What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material"

Transcription

1 Laser Ablation Fundamentals & Applications Samuel S. Mao Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Advanced Energy Technology Department March 1, 25

2 Laser Ablation What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material

3 laser ablation Is it important? Film deposition * oxide/superconductor films * nanocrystals/nanotubes substrate material plume target Materials characterization * semiconductor doping profiling * solid state chemical analysis plasma lens mass spectrometer Micro structuring * direct wave guide writing * 3D micro fabrication target target microstructure optical spectrometer transparent solid

4 laser ablation Is it important? Film deposition * oxide/superconductor films * nanocrystals/nanotubes Materials characterization * semiconductor doping profiling * solid state chemical analysis 1 µm Micro structuring * direct wave guide writing * 3D micro fabrication

5 laser ablation Do we really understand? laser beam target plasma Laser ablation is still largely unexplored at the fundamental level. J. C. Miller & R. F. Haglund, Laser Ablation and Desorption (Academic, New York, 1998)

6 What is happening? Laser Ablation laser pulse target femtosecond picosecond nanosecond microsecond 1-15 s 1-12 s 1-9 s 1-6 s

7 Experiments - ultrafast imaging Pump-probe technique ablation laser beam pump beam probe beam delay time CCD? target imaging laser beam

8 1 fs = 1 15 s Femtosecond Time Scale laser pulse Ultrafast imaging - time dependent energy transfer air glass 1 µm electronic excitation e-h plasma C V self-focusing 1 fs,8 nm E = 3 µj

9 Femtosecond Time Scale Electron number density n e time/space dependence z laser pulse electron number density (1 19 cm -3 ) n e ~ 1 19 cm -3 z (µm) fs 333 fs 667 fs 1 fs 1333 fs 1667 fs 2 fs Transmittance (probe beam) I I Absorption coefficient α = ω τ nc ω 2 p ω τ Plasma frequency 2 nee m ε d p = = e αd e

10 Femtosecond Time Scale Peak electron number density n e - time dependence electron number density (1 19 cm -3 ) 5 fs fs fs 5 1 fs fs fs 5 2 fs z (µm) N e, max (cm -3 ) 6x1 19 5x1 19 4x1 19 3x1 19 2x1 19 1x time (fs) no breakdown flattened peak electron number density

11 Femtosecond Time Scale laser pulse Fundamental processes Nonlinear optics Self-focusing - intensity dependence of refractive index positive refractive index change Nonlinear absorption Electronic excitation - interband absorption z C negative refractive index change V suppress self-focusing

12 Femtosecond Time Scale Propagation of electronic excitation in glass 1 fs,8 nm E = 3 µj z (µm) µj 12 µj 6 µj 3 µj 12 µj v = 1.8x1 8 m/s n = t (fs) [Appl. Phys. A 79, (24)]

13 What is happening? Laser Ablation laser pulse target femtosecond picosecond nanosecond microsecond

14 1ps= 1 12 s Picosecond Time Scale Picosecond imaging ablation laser pulse t = 5 ps t = 5 ps 5 µm (air) 5 µm target Cu (laser pulse: 35 ps, fluence: 6 J/cm 2 ) (laser pulse: 35 ps, fluence: 9 J/cm 2 )

15 Picosecond Time Scale Threshold behavior regime-1 plasma onset regime µm ablation depth (µm) J/cm 2 85 J/cm 2 11 J/cm 2 (laser pulse length 35 ps; pictures taken at 2 ps) laser fluence (J/cm 2 ) Threshold for picosecond plasma formation same as the threshold for ablation efficiency reduction: ~ 85 J/cm 2 (laser fluence) ~ 1 12 W/cm 2 (power density) (threshold for direct laser-induced air breakdown: ~ 1 13 W/cm 2 )

16 Ultrafast interferometry Picosecond Time Scale t = 15 ps interference pattern z 5 µm target r

17 Electron number density Picosecond Time Scale 1.2x1 2 1.x1 2 z t = 15 ps N e (cm -3 ) air density 8.x x x x Z (µm) A large electron number density! (close to target surface)

18 Longitudinal (z) expansion Picosecond Time Scale longitudinal plasma extent vs. time 5 4 z 5 µm z (µm) (laser energy: 1 mj) t (ps) longitudinal expansion is suppressed (t > 5 ps)!

19 Picosecond Time Scale Lateral (r) expansion (t > 5 ps: expansion only in lateral direction) lateral plasma radius vs. time 5 4 r (µm) r (laser energy: 1 mj) t (ps) lateral expansion follows a power law!

20 Picosecond Time Scale Energy deposition to picosecond plasma r (µm) 1 1 t 1/2 power law r similarity relation (2D blast wave - line energy source) E ρ o 2 Distribution of laser energy (1%): 1 ~ 5% absorbed by the picosecond micro-plasma 5 µm 4 J/cm 2 time (ps) t 1/2 1. mj 7.5 mj 85 J/cm 2 11 J/cm 2 1/ 4 1/ 2 ~ 5% reaching target surface plasma onset t E: energy deposition density (laser axis) ρ : ambient gas (air) density ablation depth (µm) reduced efficiency laser fluence (J/cm 2 )

21 Picosecond Time Scale Theoretical model (laser-solid-gas interaction) laser beam electron ion (gas) atom (gas) gas (1atm) photon Cu atom Cu before after laser irradiation electron laser heating of target (metal) electron heating - absorption of laser energy lattice heating - electron-phonon collisions plasma development above target surface electron emission (seed) impact ionization of gas

