# Newton s laws of motion and gravity

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1 Newton s laws of motion and gravity 1. Every body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion (constant velocity) in a straight line unless acted on by a force. (A deeper statement of this law is that momentum (mass x velocity) is a conserved quantity in our world, for unknown reasons.) This tendency to keep moving or keep still is called inertia. (Nobody really knows what it means.) 2. Acceleration (change in speed or direction) of object is proportional to: applied force F divided by the mass of the object m i.e. a = F/m or (more usual) F = ma This law allows you to calculate the motion of an object, if you know the force acting on it. This is how we calculate the motions of objects in physics and astronomy. You can see that if you know the mass of something, and the force that is acting on it, you can calculate its rate of change of velocity, so you can find its velocity, and hence position, as a function of time. 3. To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, i.e. forces are mutual. A more useful equivalent statement is that interacting objects exchange momentum through equal and opposite forces.

2 What determines the strength of gravity? The Universal Law of Gravitation: 1. Every mass attracts every other mass. 2. Attraction is directly proportional to the product of their masses. 3. Attraction is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

3 Newton s Law of Gravity: Every object attracts every other object with a force F (gravity) = (mass 1) x (mass 2) / R 2 (distance squared) Notice this is an inverse square law (right illus.). Orbits of planets (and everything else) are a balance between the moving object s tendency to move in a straight line at constant speed (Newton s 1st law) and the gravitational pull of the other object (see below). Now we ll see how all this can be combined to calculate the motion of any object moving under any force (gravity or otherwise--like a magnetic force, or friction, or anything.

4 But first: more on the Newton s law of gravity How is this force transmitted instantaneously, at a distance? ( Gravitons -- translation: we don t know). Today, gravity is interpreted as a field that is a property of space-time itself, or even stranger interpretation. Nobody really knows what gravity is, we just see things falling But for most applications, Newton s law of gravity is sufficient to calculate the orbits of nearly all astronomical objects. We only need to combine it with Newton s 2nd law (a = F/m, where F is the expression for the force of gravity). Then we can solve for the acceleration, which is the change of velocity with time. This gives us the velocity (you have to solve a differential equation a = dv/dt = force/mass); since v is just the change in position of the object, we can calculate the position of the object as a function of time. Notice that in all cases you want to calculate the acceleration due to some force (maybe gravity, or something else). From this you (or at least someone) can derive Kepler s laws from Newton s laws of motion and the form of the gravitational force. The result for Kepler s third law contains a new term: P 2 = a 3 / (m 1 + m 2 ) Newton s form of Kepler s 3rd law. (Masses expressed in units of solar masses; period in years, a in AU, as before). This is basically what is used (in various forms) to get masses of ALL cosmic objects! Another way to word it: if you know how fast two objects are orbiting each other, and their separation (notice you need the distance to get this), you can solve for the sum of their masses.

5 Using Newton s laws, continued Applying this procedure (Newton s 2nd law with the law of gravity) you (or at least someone) can derive Kepler s laws, if you know the form of the gravitational force. For gravity we have Newton s formula F grav = G m 1 m 2 /d where G is Newton s gravitational constant (you don t have to know it s value), m 1 and m 2 are the two masses, and d is their separation (distance from each other). From this it can be shown that all closed orbits are ellipses, that the orbital motion is faster when the two objects are closer to each other (Kepler s 2nd law), and Kepler s 3rd law, the most important result. Kepler s third law now contains a new term: P 2 = a 3 / (m 1 + m 2 ) Newton s form of Kepler s 3rd law. (Masses expressed in units of solar masses; period in years, a in AU, as before). This is basically what is used (in various forms) to get masses of ALL cosmic objects! Another way to word it: if you know how fast two objects are orbiting each other, and their separation (notice you need the distance to get this), you can solve for the sum of their masses. We will use this over and over--it is the only way we have to get masses directly.

6 But the most important application is that the motion of any object (or any number of objects) acting under any force can be calculated, in principle, if the force can be specified (e.g. gravitational force as a function of mass and distance; but it could be frictional force, magnetic force, electrostatic repulsion,.) We calculate the evolution of clusters of stars, of millions of galaxies in an expanding universe, of a hot gas in a magnetic field, and (almost everything else, although in general this is so difficult that you can only get computer solutions. Examples: Earth s orbital period (1 year) and average distance (1 AU) tell us the Sun s mass (think: why don t you need to know the Earth s mass for this purpose? Orbital period and distance of a satellite from Earth tell us Earth s mass. Orbital period and distance of a moon of Jupiter tell us Jupiter s mass. This is how black holes were discovered to actually exist (later in course), and how the masses of planets orbiting other stars are determined. Motion of stars in galaxies reveals the existence of invisible mass, or dark matter, whose nature remains unknown.

7 Illustration below shows effect of gravitational forces between two galaxies that are in the early stages of collisional merging. Solving Newton s laws for millions of stars and for the gas within these galaxies, we can actually make models for such phenomena that show what is going on (tidal forces in this case). This example shows you that some orbits can decay, leading to merging of objects. We will see this again when we discuss the cannibalism of planets by their parent stars.

