Oconteudodopresenterelatorioedeunicaresponsabilidadedo(s)autor(es). (Thecontentsofthisreportarethesoleresponsibilityoftheauthor(s).

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1 Oconteudodopresenterelatorioedeunicaresponsabilidadedo(s)autor(es). (Thecontentsofthisreportarethesoleresponsibilityoftheauthor(s).) WorkFlowSystems:afewdenitionsanda PauloBarthelmessandJacquesWainer RelatorioTecnicoDCC{95-26 fewsuggestions Dezembrode1995

2 WorkFlowSystems:afewdenitionsandafewsuggestionsy PauloBarthelmessandJacquesWainer 1INTRODUCTION andtheleveloftheirenactment;weproposesomewaysofclassifyingactivitiesandexceptions; thefactthatthereisabrokensymetrybetweenthelevelofthespecicationoftheprocedures andweproposesomerun-timefunctionalitiestohelpusersdealwithexceptions. Thispaperhopestomakeacontributiononthreeaspectsofworkowsystems:westress Abstract Muchworkhasbeendevotedtothestudyofdocumentowinorganizations,yetmuchremainsto beunderstoodaboutthenatureofactivities.thefocusontheow(expressedevenintheterm thesystem,aswellasthoseabouttheowofresponsibilities,temporalconcernsandothersuch importantissuesarerarelydealtwith.thesamecanbesaidaboutexceptionhandling.some Workow)stemsfromtheoriginsofpresentsystems,derivedfromtheearlyOceAutomation Systemsofthe80's.Questionsrelatedtothenatureofactivities,locusoftheeectiveworkin papersdiscussthetheme,buthardlyanyimplementationactuallysupportingexceptionhandling organizationsshouldmorethaneverbepreparedtoproviderapidresponsestoaneverincreasing exists[saa94].yet,animportantshareofoceworkcanbechargedtoexceptionhandlingchores [SM89,EN93]. rateofchanges,inthemostecientway.reengineeringintroducesdrasticchangesthatalternot onlytheowbutalsotheessenceoforganizationalworkitself.ifnewlevelsofeciencyaretobe relatedtotheowofworkinorganizations. articleaimsatpresentingsomecontributionsonthelessstudiedbutnonethelessimportantissues reached,itismandatorythatmorebeknownabouteachofthestepsinvolvedintheworkow.this Ontheotherhand,eciencyandrapidresponsearebecominganimperative.Inordertosurvive indealingwithexceptions. componentsofthesetwolevels:theprocessmodelingandtheenactmentlevel,anddiscusstheir relationshipspeciallyunderexceptionalconditions.animportantcomponentoftheprocessmodelingistheactivitiesthatmustbecarriedoutduringtheexecutionoftheprocess.wewillclassify activitiesactivitiesaccordingtoafewcriteria.thenextsectionwillproposesomeconceptsrelated toexceptionsinoceprocedures.likeactivities,webelievethatexceptionsareacentralaspectof oceworkandtheyneedfurtherstudy.finallywediscusshowaworkowsystemcanbeofhelp tionlevelofworkowmanagementsystems(wfms),andthenwewillcenterouranalysisontwo Thisworkwillrstproposeafewdenitions,basedonthedistinctionofdescriptionandexecu- (COOCS'95),pages ,August13-16,1995,Milpitas,CA ythisworkwaspublishedattheproceedingsoftheacmconferenceonorganizationalcomputingsystems

3 Therstimportantconceptonworkowmanagementsystems(WFMS)isthedistinctionbetween twodistinctlevels:descriptionandexecution. 2DESCRIPTIONLEVELandEXECUTIONLEVEL peopleandrolesandtheirrelationshipintheorganization;andtheuser-interfacedescrip- TIONwhichdescribestheuserinterfaceforusersperformingtheactivitiesandpossiblytheinterface upofsomecomponents:theprocessdescriptionwhichdescribestheproceduresthatthe systemwillimplement/monitor;thedatadescriptionwhichdescribesthedatathatwillbe user-interfacewillitpresenttoitsenactment-levelusers,andsoon.thedescriptionlevelismade stored/used/checkedbythesystem;theorganizationaldescriptionwhichdescribesthe system,thatis,itdescribesthingsthatdeterminewhatthewfmswilldo:whichprocedureswill itimplement/monitor,whatdatawillitstore,whichorganizationisthewfmsapartof,what