22 What is happening? Laser Ablation laser pulse target femtosecond picosecond nanosecond microsecond

23 1 ns = 1 9 s Nanosecond Time Scale Plasma evolution picosecond to nanosecond time dependence (35 ps, 7 mj) laser energy dependence (35 ps, 2 ns)

24 Plasma development Nanosecond Time Scale plasma advancement: ~ 1 6 cm/s ~ 1 µm every 1 ns (1 ps) laser pulse shock wave plasma vapor target solid

25 Nanosecond Time Scale Plasma shielding nanosecond laser Theory without plasma 1 Experiment 2 GW/cm 2 3 GW/cm 2 ablation depth (µm) 1.1 solid t (ns) 1 GW/cm 2 3 ns, 164 nm laser ablation of Si (single pulse) 1 1 laser fluence (J/cm 2 ) 25 ns, 248 nm laser ablation of Cu (single pulse, in air, 1 µm spot diameter)

26 What is happening? Laser Ablation laser pulse target femtosecond picosecond nanosecond microsecond

27 1 µs = 1 6 s Microsecond Time Scale ) Plume evolution z below threshold 1 ns 64 ns 16 ns 76 ns 1.6 µs 4.9 µs 1 µm (3 ns, 1.8x11 W/cm2) z above threshold 5 ns 7 ns 2 ns 86 ns 1.3 µs 4.2 µs 1 µm (3 ns, 2.1x11 W/cm2) University of California at Berkeley Q

28 Threshold behavior Microsecond Time Scale ablation depth (µm) GW/cm µs ablation depth (µm) ablation depth (µm) GW/cm µs laser intensity (W/cm 2 )

29 Theoretical model Microsecond Time Scale superheated liquid layer ~ 1 ns solid ~ 1 ns solid ~ 1 µs solid Normal vaporization (Hertz-Knudsen equations) x t = βp m (2πmk ρ T) L exp[ k m 1 ( T 1/ 2 ev b B x= B b T ablation below threshold: normal evaporation Explosive boiling (heat diffusion T max ~ T c ) T T ρc = ( k ) + αi laser exp( αx) t x x 1 )] ablation above threshold: normal evaporation and explosive boiling ablation depth (µm) experiment theory laser intensity (W/cm 2 )

30 What is happening? Laser Ablation laser pulse target femtosecond picosecond nanosecond microsecond

31 Fundamental processes Laser Ablation ps ns µs fs laser µs boiling droplets electronic plasma plasma vapor electronic liquid excitation heated zone ns ps radiation ionization (shock wave) vaporization convection melting ionization (photon) conduction solid fs absorption/excitation

32 Laser Ablation Applications 1. ns laser, 266 nm fs laser, 266 nm Zn/Cu ratio time (s) micro-analysis nano-material

33 Applications of Ultrafast Laser Ablation Ultrafast laser ablation (τ pulse < t thermal ) FEL capability! Non-thermal ablation regime ion fs laser - + E electron target Reduced dependence on thermal properties Reduced larger cluster particles generation

34 Applications of Ultrafast Laser Ablation Micro Analysis The problem of nanosecond laser ablation MS signal: Zn/Cu ratio 1. ns laser, 266 nm fs laser, 266 nm.5 ns fs time(s) Mass Spectrometry - Laser ablation of brass (CuZn alloy)

35 Micro-Analysis Application New magnetic film material (data storage applications) laser 1 1 depth profile (bulk material) 1 9 sputtering target depth profiling laser element counts (a.u.) Fe Cu time (s) surface profiling (film material) deposited film surface profiling Cu/Fe ratio time (s) 15

36 Applications of Ultrafast Laser Ablation Nano Material The problem of nanosecond laser ablation 5 µm 5 µm 1 µm Nanowires with large particles

37 Nano-Material Application Pulsed laser deposition ZnO nanowire growth gas fabrication chamber target Setup ultrafast laser substrate temperature control gas

38 Nano-Material Application Nanowire nanolaser Nanolaser spectra excitation source 266 nm (Nd:YAG) UV lasing (room temperature) intensity (a.u.) above threshold below threshold ZnO nanowire ZnO nanowire: natural laser cavity ~ 1 nm sapphire substrate emission intensity (a.u.) wavelength (nm) spontaneous lasing excitation energy (mj) [Science 292 (21) 1897]

39 Acknowledgements U. S. Department of Energy Yanfeng Zhang Quanming Lu Peidong Yang Richard Russo Xianglei Mao

PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS

PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS R. Penttilä 1, H. Pantsar 1, P. Laakso 1 1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta, Finland Abstract A picosecond laser has been

More information

Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond

Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond Stefan Nolte Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Albert-Einstein-Str.

