Study Guide. Explain how the genetic information in the nucleus is used to direct the production of proteins in the cytoplasm.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Study Guide. Explain how the genetic information in the nucleus is used to direct the production of proteins in the cytoplasm."

Transcription

1 Cells: The building blocks of life Study Guide Compare the following pairs of terms, noting the most significant differences: prokaryotic cells versus eukaryotic cells, plant cells versus animal cells. Explain how the genetic information in the nucleus is used to direct the production of proteins in the cytoplasm. Compare the structures and functions of the following : rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus. Compare the contents and functions of the following vesicles: transport vesicle, lysosomes, food vacuole, contractile vacuole and central vacuole. Compare the structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria. Describe the functions of the cytoskeleton. Compare the structures and functions of cilia and flagella. Describe the structure and function of a plant cell wall 1

2 Study Guide Describe the structure of the plasma membrane and other membranes of the cell. Explain why the cell membrane is called a fluid mosaic. Describe the primary functions of the membrane proteins. Explain how the structure of the plasma membrane makes it semipermeable. Describe the primary functions of the membrane proteins. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: diffusion versus osmosis, passive transport versus active transport, hypertonic versus hypotonic, endocytosis versus exocytosis, and phagocytosis versus pinocytosis. Distinguish between surface area and volume of a cell. Describe what happens to 2

3 All living things are composed of cells Each cell (in a unicellular or a multicellular organism) needs to: -Make needed molecules - Extract energy from molecules - Obtain molecules for energy growth or replacement - Transport molecules into and out Today we will learn what role does each part of the cell play in fulfilling these needs Types of Cells 3

4 Fill table of your lab handout A certain cell has mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and other parts. Based on this information, it could NOT be. 1. a cell from a pine tree 2. a grasshopper cell 3. a yeast (fungus) cell 4. a bacteria 5. actually, it could be any of the above 4

5 Cytoskeleton: movement within the cell, movement of the cell Cilia: in humans and in protist Flagella: in humans and protist Cytoplasm: molecular soup inside the cell A membrane is a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins Bilayer of phospholipids with Proteins imbedded in it Fluid molecules move freely (flexible) Mosaic has a variety of proteins that perform different functions For example: The cell membrane of a RBC has 50 different kinds of proteins 5

6 The Cell membrane has a mosaic of functions Main Functions of membrane Eukaryotic cells have membrane enclosed organelles 6

7 Most of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is in. the cytoskeleton the mitochondria the endomembrane system the cytoplasm the nucleus A plant cell was grown in a test tube containing radioactive nucleotides, the parts from which DNA is built. Later examination of the cell showed the radioactivity to be concentrated in the. lysosome rough endoplasmic reticulum central vacuole smooth endoplasmic reticulum nucleus 7

8 Endomembrane system 8

9 Your white blood cells make antibodies that are exported from the cell into the blood stream. Which of the following might be the path of an antibody from the site where its synthesized to its export? A. nucleus Golgi lysosomes cell membrane B. Golgi.vesicle.rough ER smooth ER vesicle C. rough ER vesicle Golgi. vesicle cell membrane D. smooth ER Golgi. Lysosome... cell membrane E. nucleus.golgi vesicle...rough ER cell membrane 9

10 Substances in the cell are packaged or transported in membrane sacs Vesicles: transports products inside and out of the cell Central vacuole (only in plant cells): stores water (maintain cell shape) Contractile vacuole in unicellular organisms: controls the amount of water inside the cell Food vacuole: contains food particles Lysosome: contains digestive enzymes for cell s use If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would. digest itself divide into two cells shrivel become denatured need to manufacture more lysosomes 10

11 Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a. nucleus and contractile vacuole cell wall and central vacuole cell wall and contractile vacuole nucleus and cell wall cell wall and ribosomes 11

12 Review questions At the end of today s lab Microscope lab 12

13 The size of Cells and their components Light microscopes Compound light microscope: higher magnification view small or thinly sliced organism Dissecting microscope: low magnification view larger organisms but only their surface 13