Thedescriptionleveldealwithdescribing(ormodeling)theimportantaspectsofaworkow withothercomputationaltools. userofawfmsthatisinterestedindesigningorre-designingthebusinessproceduresoftheorganizationwoulddealmainlywiththeorganizationalandprocedureaspectsofthedescriptionlevelpectsofthedescription,whichhasamoremodel-orientedapproach,andthedataanduser-interface aspectsofthedescription,whichhasamoreimplementation-orientedapproach.adescriptionlevel whereasusersintheprocessofinstallingawfmswouldbedealingmainlywiththedataanduser interfaceaspectsofthedescriptionlevel.inthispaperwewillconcentrateonthesemodelingaspects ofthedescriptionlevel,andwewillrefertothemasthemodellevel. Withinthedescriptionlevel,onecandistinguishbetweentheprocedureandtheorganizationalascutionoftheactivitiesspeciedatprocessdescription.Thatinvolveskeepingtrackofwhatactivities (orinstanceofactivities,aswewillcallthemlater)arebeingperformedwhichdocuments,andwho aspects:enactmentandmanagement.theenactmentaspectdealswiththeeectiveexe- isperformingthatactivity,providingsupportfortheexecutionofthoseactivities,andsoon.the enactment-leveluserofaworkowsystemisaoceworkerthatlltheforms,approvedocuments, auditinformationaboutcurrentandpastworkcases,statisticalinformationaboutusers,processes, makedecisionsandsoon.themanagementaspectoftheexecutionlevelinvolvesprivilegedaccessto activitiesandsoon. TheruntimeleveldealswiththeexecutionoftheWFMS.Itisfurtherdecomposedintotwo Figure1:TheDescriptionandExecutionlevelsofWorkowSystems Process User-interface Data Model Model Model 2 Organizational Model Level Level Enactment Management Level Level

4 willextendabitthatfocusbyincludingtheenactmentcomponentanditsrelationtotheprocess languagesormethodologiestodescribetheprocesses[mwff92,en93,sr92,zis77,joo94].we level,andtheirrelations.theworkowliteraturehasbeenmainlyonprocessdescription,proposing Attheprocessdescriptionlevel(orprocessmodelingaswewillcallit)wedeneaPROCEDURE description. 2.1ProcessDescription Inthispaperwewillconcentrateonelaboratingtheprocessdescriptionlevelandtheenactment beperformed,bywhom,andinwhatorder.thusanorganizationmayhavethecustomerorder producttobeboughtfromoutsidesources,andsoon. procedure,whichspecieswhatissupposedtobedonetoeachcustomerorder;orapurchase procedure,whichspecieswhatstepshavetobetakenifamemberoftheorganizationwantssome asaspecicationonhowaparticularbusinessprocessshouldbeperformed:whichactivitiesshould onlythenaldecisiononwhethertoapprovethecreditornotisplacedintheorderdocuments. personllingaparticularroleontosomeobjects(ordocuments),inordertoachieveaparticular goal.thus,inthecustomerorderprocedure,onecantalkaboutthecheckingthecustomer'scredit activity,whosegoalistocheckwhetherthecustomerhascredittopayforthepurchaseordered.this sources,likecreditservices,forthecredithistoryofthecustomer,andsoon.allthisinformation maybeplacedinthecustomer'sorderdocuments,oritmaybeplacedintemporarydocuments,and activityisperformedbyapersonintheroleofacreditspecialist.thecarryingoutoftheactivity isdocheckingorganizationaldata-basesforpastinformationonthiscustomer,verifyingoutside AnACTIVITYisoneofthestepsinaprocedure.Itisasetofoperationstobeperformedbya [Ell79],RoleInteractionNetworks[SR92],ActionTechnologiesowlanguage aprocess:therearemanylanguagestodescribetheow,forexampleinformationcontrollanguages [MWFF92,MM92],andmanyformsofPetriNetbasedlanguages. orderingtheflow.theowisinterestedinspecifyingwhatactivitywillfollowanother,whatcan bedoneinparallel,andwhatmustbesequentialized,andsoon. Thefocusoftheprocessdescriptionliteraturehasbeencenteredmainlyindescribingtheowof Aprocedurehastwoaspects:itsactivitiesandtheorderingamongthem.Wewillcallthis