More information

Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha

Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha CSIR National Laser Centre, Femtosecond Science group SAIP 29 Outline of talk Motivation of this

More information

Femtosecond Laser Micromachining

Femtosecond Laser Micromachining Femtosecond Laser Micromachining 02/03/2010 Spring 2010 MSE503 Seminar Deepak Rajput Center for Laser Applications University of Tennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388-9700 Email: drajput@utsi.edu

More information

Laser-induced modification of metal nanoparticles formed by laser ablation technique in liquids

Laser-induced modification of metal nanoparticles formed by laser ablation technique in liquids Applied Surface Science 247 (2005) 418 422 www.elsevier.com/locate/apsusc Laser-induced modification of metal nanoparticles formed by laser ablation technique in liquids N.V. Tarasenko *, A.V. Butsen,

More information

High Power Laser Assemblies

High Power Laser Assemblies Fiberguide s High Power Assemblies use our High Power SMA and High Power Industrial FD-80 connectors to provide a fiber optic link between the laser source and the target. These are ideal for laser cutting,

More information

1156 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 35, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999

1156 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 35, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 1156 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 35, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 Laser-Induced Plasma Formation in Water at Nanosecond to Femtosecond Time Scales: Calculation of Thresholds, Absorption Coefficients,

More information

Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials

Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials PhD theses Gabriella Kecskeméti Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics University of Szeged Supervisor: Dr. Béla Hopp senior research fellow Department

More information

Micro machining of Metals, Ceramics, Silicon and Polymers Using Nanosecond Lasers

Micro machining of Metals, Ceramics, Silicon and Polymers Using Nanosecond Lasers Micro machining of Metals, Ceramics, Silicon and Polymers Using Nanosecond Lasers Rajani Pragada 1, M. Vijay Kumar 2, Prasanna Gangaraju 3 1 1V/IV B.Tech, 2 Asst. Prof, Mechanical engineering, KL University

More information

Atomistic Modeling of Short Pulse Laser Ablation of Metals: Connections between Melting, Spallation, and Phase Explosion

Atomistic Modeling of Short Pulse Laser Ablation of Metals: Connections between Melting, Spallation, and Phase Explosion 11892 J. Phys. Chem. C 2009, 113, 11892 11906 Atomistic Modeling of Short Pulse Laser Ablation of Metals: Connections between Melting, Spallation, and Phase Explosion Leonid V. Zhigilei,* Zhibin Lin, and

More information

Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials

Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials P.W. French 1, J. Clowes 2, W. Perrie 4, M. Sharp 1, J.Cheng 3, D. Homes 1, L. Mellor 3, K.G. Watkins 3 1 Lairdside, Cambeltown Rd,

More information

August-2013 Ville Kekkonen Development Manager

August-2013 Ville Kekkonen Development Manager August-2013 Ville Kekkonen Development Manager Picodeon Ltd Oy Company established 2005 Privately owned Finnish company, main owner ENSO Ventures Located in Ii at Micropolis Technology Center, with over

More information

Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing

Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing Faculty: Prof. Xianfan Xu Email: xxu@ecn.purdue.edu Phone: (765) 494-5639 http://widget.ecn.purdue.edu/~xxu Research Areas: Development

More information

Silver / Polystyrene Coated Hollow Glass Waveguides for the Transmission of Visible and Infrared Radiation

Silver / Polystyrene Coated Hollow Glass Waveguides for the Transmission of Visible and Infrared Radiation Silver / Polystyrene Coated Hollow Glass Waveguides for the Transmission of Visible and Infrared Radiation Carlos M. Bledt a and James A. Harrington a a Dept. of Material Science & Engineering Rutgers,

More information

1.5 Light absorption by solids

1.5 Light absorption by solids 1.5 Light absorption by solids Bloch-Brilloin model L e + + + + + allowed energy bands band gaps p x In a unidimensional approximation, electrons in a solid experience a periodic potential due to the positively

More information

Vacuum Evaporation Recap

Vacuum Evaporation Recap Sputtering Vacuum Evaporation Recap Use high temperatures at high vacuum to evaporate (eject) atoms or molecules off a material surface. Use ballistic flow to transport them to a substrate and deposit.

More information

Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water

Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water Chris B. Schaffer, Nozomi Nishimura, and Eric Mazur * Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02138

More information

Luminescence quantum efficiency and local optical density of states in thin film ruby made by ion implantation

Luminescence quantum efficiency and local optical density of states in thin film ruby made by ion implantation 6 Luminescence quantum efficiency and local optical density of states in thin film ruby made by ion implantation Single crystal, (0001) oriented, sapphire samples were implanted with 150 kev Cr ions at

More information

Ultrashort Pulse Lasers. Rofin Baasel Benelux B.V. Hans Matser

Ultrashort Pulse Lasers. Rofin Baasel Benelux B.V. Hans Matser Ultrashort Pulse Lasers Rofin Baasel Benelux B.V. Hans Matser Presentation Agenda Ultrashort Pulse Laser Basics When to use Ultrashort Pulse Lasers? Femtosecond or Picosecond? Which Wavelength is best

More information

Ti:Sapphire Lasers. Tyler Bowman. April 23, 2015

Ti:Sapphire Lasers. Tyler Bowman. April 23, 2015 Ti:Sapphire Lasers Tyler Bowman April 23, 2015 Introduction Ti:Sapphire lasers are a solid state laser group based on using titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:Al 2O 3) plates as a gain medium. These lasers are

More information

Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering

Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering Satisloh Italy S.r.l. Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering Gianni Monaco, PhD R&D project manager, Satisloh Italy 04.04.2016 V1 The aim of this document is to provide basic technical information

More information

Modeling of pulsed Laser Thermal Annealing for junction formation optimization and process control R. Negru, K. Huet, P. Ceccato, B.