14 Microscope and Slides Check Out Procedure Sign in and collect key and prepared slides (under your assigned seat) Keep prepared slides in safe place Prepared slides have labels Open box and remove microscope by its arm and base Remove and store bag Wait for further instructions while you wait try to identify the parts on your microscope Using the handout provided Rules for Microscope Use Low power objective should be in position both at the beginning and end of lab Do not leave slides on microscope when storing it Use only lens paper for cleaning lenses (ask instructor for paper) Keep the stage clean and dry to prevent rust and corrosion Do not remove parts of the microscope Keep the microscope dust free by covering it after use Report any malfunctioning or if microscope was not stored properly 14

15 Parts of the light microscope and their functions Eyepieces or ocular lens note magnification Arm Nosepiece with objectives Low-Power Objective note magnification High-Power Objective note magnification Oil immersion Objective never use!!! Ocular lens Nosepiece Arm Coarse adjustment knob use ONLY when LP Objective is in use Fine adjustment knob Condenser specimens needs to be on top of light Diaphragm move lever to change amount of light less light more contrast Stage, stage clips, and stage knobs Diaphragm Base Stage Stage clips Stage knobs Total Magnification is the number of times that the image has been magnified Microscope uses two sets of lenses to magnify specimen 1. ocular lens 2. objective lens TM = ocular lens x objective lens in use Total Magnification under the low power= X (times) Total Magnification under the high power= X 15

16 Field of View is the area of your specimen that is visible through the ocular lens 40X 100X 400X What happens to the field of view when we increase the magnification? Microscope specimens Prepared slide Make your own slide with staining without staining 16

17 Part 1: Use of the Microscope Secret to success: follow instructions carefully - Use prepared slide with letter e to practice focusing - Low power follow steps 1-9 Your microscope is parafocal, what does this mean? - High power follow steps Making your own slides and types of cells Where are the supplies? Human cheek Cells stained with methylene blue Elodea Leaf Cells without stain What parts of the cell are visible? How to clean up? 17

18 Making your own slides and types of cells Onion skin Cells stained with iodine solution DEMO Bacteria stained What parts of the cell are visible? Complete sketches OF ONE CELL and LABEL THEM Answer questions Based on your observations Set up agar cubes experiment (groups of four) Cut cubes in following order: 3x3x3 2x2x2 1x1x1 Immerse each cube in a beaker with vinegar and start your stopwatch Take the time that it took for the entire cube to turn yellow 18

19 What is Cystic Fibrosis? One of the main functions of the cell membrane is the transport of molecules into and out of the cell 19

20 Molecules tend to move to where they are less concentrated Diffusion: tendency of molecules to spread out from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated or they tend move down their concentration gradient Note that both water molecules and dye molecules are diffusing Cell membrane is a selectively permeable: some molecules can cross freely between phospholipids and others can NOT 20

21 21

22 Which of the following is a difference between active transport and facilitated diffusion? A) Facilitated diffusion requires energy from ATP and active transport does not. B) Facilitated diffusion involves transport proteins and active transport does not. C) Active transport involves transport proteins and facilitated diffusion does not. D) Active transport requires the expenditure of cellular energy, and facilitated diffusion does not. E) Facilitated diffusion can move solutes against a concentration gradient and active transport cannot. How does a cell transport bulk materials into or out of the cell? Exocytosis (out of cell) Example: hormone secretion Endocytosis (into cell) engulfing Example: amoeba eating 22

23 Phagocytosis cellular eating an entire cell is engulfed example: amoeba or white blood cell Pinocytosis cellular drinking external liquid is engulfed Receptor-mediated endocytosis substance needs to bind to receptors, to be engulfed very specific The extracellular fluid and cytoplasm are solutions Solution: is a mixture of two or more molecules in a liquid environment Solution= Solute + solvent (water) Concentration of a solution: % of solute 23

24 Osmosis is the (diffusion) passive transport of water What happens to the volume of liquid on each side of the membrane? Why is this important? Cells can gain or loose water depending on the concentration of solutes outside vs. inside The effect of osmosis in Animal Cells and Plant Cells Turgor pressure Difference between animal cells and plant cells is due to 24

25 Pancreas: exocytosis, active transport, and osmosis 1. Pancreas cells releases digestive enzymes into duct via 2. CFTR transports ions into duct via active transport, creating a outside 3. Water diffuses out of cell by 4. Water slurry flows out of duct into intestine carrying enzymes Normal pancreas cells CF pancreas cells Cell Transport Lab Osmosis in animal cells and plant cells Effect of cell size/shape on the speed of diffusion 25

