# Latches and Flip-Flops characterestics & Clock generator circuits

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1 Experiment # 7 Latches and Flip-Flops characterestics & Clock generator circuits OBJECTIVES 1. To be familiarized with D and JK flip-flop ICs and their characteristic tables. 2. Understanding the principles and construction of Clock generator. Background Flip-flops are a useful type of digital device that can store binary states, or be used as a sort of digital toggle switch. Flip-flops can be built up from distinct logic gates, but they can easily be bought in packaged chips. The flip-flop is a digital device, so its output (labeled with a Q in schematic diagrams) will take on the value of either 1 (high) or 0 (low). Many flip-flops will also provide the complementary output (an inverted output). Edge Triggering Because the state of a flip-flop often depends on the previous state of a circuit (for example, the output of one flip flop may be the input to another), and because each flip-flop and logic gate needs a certain amount of time to switch its output, we usually clock the devices, that is, we synchronize all the flip-flops to change states at the same time with a clocked pulse. Flip-flops are edge triggered; they either change states when the clock goes from 0 to 1 (positive/rising edge) or when the clock goes from 1 to 0 (negative/falling edge). The symbols used for positive and negative edge triggering on flip-flops are shown in fig.7.1: fig.7.1 fig.7.2 1

2 Asynchonous Inputs Many flip-flops will also have a clear (CLR) and preset (PRE) terminal. These inputs are typically inverted, so they are active when the input signal is low (Active Low Input). The CLR and PRE signals can be asserted any time and don't have to be edge triggered; they will override any other inputs, including the clock. The symbols used for clear and preset (the bubble indicates an inverted signal) are shown in figure 7.2. Truth Table for CLR and PRE (active low) PRE CLR Output 0 0 Error state Depends on inputs and clock Types of flip-flops There are several types of flip-flops but the two most important kind are the D and J-K flip-flops. D flip-flop Symbol for the D flip-flop is shown in figure 7.3. The D (Data) flip-flop has an input D, and the output Q will take on the value of D at every triggering edge of the clock pulse and hold it until the next triggering pulse. The D flip-flop is usually positive edge triggered. The truth table for a positive edge triggered D flip-flop in table 7.1: D CK Q X 0,1 Q 0 Table 7.1 Figure 7.3 ( indicates a rising edge on the clock pulse; X indicates that it has no effect on outcome) Timing diagram for the positive edge triggered D flip-flop: 2

3 The TTL 7474 is a dual (has two) D type flip-flop. JK flip-flop Symbol for the JK flip-flop is shown in figure 7.4. The JK flip-flop has two inputs, labeled J and K. J corresponds to a "set" signal, and K corresponds to a "reset" signal. At the triggering edge: If J is 1 and K is 0, Q is 1. If J is 0 and K is 1, Q is 0. If J and K are both 0, the output stays the same as it was before. If J and K are both 1, the output is inverted (toggling is said to occur). The JK flip-flop is usually negative edge triggered. The truth table for a negatively triggered JK flip-flop: J K CK Q 0 0 Q Q' 0 X X 0,1 Q 0 Table 7.2 Figure 7.4 The timing diagram for the negatively triggered JK flip-flop: 3

4 The TTL 7476 is a dual (has two) J-K type flip-flop. Latches Latches are similar to flip-flops, but instead of being edge triggered, they are level triggered. The most common type of latch is the D latch. While CK is high, Q will take whatever value D is at. When CK is low, Q will latch onto the last value it had before CK went low, and hold it until CK goes high again. Timing diagram for the D latch: The 7475 is a 16 pin 4 bit binary D-latch and is generally used to temporarily store information. The inputs are labeled 1D-4D and both the outputs and their complements are available on this 16-pin chip. Because of pin limitations, latches 1 and 2 are controlled by the same enable signal and latches 3 and 4 are controlled by the other enable signal. 4