onhowtochoose(attheenactmentlevel)anactortoperformthatactivity.standardspecications include:selectoneoftheactorsthatcanllthatroleatrandom;distributetheactivitiestoapool ofworkersinaround-robinfashion;assigningtheactivitytotheleastloadedworkerinthepoolof thatcancarryoutthatactivity.buttherealexecutingoftheactivity(attheenactmentlevel),has workerscapableofllingthatrole,andsoon. onhowtoassignactorstoactivities.thespecicationofanactivityincludesthedenitionoftherole tobecarriedoutbypeople(oractors)llingthatparticularrole.thustheremustbeaspecication Theuserofthemodellevelofaworkowsystemisinterestedindesigningoceproceduresfor AnothercomponentoftheprocessmodelistheACTORASSIGNMENT,thatis,thespecication abilitytodynamicallychangeaprocedureevenwhenthereareinstancesofthatprocedurestillbeing processed[ek93],andsoon. anorganization,andverifyingwhethertheimplementedproceduresareecient.thus,amodelleveluseristypicallyamanager,andheisinterestedintoolsthatmakesthetaskofdesigningand redesigning[ham90]proceduresmoreecient.forexample:graphiclanguagetospecifyprocedures, simulationandanimationofprocedures[en93],methodologiesthatguidethedesignofprocedures [MWFF92],statisticaldataaboutexistingproceduresandactivitieswithinthoseprocedures,the 3

5 carriedout.thusthesystemmayhavemanyactiveandinactiveworkcasesthatareinstanceofthe sameprocedure. Workcasescanbeactive,iftheyarestillbeingcarriedout,ormaybeinactive,iftheyhavebeenall carriedoutattheenactmentlevel.wewillcallaninstanceofaprocedureasaworkcase. 2.2Enactmentlevel \running"it.atthemodellevelonedenesapurchaseorderprocedure,andinstancesofitare Themodellevelofaworkowdealswithmodelingtheapplication,theenactmentleveldealswith currentinstancesofactivitiesthatareactive;theactivitiesinstancesthathavealreadyterminated; procedureshouldbedividedforeachworkcase,attheenactmentlevel,intothreecomponents:the ofthesequenceofactivitiesaworkcasemustorshouldgothroughasawhole.butontheenactment level,thistemporaldimensionisnotrepresentedbutlivedthrough.thusthewholeoftheowofa arecalledtheactiveactivity(ies). asactivities.theinstance(s)ofactivitythatis(are)beingcarriedoutinaworkcaseatthemoment TIES.Unlessthereisthedangerofambiguity,inthispaperwewillcallinstancesofactivitiesjust Thereisnosimplecorrespondenttotheowattheenactmentlevel.Theowisthespecication ThecorrespondingconcepttoactivitiesattheenactmentlevelareINSTANCESOFACTIVIcomponentwillbecalledHISTORYofaworkcase:whichinstancesofactivitiesithasbeenthrough, workcase:whatactivitiesinstancesarebeingperformedontheworkcase,andbywho.thesecond andtheactivitiesthatwillorshouldstillbedone.therstcomponentisthestageofthe activities. whenthoseactivitiesstartedandended,andwhoperformedthem.andthethirdcomponent,the PRESCRIBEDFUTURESTEPSoftheworkcase. assignmentofaworkcase:aworkercallsinsickorleaveforvacationsandthesystemreassignsthe specications.therewasaredirectionofthisworkcase,whichdeviatedfromitsnormalsequenceof invitebidsfromsupplierstollthatorder,choosethebestbid,placetheorder,andsoon.but example,theowmayspecifythatafterreceivingapurchaseorder,thepurchasedepartmentwill incorrect.thusthisworkcasewillreturntowhoeverinitiatedthepurchaseordertocorrectthe itcouldhappenthatinaworkcasethesuppliersreturnstheorderbecausesomespecicationis Anotherexampleofredirectionmaynotinvolverepeatingsomeactivitybutchangingtheactor Foraworkcase,adeviationfromtheprescribedowwillbecalledaREDIRECTION.For orforotherreasons. mustleaveearliertoday,orhebelievesthatthecolleagueismorecapableofdealingwiththatcase, mayalsoinvolvedelegationofwork:aworkerasksacolleaguetodealwithanactivitybecausehe activitiesthathadbeenattributedtothatworkertootherpeopleintheorganization.redirection