26 PART1. OSMOSIS IN ANIMAL CELLS (RED BLOOD CELLS) DEMO RBC And 0.9% Na Cl RBC And 10% NaCl RBC And Distilled water Distilled water has 0% solutes 10% NaCl solution: 10% NaCl and 90% water In which slide are the RBC in a isotonic solution? How can we find this out? Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic crenated 26

27 OSMOSIS IN PLANT CELLS (ELODEA LEAF CELLS) Slide 1: Elodea leaf + distilled water Slide 2: Elodea leaf + 10% NaCl solution Wait 5 min View under microscope and compare slides In which slide are the cells in a hypotonic solution? Hypotonic Note position of chloroplasts Hypertonic 27

28 Effect of cell size/shape on the speed of diffusion Cells volume = cytoplasm requirement of nutrients or wastes removed Cells surface = cell membrane area through which nutrients and wastes are transported into or out of cell Why are most cells microscopic in size? Volume increases FASTER than the surface Larger cell has problems with exchange of nutrients and wastes Agar cubes will represent different sized cells Bromothymol Blue changes color in the presence of an acid Surface area = Volume = SA/V ratio = Acid = B blue = Time form turning completely yellow= 28

29 Can cells improve their diffusion speed by having a different shape? 1x1x8 Plan of Attack Part 1. Osmosis in animal cells observe demo microscopes with blood samples Part 2. Osmosis in plant cells Work in groups of four One pair does elodea in distilled water One pair does elodea in saline water Part 3. EFFECT OF CELL SIZE OR SHAPE ON SPEED OF DIFFUSION complete table Do sketches and answer questions 29

30 When your done: Store microscope correctly Return prepared slides, keys and sign out Clean up: desk area, slides 30

How do the structures of cells and biological membranes enable the functions that are required to sustain life?

How do the structures of cells and biological membranes enable the functions that are required to sustain life? Cells & Membranes How do the structures of cells and biological membranes enable the functions that are required to sustain life? Essential Understandings 2.A.3 Organisms must exchange matter with the

More information

Bacteria. Prokaryotic Cells. Very small cells Have cell wall No nucleus No membrane bound organelles

Bacteria. Prokaryotic Cells. Very small cells Have cell wall No nucleus No membrane bound organelles Cells Chapter 7 The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things New cells are produced from existing cells Bacteria Prokaryotic

More information

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular Chapter 4- Cells Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells Unicellular Multicellular Multicellular organisms are composed of one or more types of tissues Different types of tissues are grouped

More information

Osmosis, Diffusion and Cell Transport

Osmosis, Diffusion and Cell Transport Osmosis, Diffusion and Cell Transport Types of Transport There are 3 types of transport in cells: 1. Passive Transport: does not use the cell s energy in bringing materials in & out of the cell 2. Active

More information

The Structure and Function of Cells

The Structure and Function of Cells The Structure and Function of Cells The Cell is the basic functional unit of ALL living things. There are 2 basic types of cells: 1. Eukaryotic Cells = contain plasma membrane (cell membrane), organelles,

More information

Instructional Resources/Materials: Cell vocabulary cards printed (class set) Enough for each student (See card sort below)

Instructional Resources/Materials: Cell vocabulary cards printed (class set) Enough for each student (See card sort below) Grade Level/Course: 7 th grade Life Science Lesson/Unit Plan Name: Cell Card Sort Rationale/Lesson Abstract: Cell vocabulary building, students identify and share vocabulary meaning. Timeframe: 10 to 20

More information

Bio10 Lab 2: Cells Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells Group Lab Results Sheet sketch a generic animal cell and a plant cell

Bio10 Lab 2: Cells Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells Group Lab Results Sheet sketch a generic animal cell and a plant cell Bio10 Lab 2: Cells Cells are the smallest living things and all living things are composed of cells. They are able to perform all necessary metabolic functions as well as specialized tasks such as moving,

More information

Level Biology: Cells Structure and Function Review KEY

Level Biology: Cells Structure and Function Review KEY Level Biology: Cells Structure and Function Review KEY 1. What is the difference between prokaryotes & eukaryotes? Prokaryotes- no true nucleus Eukaryotes- nuclear membrane around genetic material 2. List