Modeling of pulsed Laser Thermal Annealing for junction formation optimization and process control R. Negru, K. Huet, P. Ceccato, B. Modeling of pulsed Laser Thermal Annealing for junction formation optimization and process control R. Negru, K. Huet, P. Ceccato, B. Godard Excico, 14 rue Alexandre, 92230 Gennevilliers, France Abstract

More information

High Throughput Structuring: Basics, Limitations and Needs

High Throughput Structuring: Basics, Limitations and Needs High Throughput Structuring: Basics, Limitations and Needs B. Neuenschwander Bern University of Applied Sciences Engineering and Information Technology Laser Surface Engineering 1 Outline Introduction

More information

A8 Thermal properties of materials

A8 Thermal properties of materials A8 Thermal properties of materials Thermal properties the melting temperature, T m, and the glass temperature (temperatura de transição vítrea), T g, relate directly to the strength of the bonds in the

More information

The light emitted from a laser is monochromatic, directional, and coherent. These three properties of laser light are what can make it more hazardous

The light emitted from a laser is monochromatic, directional, and coherent. These three properties of laser light are what can make it more hazardous 1 The light emitted from a laser is monochromatic, directional, and coherent. These three properties of laser light are what can make it more hazardous than ordinary light. Laser light can deposit a lot

More information

Semiconductor lasers and LEDs read Agrawal pp

Semiconductor lasers and LEDs read Agrawal pp Semiconductor lasers and LEDs read Agrawal pp. 78-116 Objectives, understand the following: Stimulated emission, spontaneous emission, and absorption in semiconductors Design of an LED and laser diode:

More information

High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells.

High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells. White Paper High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells. The combination of high peak power and short wavelength of the latest industrial grade Talisker laser enables higher efficiency

More information

Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution

Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution PhD candidate: Ferrante Carino Advisor:Tullio Scopigno Università di Roma ƒla Sapienza 22 February 2012 1 Pump-probe experiments: generalities

More information

Lecture #33. Integrated Circuit Fabrication

Lecture #33. Integrated Circuit Fabrication Lecture #33 OUTLINE IC Fabrication Technology Doping Oxidation Thin-film deposition Lithography Etch Reading (Rabaey et al.) Chapter 2.1-2.2 Lecture 33, Slide 1 Integrated Circuit Fabrication Goal: Mass

More information

Neodymium doped Yttrium Orthavanadate (Nd: YVO 4 ) Crystal

Neodymium doped Yttrium Orthavanadate (Nd: YVO 4 ) Crystal Neodymium doped Yttrium Orthavanadate (Nd: YVO 4 ) Crystal Laser crystals are used to generate laser radiation. The commonly used laser crystals include Nd: YAG, Nd: YVO4 and Nd: YLF for near IR lasers,

More information

Laser processing of materials. Laser technological processes

Laser processing of materials. Laser technological processes Laser processing of materials Laser technological processes Prof. Dr. Frank Mücklich Dr. Andrés Lasagni Lehrstuhl für Funktionswerkstoffe Sommersemester 2007 Contents: Laser technological processes 1.

More information

Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors

Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors Materials and their properties Energy bands and electronic structure Charge transport and conductivity Boundaries: the p-n junction Charge collection

More information

Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation

Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation Craig A. Zuhlke, Dennis R. Alexander*, John C. Bruce III, Natale J. Ianno, Chad A. Kamler, and Weiqing Yang Department

More information

2. Nanoparticles. Introduction to Nanoscience, 2005 1

2. Nanoparticles. Introduction to Nanoscience, 2005 1 2. Nanoparticles Nanoparticles are the simplest form of structures with sizes in the nm range. In principle any collection of atoms bonded together with a structural radius of < 100 nm can be considered

More information

A version of this article was published in Optics & Photonics News, June 2006.

A version of this article was published in Optics & Photonics News, June 2006. Coating Technologies for High-Damage-Threshold Optics Ove Lyngnes, Nick Traggis, Kathy Li Dessau and Chris Myatt Precision Photonics Corporation, 3180 Sterling Circle, Boulder, CO 80301 Ph: 303-444-9948

More information

NANOFLAM. Projet ANR Blanc 2011 BS0401001. Aide allouée: 337 000, durée 36+8 mois (fin : Mai 2015) Laboratoire H. Curien

NANOFLAM. Projet ANR Blanc 2011 BS0401001. Aide allouée: 337 000, durée 36+8 mois (fin : Mai 2015) Laboratoire H. Curien Laboratoire H. Curien Centre de Physique Théorique F. Courvoisier R. Stoian & T. Itina A. Couairon NANOFLAM Projet ANR Blanc 2011 BS0401001 Contrôle de la filamentation et de la génération de plasma avec

More information

Ultrafast Vibrational Energy Flow in Molecules

Ultrafast Vibrational Energy Flow in Molecules Ultrafast Vibrational Energy Flow in Molecules A brief history of The Pate Lab and the FEL at JLAB Pam Crum Pate Lab University of Virginia Vibrational Dynamics???? Understanding Dynamics Across a Wide

More information

Ultraviolet laser removal of small metallic particles from silicon wafers

Ultraviolet laser removal of small metallic particles from silicon wafers Optics and Lasers in Engineering 38 (2002) 405 415 Ultraviolet laser removal of small metallic particles from silicon wafers C. Curran a, *, J.M. Lee b, K.G. Watkins a a Laser Group, Department of Engineering,

More information

Rationalize the working of gas lasers, solid state lasers, dye lasers and semiconductors lasers.