8 New topic: Properties of Light (ch. 3 in text) This is an extremely important topic, because the only things we can learn about objects and phenomena outside our solar system are learned by analyzing the light they send us. In a sense astronomy is all about how to collect, analyze, and interpret light. Can consider light as waves or as particles, depending on circumstance. (One of the big mysteries of physics.) Either way, it is common practice to call them photons. Light can be thought of as a wave that arises due to an oscillating (vibrating) electromagnetic field (see text). Unlike other kinds of waves, light does not require a material medium for its propagation (travel); light can propagate in a vacuum. (Don t worry about polarization in text if it is confusing to you. It won t be on the exam.) Waves: Need to understand and become familiar with the following properties of light (will discuss in class): Wavelength Always denoted by Greek letter λ. Frequency how many waves pass per second, denoted f or ν Speed All light waves travel at the same speed, the speed of light, c (=3x105 km/sec = 2.86x105 mi/sec (286,000 miles per second); no need to memorize these numbers!) Energy--the energy of a photon is its frequency times its speed E = f x c It is extremely important that students become familiar and comfortable with these terms and symbols-- they will recur throughout the class. See pp of textbook.

9 The fact that light travels at a finite speed ( c ) means that we see distant objects as they were in the past. Consider our neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy shown in Fig. 3.1 in your text it is about 2 million light years away Later we will look back to times near the beginning of the universe (billions of years ago) using very distant galaxies. Spectrum: Possibly the most important term to understand in this course! It refers to the mixture of light of different wavelengths from a given source; best to remember it as a graph of intensity (or brightness) of radiation in each wavelength (or frequency) interval. See illustrations in sec Will discuss in class. (Note: much of rest of class is concerned with analyzing the spectra of different types of astronomical objects so get used to the concept now.)

10 Light from all objects covers an extremely large range of wavelengths (or frequencies), from radio waves to gamma rays. Memorize this list, and study figs. 3.4 and 3.9 carefully: radio, infrared (IR), visible, ultraviolet (UV), x-rays, gamma rays It lists the regions of electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. the classes of light, from smallest frequency (largest wavelength) to largest frequency (smallest wavelength). It also goes from smallest energy to highest energy. Human vision is only sensitive to a very tiny fraction of all this radiation astronomy in the last 50 years has been mostly concerned with getting out of this region. That is probably the single most important technical revolution in astronomy--and for most of it you have to be above the Earth s atmosphere. The illustration (from your text) on the next slide illustrates the different categories of light--please note that they are just historical conventions that are useful. But there is no definite boundary between, say, ultraviolet and x-rays, or infrared and radio. NOTE:The units of wavelength (e.g. Angstroms, nanometers, microns) and frequency (Hertz, MHz, GHz) are just something you have to get used to in order to understand the text and the lectures, but you will not be asked to manipulate or memorize them on exams. However do not ignore them either, or you ll have much trouble reading the text or understanding lectures.

11

12 The electromagnetic spectrum again

13 Spectra of lemons and car tail lights

14 Atmospheric absorption and windows Earth s atmosphere is very opaque (light can t get through) except in the visible (also called optical ) and radio parts of the spectrum (the so-called optical and radio windows ). That s why much of recent astronomy is done from satellites. See p. 70 of textbook on atomspheric opacity and get used to the word opacity.

15 Black-Body Spectrum A black-body (BB) is only a simplified mathematical model, but works surprisingly well for the continuous (smooth) spectra of objects. See Fig on p. 74. The model predicts a formula for the continuous spectrum (intensity vs. wavelength or frequency--be sure you understand this word!) for any temperature. Continuous means it is a smooth curve (compared to the spectral lines that real objects exhibit, and which we will study for Exam 2. Two ways in which a BB can be related to temperature: 1. Wien s law: relates wavelength at which most energy is emitted in the spectrum ( wavelength of peak emission ) to the temperature: λ max 1/(temperature of object) So hotter object bluer, cooler object redder. You ll be surprised how often this simple result is used in astronomy. So we can get temperature from the spectrum. (See fig.3.11 in text) 2. Stefan s law: TOTAL energy E radiated at all wavelengths (per unit surface area, meaning per square inch, or per square meter, or per square anything) is related to the temperature by: E (temperature) 4 hotter objects will be brighter (per unit area) Notice the steep temperature dependence! Make something a little hotter and it will become much brighter! (If it behaves like a BB.) Study Fig (BB curves for 4 cosmic objects).

16

17 Blackbody Spectrum--figure below illustrates Wien s law and Stefan-Boltzmann law

18 SKIP THIS until exam 2 Doppler Effect : one of most useful and important techniques used in all of astronomy. We will encounter it again and again. Wavelength (or frequency) of a wave depends on the relative radial speed of the source and observer. Radial motion means: motion towards or away; along the line of sight. The Doppler effect involves only this component of motion, the radial velocity. Moving away: wavelengths increase ( redshift ) Moving toward: wavelengths decrease ( blueshift ) Shift in λ radial velocity this is how we get speeds of cosmic objects, stars, galaxies, even expansion of universe. Actual formula is: λ(apparent)/ λ(true) = 1 + (vel./speed of light) For most objects in the universe, this relative shift is tiny, so we can t detect it using the shift of the whole spectrum. But we can use places in the spectrum whose wavelengths are precisely known spectral lines (the subject of Chapter 4)

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