More information

The Structure & Function of Cells

The Structure & Function of Cells The Structure & Function of Cells The Cell is the basic functional unit of ALL living things. There are 2 basic categories of cells: 1. Eukaryotic Cells= contain plasma membrane (cell membrane), organelles,

More information

Membrane Structure and Function

Membrane Structure and Function Membrane Structure and Function Part A Multiple Choice 1. The fluid mosaic model describes membranes as having A. a set of protein channels separated by phospholipids. B. a bilayer of phospholipids in

More information

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell 1. Cell Basics 2. Prokaryotic Cells 3. Eukaryotic Cells 1. Cell Basics Limits to Cell Size There are 2 main reasons why cells are so small: If cells get too large: 1) there

More information

Biol 101 Exam 2: Cells & Cell Membranes Fall 2008

Biol 101 Exam 2: Cells & Cell Membranes Fall 2008 MULTIPLE CHOICE. There are 60 questions on this exam. All answers go on the Scantron. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The cell theory is one of

More information

Section 7 1 Life Is Cellular (pages )

Section 7 1 Life Is Cellular (pages ) Chapter 7 Cell Structure and Function Section 7 1 Life Is Cellular (pages 169 173) Key Concepts What is the cell theory? What are the characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Introduction (page 169)

More information

The Discovery of the Cell

The Discovery of the Cell The Discovery of the Cell 7-1 Life Is Cellular Review the cell in relation to: - Its definition - The origin of life - The characteristics of life - The hierarchy of biological organization - The science

More information

Robert Hooke: Mid 1600 s English scientist who looked at Cork under a microscope

Robert Hooke: Mid 1600 s English scientist who looked at Cork under a microscope CELLS Robert Hooke: Mid 1600 s English scientist who looked at Cork under a microscope Early Compound Microscope 1 CORK He described what he saw as a CELL Another scientist: Anton van Leeuwenhoek Dutch

More information

A Tour of the Cell. An Overview of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are fundamentally similar.

A Tour of the Cell. An Overview of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are fundamentally similar. A Tour of the Cell Microscopes as Windows on the World of Cells Light microscopes can be used to explore the structures and functions of cells. When scientists examine a specimen on a microscope slide

More information

Test Booklet. Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes. Student name:

Test Booklet. Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes. Student name: Test Booklet Subject: SC, Grade: 9- Quiz: Cell Processes Student name: Author: Jennifer Holm School: Lincoln High School Printed: Tuesday February 09, 2016 1 Which describes the cell theory? A Cells are

More information

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular

Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular Chapter 4- Cells Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells Unicellular Multicellular Multicellular organisms are composed of one or more types of tissues Different types of tissues are grouped

More information

2. Which of the following structures cannot be found in prokaryotic cells? (Concept 6.2)

2. Which of the following structures cannot be found in prokaryotic cells? (Concept 6.2) Chapter : 6: A Tour of the Cell Chapter Quiz 1. A researcher wants to film the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Which type of microscope should he choose and why is it the best choice? (Concept

More information

Structure and Function of Cell Organelles

Structure and Function of Cell Organelles Structure and Function of Cell Organelles Review: What is a Cell? Smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions Microscopes enable us to examine cells in detail Review: Cell Theory Biology

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Chapter 7 Cell Structure and Function Section 7 1 Life Is Cellular (pages 169 172) This section explains what the cell theory is. It also describes the characteristics of two categories of cells, prokaryotes

More information

Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS

Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN B1. Analyze the functional inter-relationships of cell structures. 1) Describe the function and structure of these organelles.

More information

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: 1) A cell with 1% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 5% solute concentration.

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: 1) A cell with 1% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 5% solute concentration. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Homeostasis and Transport - (BIO.A.4.1.1 ) Plasma Membrane, (BIO.A.4.1.2 ) Transport Mechanisms, (BIO.A.4.1.3 ) Transport Facilitation Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared

More information

Cell Structure & Function

Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure & Function The Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Bacteria Nerve Cell Red Blood Cell Microscopes and Cells 1600 s. Anton

More information

3. What are some features plants and animals have in common?

3. What are some features plants and animals have in common? UNIT 3: The Cell Cellular Organelles Name: Biology I Date: Bellringer/ Catalyst: Today in class we will be talking about the different parts found inside different types of cells. Answer the questions

More information

Use of the Microscope and Cytology

Use of the Microscope and Cytology Use of the Microscope and Cytology Introduction: A true study of anatomy not only considers the large, visible structures of an organism, but also the small structures that provide the organism its form

More information

The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope.