Rationalize the working of gas lasers, solid state lasers, dye lasers and semiconductors lasers. Module 6 : Reaction Kinetics and Dynamics Lecture 31 : Lasers in Chemistry Objectives After studying this lecture you will be able to do the following Outline the principles of laser action. Rationalize

More information

Ultralow Threshold On Chip Toroidal Microcavity Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Lasers

Ultralow Threshold On Chip Toroidal Microcavity Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Lasers Ultralow Threshold On Chip Toroidal Microcavity Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Lasers Bumki Min, Sungjee Kim, Koichi Okamoto, Lan Yang, Axel Scherer, Harry Atwater, and Kerry Vahala California Institute of Technology

More information

Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606

Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 Report on the Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 This report presents the results of phenol diffusivity, specific heat and calculated thermal

More information

Experimental Studies of Ion interactions in Plasmas: collisional and collisionless ion energy transfer

Experimental Studies of Ion interactions in Plasmas: collisional and collisionless ion energy transfer Experimental Studies of Ion interactions in Plasmas: collisional and collisionless ion energy transfer S. N. Chen S. Atzeni, C. Deutsch. M. Gauthier, J. Fuchs What do we know about ion energy transfer

More information

Optical Hyperdoping: Transforming Semiconductor Band Structure for Solar Energy Harvesting

Optical Hyperdoping: Transforming Semiconductor Band Structure for Solar Energy Harvesting Optical Hyperdoping: Transforming Semiconductor Band Structure for Solar Energy Harvesting 3G Solar Technologies Multidisciplinary Workshop MRS Spring Meeting San Francisco, CA, 5 April 2010 Michael P.

More information

Aspects of Plasma Processing: A brief overview of plasma science in industry

Aspects of Plasma Processing: A brief overview of plasma science in industry Aspects of Plasma Processing: A brief overview of plasma science in industry Outline 1) Why study plasma processing? 2) Diagnostic tools used to study processes 3) Overview of some plasma processes 4)

More information

Lecture 12. Physical Vapor Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering Reading: Chapter 12. ECE 6450 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Lecture 12. Physical Vapor Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering Reading: Chapter 12. ECE 6450 - Dr. Alan Doolittle Lecture 12 Physical Vapor Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering Reading: Chapter 12 Evaporation and Sputtering (Metalization) Evaporation For all devices, there is a need to go from semiconductor to metal.

More information

Laser ablation fundamentals and application

Laser ablation fundamentals and application Laser ablation fundamentals and application Laserová ablace principy a použití Michal Lucki, Stanislav Kraus, Richard Zelený Czech Technical University in Prague, FEE, Department of Telecommunication Engineering

More information

Short overview of TEUFEL-project

Short overview of TEUFEL-project Short overview of TEUFEL-project ELAN-meeting may 2004 Frascati (I) Contents Overview of TEUFEL project at Twente Photo cathode research Recent experience Outlook Overview FEL Drive laser Photo cathode

More information

COMSOL Assisted Simulation of Laser Engraving

COMSOL Assisted Simulation of Laser Engraving Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference 010 Boston COMSOL Assisted Simulation of Laser Engraving Hamidreza Karbasi Conestoga College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning School of

More information

ENERGY METEOROLOGY. UNIT 1: Basics of Radiation. Energy transfer through radiation. Concept of blackbody radiation, Kirchhoff s law

ENERGY METEOROLOGY. UNIT 1: Basics of Radiation. Energy transfer through radiation. Concept of blackbody radiation, Kirchhoff s law UNIT 1: Basics of Radiation Energy transfer through radiation Concept of blackbody radiation, Kirchhoff s law Radiation laws of Planck, Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien Radiation quantities Examples Radiative

More information

Analysis, simulation, and experimental studies of YAG and CO 2 laserproduced plasma for EUV lithography sources

Analysis, simulation, and experimental studies of YAG and CO 2 laserproduced plasma for EUV lithography sources Analysis, simulation, and experimental studies of YAG and CO 2 laserproduced plasma for EUV lithography sources A. Hassanein, V. Sizyuk, S.S. Harilal, and T. Sizyuk School of Nuclear Engineering and Center

More information

Coating Technology in the Glass Industry

Coating Technology in the Glass Industry Coating Technology in the Glass Industry - On-line coating - Off-line coating Outline Coating applications -Low E - Solar control coating - Self cleaning coatings Coating Technology A wide variety of coating

More information

Deposition of Magnesium Silicide Nanoparticles by the Combination of Vacuum Evaporation and Hydrogen Plasma Treatment

Deposition of Magnesium Silicide Nanoparticles by the Combination of Vacuum Evaporation and Hydrogen Plasma Treatment Proc. Int. Conf. and Summer School on Advanced Silicide Technology 2014 JJAP Conf. Proc. 3 (2015) 011301 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics Deposition of Magnesium Silicide Nanoparticles by the

More information

ULTRAFAST LASERS: Free electron lasers thrive from synergy with ultrafast laser systems

ULTRAFAST LASERS: Free electron lasers thrive from synergy with ultrafast laser systems Page 1 of 6 ULTRAFAST LASERS: Free electron lasers thrive from synergy with ultrafast laser systems Free electron lasers support unique time-resolved experiments over a wide range of x-ray wavelengths,