5 Clock Generator Timing or synchronization is very crucial to most electronic devices and systems. This is because timing is essential in maintaining the proper sequencing of events. There are many ICs designed and manufactured specifically to accomplish this task. One of the most popular of these ICs is the 555 Timer. Figure 7.1 shows the pinout diagram of the 555 Timer IC. The 555 timer can be used in a variety of forms. The mono-stable mode will create a single pulse of a specified width. A stable mode will create a repeating pulse train of specified frequency and duty cycle. Figure 6.2 shows the 555 IC Timer configured to output a clock signal. The charging time (output high) is given by: t high = 0.693*(R 1 + R 2 )*C And the discharging time (output low) by: t low = 0.693*(R 2 )*C Thus the total period is: T = t high + t low = 0.693*(R 1 + 2*R 2 )*C The clock frequency is determined by the formula: F = 1/T = 1.44/((R 1 + 2*R 2 )*C) 5

6 Pre-lab 1. Study the background carefully. 2. Use data sheet to draw the schematic (pin diagram) of the 7475 a dual d type latch and write down its function table. 3. Use data sheet to draw the schematic (pin diagram) of the 7474 a dual d type Flip-Flop and write down its function table. 4. Use data sheet to draw the schematic (pin diagram) of the 7476 a dual JK type Flip-Flop and write down its function table. EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED KL trainer kit, Module KL-33007, TTL ICs 7474, 7475, and PROCEDURES: Part I: D type Latch a) Plug in the 74LS74 D-type flip-flop and connect ground to pin 7 and 5V to pin 14 as usual. Referring to the 74LS75 pin-out diagram, choose one of the four D latches on the chip and connect the input switches to the D and C. b) Set input C to 0, set input D to 1 and then to 0 several times. What is the result? c) Repeat step b, but at this time set input C to 1. What is the result? d) Verify the function table of Part II: D type Flip-Flop a) Plug in the 74LS74 D-type flip-flop and connect ground to pin 7 and 5V to pin 14 as usual. This is a two-circuit dual in-line package. Referring to the 74LS74 pin-out diagram, choose one of the two D FFs on the chip and connect the input switches to the D, clear and Preset inputs (CLR and PR). 6

7 Connect the Clock input to the pulse switch. The Q and Q' outputs should be connected to LEDs. b) Set Clear to 0 and Preset to 1, set D input to 1 and toggle the clock pulse. Is the result in Q going to 1 or not why? c) Set Clear to 1 and Preset to 0,what is the output?. Set D input to 0 and toggle the clock pulse. Is the result in Q going to 1 or not why? d) Set Clear to 1 and Preset to 0 simultaneously this will result in both Q and Q' going to 1 (both LEDs will light). This is a forbidden state. e) Try the various inputs (Clock with D, Preset, Clear) and observe the circuit operation. Verify the truth table you have written in your pre-lab step3. Part III: J-K type Flip-Flop a) Plug in the 74LS76 JK-type flip-flop and connect ground to pin 13 and 5V to pin 5. This is a two-circuit dual in-line package. Referring to the 74LS76 pin-out diagram, choose one of the two JK FFs on the chip and connect the input switches to the D, cleare and Preset inputs (CLR and PR). Connect the Clock input to the pulse switch. The Q and Q' outputs should be connected to LEDs. b) Test the effect of CLR and PR on the circuit as in part 2.Try various inputs (Clock with J and K, Preset, Clear) and verify the truth table you have written in your prelab step 4. Part IV: Clock generation with 555 IC Oscillator circuit a) Module KL will be used in this part. b) Insert connection clips according to figure 7.5(a) to get equivalent circuit shown in figure 7.5(b) c) Connect F1 to LED and observe the output. d) Adjust R9 an R12 and state how the o u t p u t i s cted by them. a f f e figure 7.5(a) figure 7.5(b) 7

8 Exercise: 1) If you need to use a J-K FF, but the 7476 IC is not available but 7474 IC is available. Build a J-K FF using D FF, show your circuit in logic and pin diagrams. 2) If you need to use a D FF, but the 7474 IC is not available but 7476 IC is available. Build a D FF using J-K FF, show your circuit in logic and pin diagrams. 8

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