The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Cell Theory The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Many scientists contributed to the cell theory. More was learned about cells as microscopes improved.

More information

3.2 Cell Organelles. KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities.

3.2 Cell Organelles. KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities. KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities. Cells have an internal structure. Cells have an internal structure. The cytoskeleton has many functions. Cells have an internal structure. The cytoskeleton

More information

Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes

Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes P All cells have Cell membrane - phospholipid bilayer surrounding cell parts Cytoplasm - everything between cell membrane + nucleus P Most cells have Nucleus - brain of

More information

Accept all reasonable responses. Use your book to define the following term. the orderly structure of cells in an organism

Accept all reasonable responses. Use your book to define the following term. the orderly structure of cells in an organism A View of the Cell Section 7.1 The Discovery of Cells Skim Section 1 of your book. Write three questions that come to mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions. 1. Accept all reasonable

More information

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life AP Biology 2008-2009 animal cells Eukaryotes - organelles Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function Cellular Basis of Life, Homeostasis Q: How are cell structures adapted to their functions? 7.1 Why is it important to study cells? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Cells make up living

More information

Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a

Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a plant and an animal cell Know the functions of cell organelles

More information

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. 7.2 Cell Structure Lesson Objectives Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus. Describe the role of vacuoles, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton. Identify the role of ribosomes, endoplasmic

More information

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. 7.2 Cell Structure Lesson Summary Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. Cytoplasm is the fluid portion of a cell. Organelles are structures that have specialized

More information

Animal & Plant Cell Slides

Animal & Plant Cell Slides Animal & Plant Cell Slides Category: Biology Type: Class Experiment, 60 min class Materials: 2 Glass Slides 2 Cover Slips 1 Bottle of methylene blue (optional) 1 Plastic tray 1 Bottle of iodine 1 Plastic

More information

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 5 THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following can be made into crystal? (a) A Bacterium (b) An Amoeba (c) A Virus (d) A Sperm 2. A cell will swell up if (a)

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Being Eu-nique What are the characteristics of eukaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells differ from each other depending on their structure and function. Structure is the arrangement of parts. Function is the

More information

Chapter 5 Organelles. Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells.

Chapter 5 Organelles. Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells. Chapter 5 Organelles Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells. Check Your Understanding What is a cell? How do we visualize cells?

More information

Week 1 EOC Review Cell Theory, Cell Structure, Cell Transport

Week 1 EOC Review Cell Theory, Cell Structure, Cell Transport Week 1 EOC Review Cell Theory, Cell Structure, Cell Transport Benchmarks: SC.912.L.14.1 Describe the scientific theory of cells (cell theory) and relate the history of its discovery to the processes of

More information

BIOLOGY 12 - Cell Membrane and Cell Wall Function: Chapter Notes

BIOLOGY 12 - Cell Membrane and Cell Wall Function: Chapter Notes BIOLOGY 12 - Cell Membrane and Cell Wall Function: Chapter Notes The cell membrane is the gateway into the cell, and must allow needed things such as nutrients into the cell without letting them escape.

More information

Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport

Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport State Standard Standard 1.a. Membrane Function 1, Forms a boundary between living cells and their surroundings. 2. Controls the movement of molecules into and

More information

The Cell Membrane MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Mader: Chapter Membranes are a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins

The Cell Membrane MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Mader: Chapter Membranes are a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins The Cell Membrane Mader: Chapter 4 MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 5.1 Membranes are a fluid mosaic of! Membranes are composed of phospholipids and proteins Membranes are commonly described as a fluid

More information

1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called.

1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called. Cell Membranes 1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called. 2. Due to the repellent nature of the polar water molecules, the tails of the phospholipids

More information

Name Class Date. What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What is the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell?