More information

Short Pulsed & Ultrafast Laser Applications for Enhanced Fuel Economy

Short Pulsed & Ultrafast Laser Applications for Enhanced Fuel Economy Short Pulsed & Ultrafast Laser Applications for Enhanced Fuel Economy Lasers in Automotive Technical Symposium September 19, 2013 Sascha Weiler TRUMPF Inc., Farmington CT The Power of Choice for Laser

More information

- thus, the total number of atoms per second that absorb a photon is

- thus, the total number of atoms per second that absorb a photon is Stimulated Emission of Radiation - stimulated emission is referring to the emission of radiation (a photon) from one quantum system at its transition frequency induced by the presence of other photons

More information

MIS capacitor SiO2 Si3N4

MIS capacitor SiO2 Si3N4 MIS capacitor Elementary device oxide well matched to silicon transparent to wide range excellent insulator nitride frequently used in addition larger SiO 2 Si 3 N 4 Density g.cm -3 2.2 3.1 Refractive

More information

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) S. 1

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) S. 1 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) PVD@Rattanachan S. 1 PVD proceses are atomistic where material vaporized from a solid or liquid source is transported as a vapor through a vacuum or low-pressure gaseous

More information

Taper-free laser cutting of micro-mechanical components

Taper-free laser cutting of micro-mechanical components Trumpf Maschinen AG Taper-free laser cutting of micromechanical components CTI Micro and Nano Event Janko AUERSWALD Head of Application Center Basel, June 30, 2016 Outline 1) Motivation 2) Taper angle

More information

Lecture 6 PVD (Physical vapor deposition): Evaporation and Sputtering

Lecture 6 PVD (Physical vapor deposition): Evaporation and Sputtering F. G. Tseng Lec6, Fall/2001, p1 Lecture 6 PVD (Physical vapor deposition): Evaporation and Sputtering Vacuum evaporation 1. Fundamental of Evaporation: The material to be evaporated is heated in an evacuated

More information

3.003 Lab 4 Simulation of Solar Cells

3.003 Lab 4 Simulation of Solar Cells Mar. 9, 2010 Due Mar. 29, 2010 3.003 Lab 4 Simulation of Solar Cells Objective: To design a silicon solar cell by simulation. The design parameters to be varied in this lab are doping levels of the substrate

More information

Conductivity of silicon can be changed several orders of magnitude by introducing impurity atoms in silicon crystal lattice.

Conductivity of silicon can be changed several orders of magnitude by introducing impurity atoms in silicon crystal lattice. CMOS Processing Technology Silicon: a semiconductor with resistance between that of conductor and an insulator. Conductivity of silicon can be changed several orders of magnitude by introducing impurity

More information

Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser

Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser Yuri Yashkir a*, Qiang Liu a a Institute for Optical Sciences, 60 St. George Street,

More information

University of Pécs in ELI

University of Pécs in ELI Dept. of Experimental Physics Institute of Physics 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 6. http://physics.ttk.pte.hu University of Pécs in ELI József Fülöp fulop@fizika.ttk.pte.hu Budapest, April 16, 2008 Outline ELI

More information

HEAT TRANSFER IN FEMTOSECOND LASER PROCESSING OF METAL

HEAT TRANSFER IN FEMTOSECOND LASER PROCESSING OF METAL Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 44: 219 232, 2003 Copyright # Taylor & Francis Inc. ISSN: 1040-7782 print=1521-0634 online DOI: 10.1080/10407780390210224 HEAT TRANSFER IN FEMTOSECOND LASER PROCESSING

More information

- in a typical metal each atom contributes one electron to the delocalized electron gas describing the conduction electrons

- in a typical metal each atom contributes one electron to the delocalized electron gas describing the conduction electrons Free Electrons in a Metal - in a typical metal each atom contributes one electron to the delocalized electron gas describing the conduction electrons - if these electrons would behave like an ideal gas

More information

Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement

Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement Microsyst Technol (2009) 15:1045 1049 DOI 10.1007/s00542-009-0880-8 TECHNICAL PAPER Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement Yukun Han Æ Cheng-Hsiang Lin Æ Hai Xiao Æ Hai-Lung

More information

Types of Epitaxy. Homoepitaxy. Heteroepitaxy

Types of Epitaxy. Homoepitaxy. Heteroepitaxy Epitaxy Epitaxial Growth Epitaxy means the growth of a single crystal film on top of a crystalline substrate. For most thin film applications (hard and soft coatings, optical coatings, protective coatings)

More information

Time- and space-resolved dynamics of melting, ablation, and solidification phenomena induced by femtosecond laser pulses in germanium

Time- and space-resolved dynamics of melting, ablation, and solidification phenomena induced by femtosecond laser pulses in germanium Time- and space-resolved dynamics of melting, ablation, and solidification phenomena induced by femtosecond laser pulses in germanium Jörn Bonse,* Guillaume Bachelier, Jan Siegel, and Javier Solis Laser

More information

Solid Sample Analysis by ICP- Spectrometry with Femtosecond Laser Ablation and Online Flow Digestion

Solid Sample Analysis by ICP- Spectrometry with Femtosecond Laser Ablation and Online Flow Digestion Solid Sample Analysis by ICP- Spectrometry with Femtosecond Laser Ablation and Online Flow Digestion Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades des Fachbereichs Physik der Universität Dortmund vorgelegt

