Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT

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1 Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT

2 The most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: Petroleum hydrocarbons Heavy metals Pesticides Solvents

3 Soil pollutant any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil or which disturbs the biological balance of the organisms in the soil. Pollution in soil has adverse effect on plant growth.

4 Pollution in soil is associated with: Indiscriminate use of fertilizers Indiscriminate use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides Dumping of large quantities of solid waste Deforestation and soil erosion

5 Indiscriminate use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides Plants on which we depend for food are under attack from insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, rodents and other animals, and must compete with weeds for nutrients. To kill unwanted populations living in or on their crops, farmers use pesticides. The first widespread insecticide use began at the end of World War II and included DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and gammaxene. Insects soon became resistant to DDT and as the chemical did not decompose readily, it persisted in the environment. It biomagnified up the food chain and disrupted calcium metabolism in birds, causing eggshells to be thin and fragile. As a result, large birds of prey became endangered.

6 Pesticides The most important pesticides are DDT, BHC, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, aldrin, malathion, dieldrin, furodan, etc. The remnants of such pesticides used on pests may get adsorbed by the soil particles, which then contaminate root crops grown in that soil. The consumption of such crops causes the pesticides remnants to enter human biological systems, affecting them adversely.

7 Effects of Soil Pollution Agricultural Reduced soil fertility Reduced nitrogen fixation Increased erodibility Larger loss of soil and nutrients Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs Reduced crop yield Imbalance in soil fauna and flora

8 Reducing pesticide use Biological methods of pest control can also reduce the use of pesticides and thereby minimize soil pollution.

9 How widespread is the problem? Pesticides are a cause of pollution, affecting land and water in particular. In the US pesticides pollution has been found in nearly every lake, river and stream, according to a US Geological Survey in the 1990s. Pesticides cause pollution by running off agricultural fields and from horticultural land and domestic gardens, too. Rain water washes the chemicals into nearby water sources. Here are some of the bad effects of pesticides. Picture: Rivers and other water sources may be affected by pesticides.

10 Pesticides and pollution of the soil First, affect soil quality. Decrease biodiversity in the soil because they do not just kill the intended pest; they often kill many of the other small organisms present. Soil quality deteriorates and this has a knock-on effect upon the retention of water. Soil fertility is affected too. When pesticides kill off most of the active soil organisms, the complex interactions which result in good fertility break down. Plants depend on millions of bacteria and fungi to bring nutrients to their rootlets. When these cycles are disrupted plants become more dependent upon exact doses of chemical fertilisers at regular intervals. Even so, the fantastically rich interactions in healthy soil cannot be fully replicated by the farmer with chemicals.

11 Pesticides and pollution of the soil watery vegetables and fruits, which often lack taste and nutrients and may even contain pesticide residues. One of the main hazards of pesticide use is to farm workers and gardeners. A recent study by the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, discovered a 70% increase in the risk of developing Parkinson s disease for people exposed to even low levels of pesticides. Children are particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticides. Studies have found higher rates of brain cancer, leukaemia and birth defects in children who suffered early exposure to pesticides. (National Resources Defence Council study)

12 Experiment: Effect of Fungicide on the germination Aim: An experiment to simulate and test the effect of Indiscriminate use of fungicide on the germination of plant seeds. How does fungicide residue affect the germination of seeds?

13 Experiment: Effect of Fungicide on the germination Material: Monocotyledons seeds as wheat and lentils. Dicotyledons seeds as beans,. Four Fungicide Concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%) 5 petri dishes with cotton and filter paper. Water Foriceps Dettol 70% 4 Sprayer labelled with conc.

14 Experiment: Effect of Fungicide on the germination Method: A filter paper and cotton should rinse with each conc., separately, and placed in the bottom of labeled petri dish. Seeds (20 monocotyledons and 10 cotyledons) were placed separately on the paper and covered with cotton soaked in each fungicide conc. and the lid was placed on top. Spraying the seed with its conc. should be repeated daily. All plates were observed over a week period. The investigation include: the rate of germination and/or the amount of seeds that germinated.

15 Experiment: Effect of Fungicide on seed germination Hypothesis: Data analysis: Discussion:

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