Name Class Date. What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What is the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell? CHAPTER 1 2 SECTION Cells: The Basic Units of Life Eukaryotic Cells BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What

More information

Biol115 The Thread of Life

Biol115 The Thread of Life Biol115 The Thread of Life Lecture 13 A panoramic tour of the cell It is the cells which create and maintain in us, during the span of our lives, our will to live and survive, to search and experiment,

More information

Organelles. Organelles. Two Types of Cell. Cell Organelle. Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Both cells function similarly

Organelles. Organelles. Two Types of Cell. Cell Organelle. Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Both cells function similarly Cell Organelle Two Types of Cell Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells 1. Animal Cell 2. Plant Cell Both cells function similarly Organelles Organelle

More information

Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Function Learning Guide

Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Function Learning Guide Name: Team: Block: Date Due Assignment page # Parent initials Teacher initials Lesson 1 Notes & Learning Targets 1 & 2 Lesson 2 Notes & Learning Targets 3 & 4 Lesson 3 Notes & Learning Targets 5 & 6 Lesson

More information

Membrane Structure & Function (Outline)

Membrane Structure & Function (Outline) Membrane Structure & Function (Outline) Basic function, biochemical composition, and physical fluid state Role of cholesterol for animal cells membranes. Summarize the functions of membrane proteins. Traffic

More information

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics:

More information

What will you learn?

What will you learn? What will you learn? Cell Membrane and Transport PLO B9 B10 It is expected that students will analyse the structure and function of the cell membrane explain why cells divide when they reach a particular

More information

Chapter 8. Movement across the Cell Membrane. AP Biology

Chapter 8. Movement across the Cell Membrane. AP Biology Chapter 8. Movement across the Cell Membrane More than just a barrier Expanding our view of cell membrane beyond just a phospholipid bilayer barrier phospholipids plus Fluid Mosaic Model In 1972, S.J.

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell

More information

1.1.1 Cell Structure. Relevant Past Paper Questions. Condensed Notes By Specification Point. 2013 January 5 e f i j. 2012 June 2 e f g i

1.1.1 Cell Structure. Relevant Past Paper Questions. Condensed Notes By Specification Point. 2013 January 5 e f i j. 2012 June 2 e f g i 1.1.1 Cell Structure Relevant Past Paper Questions Paper Question Specification point(s) tested 2013 January 5 e f i j 2012 June 2 e f g i 2012 January 4 a b d f 2011 June 1 part a only f 2011 January

More information

Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4

Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4 Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - Buffers play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in organisms. - To maintain homeostasis, unicellular organisms grow, respond to the

More information

Pre-lab homework Lab 4: The Cell

Pre-lab homework Lab 4: The Cell Pre-lab homework Lab 4: The Cell Lab Section: Name: After reading over the lab and chapter 5 in your textbook, answer these questions to be turned in at the beginning of the lab! 1. Define organelle 2.

More information

Cellular Structure and Function

Cellular Structure and Function Chapter Test A CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question. 1. Which defines a cell?

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Bio 100 - Cells 1 Cell Structure and Function Tenets of Cell Theory 1. All living things are made up of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic living units within organisms, and the chemical reactions

More information

Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test

Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summarized by

More information

CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS CHAPTER 4 Cellular Characteristics Cellular Characteristics 2 Domains, then Phyla 1 Domain, 4 kingdoms, then Phyla Prokaryotic Cells Sizes 0.5-2µm (average)

More information

Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Section 7-3 p.179-187

Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Section 7-3 p.179-187 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Section 7-3 p.179-187 Group work vs. Cell Parts? Plasma membrane Cell wall Cellular Boundaries Fairly rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane that provides additional

More information

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org Chapter 3 Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 3.1: Introduction to Cells Lesson 3.2: Cell

More information

Microscopy and Cytology

Microscopy and Cytology Microscopy and Cytology Item per class per bench 1. DI Water 6 bottles 1 bottle 2. Methylene Blue 6 bottles 1 bottle 3. Iodine 6 bottles 1 bottle 4. Slide boxes with letter e and thread slides 6 boxes

More information

Bell Ringer. What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? Do you know what kind of cell this is?