andsoon. providehelpincasesomethingexceptionaloroutoftheordinaryhappens;tohelpaoceworker managehistimeandtasks;tohelpanewworkerlearnhisnewdutiesandhowtocarrythemout, integrateothercomputationaltoolsnormallyusedbytheenactmentleveluserinhisdailywork;to functionalitiesthatwillhelpthatusertocarryouttheactivities.thus,attheenactmentlevel,one wouldliketheworkowsystemtohaveaccesstheorganization'sdataandknowledgebases;toeasily Attheenactmentlevel,thesystemshouldprovideitsusers(usuallyanoceworker)toolsand executionlevels. Theseparationbetweenadescriptionlevelandaexecutionlevelforworkowsystemsispresentin 2.3Comparisonwithotherworks enactment,whichwebelieveisonlyacomponentofthebasicdistinctionbetweendescriptionand manyworks[ak94,ek93,wor].buttheseworkstakeasbasicthedistinctionofmodelingand Theideaofothercomponentsinthedescriptionlevel,besidestheprocessdescriptionispresent 4

6 organizationdescription)doesnotcontaininformationenoughtodescribeaworkingsystem(but itcleartousthatthemodelingaspectsofthedescriptionlevel(thatis,processdescriptionand [Wor]seemstotakeadierentviewinthesensethatdataanduser-interfacedescriptionscanbe seenasconcerningonlyapplicationsthataretriggeredbyaworkowenactmentengine).theneed ordertofullyspecifyaworkowsystemagreeswiththeideasdescribedin[ew94]. forastatic(data)description,adynamic(process)descriptionandauserinterfacedescriptionin denitionsfortheseothercomponentsdonotagreetotallywithours.thosetwodocumentsmade inthedescriptionoftwoimplementedworkowmanagementsystems[ibm95,a+94],althoughtheir level.thetablebelowliststhecorrespondences. thatwouldcorrespondtoourdenitionofowanditscorrespondentdenitionsattheenactment [Wor].ThemostrelevantdierenceisthefactthattheWorkowCoalitiondoesnotdeneconcepts ThedenitionsinthispaperingeneralagreewiththeonesproposedbytheWorkowCoalition OurDenition Procedure Role Enactement-levelUserWorkowParticipant Flow Term OrganizationalRole aspectoftheprocessmodeling. Workcase InstanceofActivityProcessActivityInstance History Stage ProcessInstance 3ACTIVITIES Nextsectionwillanalyzetheconceptofactivitieswhichwebelieveisasomewhatforgotten PrescribedFuture AuditTrail Activitiesarethelocusofprocessingwork,denedatprocessmodelinglevelandeectivelyperformedatenactmentlevel.Webelievethatamorespecicclassicationofthetypesofactivities - opposeforexampletotreatingactivitiesas\generic"blackboxesastheyaretreatedinsomeofthe thatabetterunderstandingofactivitiesthemselveswillpointustosomeshortcomingsofcurrent processdescriptionlanguages)mayhelpuserstobetterunderstandtheprocedurebeingdescribed. Moreimportantly,fromtheWFMSpointofview,knowingthetypeofactivitymayallowitto processdescriptionlanguages. dimensionsbutwemakenoclaimthatthelistisexhaustive. isnecessaryformanyreasons.fromadescriptionpointofview,aspecicationoftheactivity(as 3.1BatchxWorkcase-BasedActivities providetheactorsofthatactivitywithbettertoolsdoperformthatactivity.finally,wewillsee WORKCASE-BASEDactivitiesareactivitiesthatdealexclusivelywithoneworkcase.Theinformationneededtoperformtheinstanceofactivityisavailableinthatparticularworkcase(andpossible addedtothatworkcase.thusllingapurchaseorderistypicalworkcase-basedactivity:oneneed data-basesandknowledgebasesoftheorganization),andtheproductoftheactivityinstanceis Therearemanydimensionsbywhichonecanclassifyactivities.Wewilldiscusssomeofthese trieveinformationaboutcostandcodeofitems.noaccesstootherworkcaseswasnecessary,and tolltheappropriateeldsforthatworkcase,andmaybeconsultorganizationaldata-basestore- 5

