stored in Step-3 and set the window size to a function of the zeroth moment M00 found there. Go to Step-2. 11

12 Extended CAMSHIFT tracking Optical Flow computation by Lucas-Kanade Method Brightness Constancy, Temporal Persistance, Spatial Coherence Video Frame Motion Direction 12

13 Extended CAMSHIFT tracking 13 Purposed Method: Compute motion information of the moving objects and add it linearly to the back-projected color histogram Steps: Select initial location of the person i.e ROI (Region of interest) Compute equalized histogram of the ROI Compute back projection image using the current histogram for the next frame Compute the motion of the blob using Lucas-Kanade algorithm Update the back-projection image using motion information Combine direction of motion with back projection image linearly, give more weightage to pixels moving in same direction as in the previous frame and less weightage g to pixels moving in the other directions Use updated back-projection image to track object/s in the new frame

14 Extended CAMSHIFT Tracking Pros: Computationally efficient (robust statistics and probability distributions) -Working in real-time: fast processing Robust to image noise Robust to distractors (e.g. other objects) Irregular object motion (linear/non-linear) Robust to partial/full occlusion Robust to background-foreground color Cons: Need manual input to initialize template window 14

15 Implementation OpenCV Computer Vision Library/Visual C++ 15

16 Implementation ti Video Frames Background Modeling Post Processing (Shadow Removal) Object/People Detection Object/People Tracking Object Tracks 16

17 Implementation(Background Modeling) Recursive techniques Running Gaussian average (RGA) Gaussian mixture model (GMM) GMM with adaptive number of Gaussians (AGMM) Approximated median filtering (AMF) Non-recursive techniques Median filtering Mediod filtering Eigenbackgrounds (EigBG) 17

18 Implementation (GMM) Data is represented by a mixture of N Gaussians Different Gaussians represent different colors 18

20 Implementation(Shadows Removal) Original background (B): Brightness and chromaticity similar to those of the same pixel in the background image. Shaded background (S): Similar chromaticity but lower brightness. Moving foreground object (F): Chromaticity different from the expected values in the background image. 20

21 Experimental Results Shadow Removal Morphological filtering Closing operation Structuring element: 3x3 Removing small regions Background subtraction Shadows removal Before After 21

22 Experimental Results Object/People Detection Contours detection Bounding box Contours and bounding boxes for 2 separate persons Contours and bounding boxes for 2 persons starting to overlap 22

23 Experimental Results Back projection images (with/without) motion information Backprojection person.1 using color feature Backprojection person.2 using color feature 23 Backprojection person.1 using color and motion features Backprojection person.2 using color and motion features

24 Experimental Results Tracking Results using CamShift + Optical Flow Tracking windows around moving persons Tracking Without Motion Information Tracking Using Motion Information

25 Conclusion A modified CAMSHIFT algorithm is presented The Algorithm use color and motion features The Algorithm is tested t and verified for a set of videos As future work the algorithm should be tested/verified for indoor/outdoor d videos with strong shadows and partial/full ll occlusion of objects The algorithm should also be tested and modified d for multiple objects and multiple camera tracking 25

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### Detection and Restoration of Vertical Non-linear Scratches in Digitized Film Sequences

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### Human Behavior Analysis in Intelligent Retail Environments

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### A Real Time Hand Tracking System for Interactive Applications

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