Bell Ringer. What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? Do you know what kind of cell this is? Bell Ringer Do you know what kind of cell this is? What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? WHAT CELL IS IT? In your groups, look at the picture of a cell you have been

More information

The Cell Membrane and Transport

The Cell Membrane and Transport The Cell Membrane and Transport Membrane Structure Fluid Mosaic Structure: The Fluid Part Phospholipids: main lipid in the cell membrane; in a bilayer Polar head = attracted to water - hydrophilic Non-polar

More information

Cells Composite. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Cells Composite. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Cells Composite Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Homeostasis is the regulation of body processes to maintain a relatively constant internal

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Open the TI-Nspire document Cell Structure and Function.tns. All living things are made of cells. Some organisms, like bacteria or yeast, have only one cell. Other organisms, like you, are multicellular,

More information

Biology. Biology. Slide 1 of 49. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Biology. Slide 1 of 49. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology Biology 1 of 49 2 of 49 Comparing the Cell to a Factory 1. Eukaryotic Cell Structures A.Organelles: Structures within a eukaryotic cell perform important cellular functions B. Cytoplasm: * Gel/liquid

More information

Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Name Class Date Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure (pages 174-181) Key Concept What are the functions of the major cell structures? Comparing a Cell to a Factory (page 174) 1. What is an organelle?

More information

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure 2 of 49 Eukaryotic Cell Structures Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic

More information

Biological cell membranes

Biological cell membranes Unit 14: Cell biology. 14 2 Biological cell membranes The cell surface membrane surrounds the cell and acts as a barrier between the cell s contents and the environment. The cell membrane has multiple

More information

Six major functions of membrane proteins: Transport Enzymatic activity

Six major functions of membrane proteins: Transport Enzymatic activity CH 7 Membranes Cellular Membranes Phospholipids are the most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane. Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules, containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The fluid mosaic

More information

Cells and Microscopes

Cells and Microscopes Cells and Microscopes Introduction...2 Living and non-living things...2 Types of cells...2 The microscope...3 Types of microscopes...3 Parts of the microscope...3 TASK 1: IDENTIFYING THE DIFFERENT PARTS

More information

1 Cell biology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised

1 Cell biology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 1 Cell biology Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 1 Cells are the building blocks of living things. They are derived from other cells by division, and they are the site of all the chemical

More information

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Biology Learning Centre Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Tips for most effective learning of this material: Memorize the names and structures over several days. This will help you retain what you

More information

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole Name: ate: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains N?. chromosome. gene. mitochondrion. vacuole 2. potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure below. Which

More information

The Tour of the Cell. Chapter 6

The Tour of the Cell. Chapter 6 The Tour of the Cell Chapter 6 The Fundamental Units of Life All living things composed of cells Cell structure correlated to cell function All cells descend from existing cells Microscopy Light microscope

More information

CELL ORGANELLES. Functions

CELL ORGANELLES. Functions CELL ORGANELLES Functions CELL WALL PLANT CELL ONLY The cell walls of plants provide strength and protection, keeping the cells from bursting or rupturing. They also protect against insects and parasites,

More information

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer. In membranes, phospholipids form a bilayer

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer. In membranes, phospholipids form a bilayer MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells Membranes provide structural order for metabolism Form most of the cell's organelles Compartmentalize chemical reactions

More information

7-3 Cell Boundaries. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries

7-3 Cell Boundaries. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Every living cell exists in a liquid environment. The cell membrane regulates movement of dissolved molecules from the liquid on one side of the membrane to the liquid

More information

AP Biology. The Cell Membrane

AP Biology. The Cell Membrane The Cell Membrane Phospholipids Phosphate head hydrophilic Fatty acid tails hydrophobic Arranged as a bilayer Phosphate attracted to water Fatty acid repelled by water Aaaah, one of those structure function

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Introduction to the cell Answer the following questions as you read modules 4.1 4.4: 1. A(n) light microscope uses a beam of

More information

Transport Across Cell Membranes

Transport Across Cell Membranes Transport Across Cell Membranes CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE A phospholipid bilayer makes up the main part of the cell membrane Each phospholipid molecule contains a charged polar head (H 2 O-loving) and non-polar,

More information

Chapter Plasma Membrane Structure and Function 1. The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. 2. Phospholipids have

Chapter Plasma Membrane Structure and Function 1. The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. 2. Phospholipids have Chapter 5 5.1 Plasma Membrane Structure and Function 1. The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. 2. Phospholipids have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions; nonpolar tails

More information

Chapter 3: Structure and Function of the Cell

Chapter 3: Structure and Function of the Cell I. Functions of the Cell A. List and describe the main functions of the cell: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. II. How We See Cells A. Light microscopes allow us to B. Electron microscopes are used to C. What type of electron

More information

Cell Unit Practice Test #1

Cell Unit Practice Test #1 ell Unit Practice Test #1 Name: ate: 1. Which organelle is primarily concerned with the conversion of potential energy of organic compounds into suitable form for immediate use by the cell?. mitochondria.