More information

Blue Lasers. Photonics and Optical Communications Zubin Bharucha

Blue Lasers. Photonics and Optical Communications Zubin Bharucha Blue Lasers Photonics and Optical Communications Zubin Advantages of blue lasers and Blue (GaN) LEDs are around 100 times brighter than conventional LEDs More efficient (energy-wise) than light bulbs Longer

More information

Silicon, the test mass substrate of tomorrow? Jerome Degallaix The Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy Beijing - 2015

Silicon, the test mass substrate of tomorrow? Jerome Degallaix The Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy Beijing - 2015 Silicon, the test mass substrate of tomorrow? Jerome Degallaix The Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy Beijing - 2015 Program of the talk... What we have now What we know about silicon What

More information

Why Using Laser for Dust Removal from Tokamaks

Why Using Laser for Dust Removal from Tokamaks 1 FTP/P1-25 Why Using Laser for Dust Removal from Tokamaks Ph. Delaporte 1), A. Vatry 1), 2), D. Grojo 1), M. Sentis 1), C. Grisolia 2) 1) Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procédés Photoniques, campus de

More information

Yang-Yuan Chen Low temperature and nanomaterial labatory Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica

Yang-Yuan Chen Low temperature and nanomaterial labatory Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica Yang-Yuan Chen Low temperature and nanomaterial labatory Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica E-mail : Cheny2@phys.sinica.edu.tw http://www.phys.sinica.edu.tw/%7elowtemp/ Introduction: 1. Metal Nanoclusters

More information

High power picosecond lasers are ready for production

High power picosecond lasers are ready for production High power picosecond lasers are ready for production Dr. Sascha Weiler TRUMPF Laser GmbH + Co. KG 78713 Schramberg High power picosecond lasers Sascha Weiler Picosecond Lasers: fs Quality with ns Speed

More information

Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing

Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing IPG Photonics Microsystems Division 220 Hackett Hill Road, Manchester NH, 03102USA E-mail: jbickley@ipgphotonics.com There is increased interest

More information

OMEGA EP OPAL: A Path to a 75-PW Laser System

OMEGA EP OPAL: A Path to a 75-PW Laser System OMEGA EP OPAL: A Path to a 75-PW Laser System Ultra-broadband front end (NOPA1 to 4) 0.25 J, 2.5 ns, 160 nm OMEGA EP Beamline 4 Beamline 3 6.3 kj 2.5 ns 6.3 kj 2.5 ns Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier

More information

PUMPED Nd:YAG LASER. Last Revision: August 21, 2007

PUMPED Nd:YAG LASER. Last Revision: August 21, 2007 PUMPED Nd:YAG LASER Last Revision: August 21, 2007 QUESTION TO BE INVESTIGATED: How can an efficient atomic transition laser be constructed and characterized? INTRODUCTION: This lab exercise will allow

More information

Lecture 2: Semiconductors: Introduction

Lecture 2: Semiconductors: Introduction Lecture 2: Semiconductors: Introduction Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Band formation in semiconductors 2 3 Classification of semiconductors 5 4 Electron effective mass 10 1 Introduction Metals have electrical

More information

Robert G. Hunsperger. Integrated Optics. Theory and Technology. Fourth Edition. With 195 Figures and 17 Tables. Springer

Robert G. Hunsperger. Integrated Optics. Theory and Technology. Fourth Edition. With 195 Figures and 17 Tables. Springer Robert G. Hunsperger Integrated Optics Theory and Technology Fourth Edition With 195 Figures and 17 Tables Springer Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Advantages of Integrated Optics 2 1.1.1 Comparison of

More information

Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules

Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules Chris B. Schaffer, André Brodeur, Nozomi Nishimura, and Eric Mazur * Harvard University, Department of Physics and

More information

the laser beam [CHR02], [KRD05]. Formation mechanisms of laser-generated ripples and the underlying microscopic processes are still discussed.

the laser beam [CHR02], [KRD05]. Formation mechanisms of laser-generated ripples and the underlying microscopic processes are still discussed. Introduction Laser-induced periodic surface structures were detected in early experiments on laser application [Bir65] and have been studied experimentally ever since. The first widely accepted theoretical

More information

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy - An introduction

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy - An introduction 1 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy - An introduction Spyros Diplas MENA3100 SINTEF Materials & Chemistry, Department of Materials Physics & Centre of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Department of

More information

Abigail Pillitteri University of Florida REU participant, summer 2007 Under supervision of Dr. Ivan Kravchenko

Abigail Pillitteri University of Florida REU participant, summer 2007 Under supervision of Dr. Ivan Kravchenko Optical properties of Si x N y, SiO x, and SiO x N y thin films deposited by PECVD and measured by scanning electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and spectroscopy Abigail Pillitteri University of Florida

More information

Time resolved photoluminescence studies of blue light-emitting diodes (LED)

Time resolved photoluminescence studies of blue light-emitting diodes (LED) APPLICATION NOTE Time resolved photoluminescence studies of blue light-emitting diodes (LED) WITec GmbH, Lise-Meitner-Str. 6, 89081 Ulm, Germany fon +49 (0) 731 140 700, fax +49 (0) 731 140 70 200 info@witec.de,

More information

ADVANTAGES OF USING DPSS NANOSECOND LASER WITH A GAUSSIAN BEAM SHAPE FOR SCRIBING THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS Paper #M1101

ADVANTAGES OF USING DPSS NANOSECOND LASER WITH A GAUSSIAN BEAM SHAPE FOR SCRIBING THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS Paper #M1101 ADVANTAGES OF USING DPSS NANOSECOND LASER WITH A GAUSSIAN BEAM SHAPE FOR SCRIBING THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS Paper #M1101 Ashwini Tamhankar 1, James Bovatsek 1, Gonzalo Guadano 2, Rajesh Patel 1 1 Spectra

More information

Real-world applications of intense light matter interaction beyond the scope of classical micromachining.