7 together,andtheproductoftheactivityisaddedtoasubsetofthoseworkcases.atypicalbatch activityisranking,forexamplerankingcandidatesforaposition.onecanonlyrankthecandidates ifalltheworkcasesforeachapplicantarebroughttogether,andarecomparedtoeachother.a productofsuchactivitycouldbetollaeldineachworkcasewiththerankthecandidatereceived below).forexample,aphonecompanymayhaveaschedulingactivity(bothactorandtime)that (1st,2ndandsoon). theresultoftheactivityisaddedtojustthatworkcase. determineswhatrepairactivitieswillbeperformedbywhatrepairpersonandwhenwillthoserepairs Anotherexamplesofbatchactivityaresomeformsofactorschedulingandtimescheduling(see ABATCHactivityisanactivitythatcanonlybecompletedifasetofworkcasesarebrought dierentkindsofproblems,thatarepairordershouldbefullledassoonaspossible,andsoon. travelingoftherepairpersons,thatonerepairpersonmaybemoreknowledgeablethanotherson Againinthiscase,allrepairorders(oratleastalotofthem)mustbebroughttogetherinorderto bemade.thisassignmentmusttakeintoconsiderationthatthecompanywantstooptimizethe activity,thatdealswithmorethanoneworkcaseatthesametime,cannotbefullyrepresented:only the\workcaseprojection"ofabatchactivity,thatisitsresultsinaworkcase,canberepresented.in accordingtosomepreferencecriteria)oroptimizationactivities(inwhichsomedecisionabouta performthisactivity. therstexampleabove,therankingactivitywouldberepresentedinaicnasaclassifyorattribute theactivitiesandtheorderingoftheseactivitiesthataworkcasemustgothrough.thusabatch MM92]orICN[Ell79].Theseowlanguagesareinherentlybasedonworkcases,thatis,theydescribe subsetoftheworkcasesismade,andthisdecisioninsomewayoptimizessomecostfunction). BatchactivitiescannotbefullydescribedinowlanguagessuchasActionFlow[MWFF92, Ingeneralbatchactivitiesareeitherrankingactivities(inwhichtheworkcasesinsetareranked projectactivity,mostlikely,willnotbeundersupervisionoftheworkowsystemmainlybecauseit mayinvolvea\project"activitywhichisperformedbyagroupofengineersandarchitects.this isprobablyunreasonabletodecomposeitasasubprocedure(withitstemporalschedulingofwell Someactivitiescannotbeputunderdirectsupervisionofthesystem.Thatisthecaseofactivities thatinvolveveryelaboratecreativework.forexample,aserviceorderforaconstructioncompany 3.2StructuredxNon-StructuredActivities classicationactivity,whichdescribestheeectoftherankinginthatworkcase,butnotitsdetails. denedsubactivities). gettingtheclienttoapprovetheproject'sspecications,andsoon.non-structuredactivitiesare usuallyperformedbyagroupofpeople,workingwithtoolsoutsidetheworkowsystem. thatdesigntheprocedureitself.theycanbeachievedbyasinglepersonworking\withinthe verycreativeformsofinteractions,andonewouldnotliketoconstraintheactivitiesbyprescribinghowtheyshouldbecarriedout.buttheproductsofthesenon-structuredactivitiesmustbe Structuredactivities,ontheotherhand,arebetterunderstoodbythesystemandbythepeople Non-structuredactivitiescannotbedecomposedintosubactivities,becausetheyusuallydemand incorporatedbackintothesystem,sothattheactivitiesthatfollowthenon-structuredonecanbe carriedout.intheexampleabove,followingactivitiesmayinclude:sendingoutabiddingproposal, theoperationsthatcanbedonebyasinglepersonalone. 3.3InternalxExternalactivities workowsystem".infactthestandardwayofpartitioningaprocedureintoactivitiesisbyseparating Someactivitiesarecarriedout\outside"theworkowsystem.Thatmeansthatduringtheexecution oftheseexternalactivitiestheworkowsystemneitherprovidesthetoolstocarrythemout,nor 6