More information

Homeostasis & Cell Transport

Homeostasis & Cell Transport In order to maintain life, organisms must regulate the balance of materials inside and outside of the cell. This is accomplished by the transport of materials through the plasma membrane. Homeostasis &

More information

The Cell. Mader: Chapter 3. Introduction: Cells on the Move. 4.1 Microscopes reveal the world of the cell. Introduction: Cells on the Move

The Cell. Mader: Chapter 3. Introduction: Cells on the Move. 4.1 Microscopes reveal the world of the cell. Introduction: Cells on the Move The Cell Mader: Chapter 3 Introduction: Cells on the Move! Cells, the simplest collection of matter that can live, were first observed by Robert Hooke in 1665! Antoni van Leeuwenhoek later described cells

More information

7. A selectively permeable membrane only allows certain molecules to pass through.

7. A selectively permeable membrane only allows certain molecules to pass through. CHAPTER 2 GETTING IN & OUT OF CELLS PASSIVE TRANSPORT Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells. Some substances can cross the cell membrane

More information

A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The general design of membranes is known as the fluid mosaic model. Phospholipids form a continuous

More information

PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESSES

PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESSES BIOZONE Assignment #2 Cell Membrane Transport PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESSES 1. Describe two properties of an exchange surface that would facilitate rapid diffusion rates*: (a) thin membrane (b) porous membrane

More information

Principles of Modern Cell Theory. Cell Structure and Function. The Microscope: Viewing Cells. Relative Sizes in Biology. Chapter 4

Principles of Modern Cell Theory. Cell Structure and Function. The Microscope: Viewing Cells. Relative Sizes in Biology. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Principles of Modern Cell Theory Every living organism is made up of one or more cells. The smallest living organisms are single cells. Cells are the functional units

More information

Nucleus Cell Control Center

Nucleus Cell Control Center Nucleus Cell Control Center Contains the directions to make proteins (DNA) Two main jobs is to protect the DNA and make sure that DNA is always available for use. Found in all cells 1 Nucleolus Located

More information

Section 7 2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Section 7 2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Section 7 2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure (pages 174 181) Key Concept What are the functions of the major cell structures? Comparing a Cell to a Factory (page 174) 1. What is an organelle? It is a structure

More information

BR #5. What part of the cell controls whether or not a virus or nutrient enters? a) Mitochondria b) Nucleus c) Plasma membrane d) Chloroplast

BR #5. What part of the cell controls whether or not a virus or nutrient enters? a) Mitochondria b) Nucleus c) Plasma membrane d) Chloroplast BR #5 What part of the cell controls whether or not a virus or nutrient enters? a) Mitochondria b) Nucleus c) Plasma membrane d) Chloroplast Schedule: Notes: Membrane physiology Microscope Lab Essentials

More information

Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane

Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane 2007-2008 Phospholipids Phosphate head hydrophilic Fatty acid tails hydrophobic Arranged as a bilayer Phosphate attracted to water Fatty acid repelled by water Aaaah, one of those

More information

Biology Cell Biology: Cell Structure I

Biology Cell Biology: Cell Structure I a place of mind F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy Biology Cell Biology: Cell Structure I Science and Mathematics Education Research Group Supported by UBC Teaching

More information

Homeostasis and Membrane Transport. Unit 2 Homeostasis

Homeostasis and Membrane Transport. Unit 2 Homeostasis Homeostasis and Membrane Transport Unit 2 Homeostasis What determines whether a substance can pass through a membrane or not? Chemical properties of the molecule attempting to cross the membrane Movement

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Division Ave High School AP Biology

Division Ave High School AP Biology The Cell Membrane https://youtu.be/y31dlj6ugge Journal Diagrams Shark book pg. 82 Wolves book pg. 88-89 Membrane Proteins Copy table Cell Membrane Proteins Fluid Mosaic Model Cell Membrane Phospholipids

More information