Real-world applications of intense light matter interaction beyond the scope of classical micromachining. Dr. Lukas Krainer lk@onefive.com CEO Real-world applications of intense light matter interaction beyond the scope of classical micromachining. 1 Management & Company Company Based in Zürich, Switzerland

More information

Femtosecond Laser Ablation

Femtosecond Laser Ablation Femtosecond Laser Ablation Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades des Fachbereichs Physik der Universität Dortmund vorgelegt von Vanja Margetić Dortmund 2002 Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. K. Niemax Zweitgutachter:

More information

For one dimensional heat transfer by conduction in the x-direction only, the heat transfer rate is given by

For one dimensional heat transfer by conduction in the x-direction only, the heat transfer rate is given by Chapter.3-1 Modes of Heat Transfer Conduction For one dimensional heat transfer by conduction in the -direction only, the heat transfer rate is given by Q ka d (.3-4) In this epression, k is a property

More information

Info Note UV-VIS Nomenclature and Units

Info Note UV-VIS Nomenclature and Units Info Note 804: Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons in the UV-visible region. It uses light in the visible and adjacent

More information

Current Staff Course Unit/ Length. Basic Outline/ Structure. Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas. Properties of Waves A simple wave has a PH: Sound and Light

Current Staff Course Unit/ Length. Basic Outline/ Structure. Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas. Properties of Waves A simple wave has a PH: Sound and Light Current Staff Course Unit/ Length August August September September October Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas Basic Outline/ Structure PS4- Types of Waves Because light can travel through space, it cannot be

More information

Session 2A2a Femtosecond Photonics: Microfabrication and Optical Data Storage 2

Session 2A2a Femtosecond Photonics: Microfabrication and Optical Data Storage 2 Session 2A2a Femtosecond Photonics: Microfabrication and Optical Data Storage 2 Femtosecond Photonics for Multilayered Optical Memory Yoshimasa Kawata (Shizuoka University, Japan); M. Miyamoto (Shizuoka

More information

Structure and properties of transparent conductive ZnO films grown by pulsed laser

Structure and properties of transparent conductive ZnO films grown by pulsed laser Structure and properties of transparent conductive ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) by Yu Hsiu, Lin A dissertation submitted to the University of Birmingham for the degree of Master of

More information

Chapter 2. Second Edition ( 2001 McGraw-Hill) 2.1 Electrical conduction. Solution

Chapter 2. Second Edition ( 2001 McGraw-Hill) 2.1 Electrical conduction. Solution Chapter 2 Second Edition ( 200 McGraw-Hill) 2. Electrical conduction Na is a monovalent metal (BCC) with a density of 0.972 g cm -3. Its atomic mass is 22.99 g mol -. The drift mobility of electrons in

More information

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS VOL. 49, NO. 1 FEBRUARY 2011 Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures Markus Schmotz, 1, Dominik Gollmer, 1 Florian Habel, 1 Stephen Riedel, 1 and

More information

Lecture 22: Integrated circuit fabrication

Lecture 22: Integrated circuit fabrication Lecture 22: Integrated circuit fabrication Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Layering 4 3 Patterning 7 4 Doping 8 4.1 Thermal diffusion......................... 10 4.2 Ion implantation.........................

More information

Nikolaus Dietz and Vincent Woods. Department of Physics & Astronomy. Georgia State University; Atlanta GA

Nikolaus Dietz and Vincent Woods. Department of Physics & Astronomy. Georgia State University; Atlanta GA Real-time optical characterization of ammonia ( ) by UV absorption spectroscopy Nikolaus Dietz and Vincent Woods Department of Physics & Astronomy Georgia State University; Atlanta GA http://www.phy-astr.gsu.edu/dietzrg/hpcvd.html

More information

LASER TERMS GLOSSARY

LASER TERMS GLOSSARY LASER TERMS GLOSSARY Texas State University San Marcos 2/25/07 Introduction - This section lists information pertinent to laser safety. The definitions in this glossary will not cover every term associated

More information

Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer Sebastian Volz (Ed.) Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer With 144 Figures and 7 Tables In Collaboration with Remi Carminati, Patrice Chantrenne, Stefan Dilhaire, Severine Gomez, Nathalie Trannoy, and

More information

Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014

Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014 Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014 Introduction Following our previous lab exercises, you now have the skills and understanding to control

More information

Power and Energy Characteristics of Continuous Waves / Pulsed CO 2 Laser Application in CNG-DI Ignition

Power and Energy Characteristics of Continuous Waves / Pulsed CO 2 Laser Application in CNG-DI Ignition Proceedings of the th WSEAS International Conference on Applications of Electrical Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey, May 7-9, 7 17 Power and Energy Characteristics of Continuous Waves / Pulsed CO Laser Application

More information