8 aredonesinceithasnoknowledgeaboutthem.furthermore,thedocumentsthataretheresultof theactivitymayhavetobeentered(maybemanually)backintothesystemsothattheycanbe incorporatedintotheworkcase. isabletomonitortheprogressbeingmade.thesystemhastobeinformedwhentheseactivities 3.4Prototypicalactivities documentsoftheworkcasemustbeprinted,handledovertotheotherdepartments,andtheresults ofthoseactivitiesmayhavetobeenteredbackintothesystem. turedactivitiesmayalsobeexternal.forexampleitispossiblethattheworkowsystemisused onlywithinsubsetsofthewholeorganization(forexample,inafewdepartments)andtheactivities inaprocedurethatareperformedbytheotherdepartmentsareexternaltothesystem.therelevant Exampleofexternalactivitiesinclude,usually,thenon-structuredactivities.Butotherstruc- DataProcessingNewinformationisderivedfromtheexternaldata,classifyingitaccordingto ExternaldatagatheringDatafromexternalsourcesisobtainedandrecorded.Theinterfacefor prototypicalactivitiesbelowisnotcomplete,butwebelieveitrepresentsomemajorclasses Onecanalsoclassifyanactivityashowcloseitmatchessomeprototypicalactivities.Thelistof DecisionAchoicebetweenalternativesthatinvolvessubjectivejudgment.Thedecisionwould organization'sinternalcriteria.itmayinvolvebatchactivitieslikeranking,orworkcase-based activitieslikedeterminingwhetherthedataprovidedisappropriate. client(theoutsidesource)orbyaoceworkerthatisincontactwiththeclient. determinewhichspecicpathoftheowwillbetaken.theinterfaceforadecisionactivityis suchactivitiesareusuallyimplementedasaformwhoseeldsmustbelledeitherbythe WaitingWaitingisadegeneratedformofactivityinwhichtheworkcaseiswaitingforsometrigger AuthorizationAuthorizationisaweakerformofdecisionwhereapersonwithintheorganization presentedasatwochoiceboxes:authorizeordon'tauthorize. assumesresponsibilityforthestateofaworkcase.inpaper-basedworkowsthisisusually donebysigning.onancomputerbasedworkow,theinterfaceforaauthorizingactivityis usuallypresentedasasetofboxesandthedecisionmakermustchecktheboxthatcorrespond toproceedforthenextactivity.insomecases,thewaitingprecedesabatchactivity:the totheoutcomeofthedecision. ProxyActivitiesProxyactivitiesareakindofwaitactivitythatrepresentstheworkowcounterpartofanexternalactivity.Theworkowsystemrepresentsthefactthatsomeexternal activityoverwhichithasnocontrolormonitoringcapabilitiesbyplacingtheworkcaseina ontheotherbranchtonishbeforeitcanproceedtothenextstep. workcaseiswaitingforabatchactivitytobeactivated.waitactivityalsomayoccurbefore proxyactivity. thesynchronizationofparallelbranchesintheow:theworkcaseiswaitingfortheactivity TemporalSchedulingDeterminesthepointintimeoratleasttheorderinginwhichasetof willbefollowed.temporalschedulingmayalsobeenactedasabatchactivityinwhichmany workcasesarescheduledinsuchawayastooptimizeresourceutilization,forexample. tothelackorresources.thetemporalschedulingwoulddeterminewhichsequencialization activitieswillbeperformed.forexample,aproceduremaydeterminethatthreeactivitiescan beperformedinparallel,butattheenactmentlevel,onemayhavetosequentializethemdue 7

9 ActorAssignmentActorassignmentistheactivityofdeterminingwhowillperformaparticular involveoptimization(asabatchactivity),oritmayinvolvesubjectivejudgmentandcomplex activityinstance.itcanbeperformedbythesystemusingsomeschedulingalgorithm,oritmay knowledge.asanexampleofthelater,aconsultingcompanymayneedanon-structured requested.awelldesignedworkowsystemshouldallowforincompleteinformationtobeentered, bettertoolsfortheactorsperformingthoseactivities,andspeciallytollsfortheactorstodealwith exceptionsthatmayhappenduringtheexecutionoftheactivity.forexampleacommonexception Knowingwhattypeofactivityshouldbeperformedwillallowaworkowsystemtoprovide actorassignmentactivitytodecidewhowilltakecareofacase.thatdecisionmayinvolve andallowforthemissinginformationtobeenteredatalatertime. fordatagatheringactivitieshappenswhentheexternalsourcedoesnothavealltheinformation workload,whohasexperiencewiththatkindofproblem,whohasexperiencewiththatclient, whoneedstobeexposedtonewchallengesandsoon. infactwewillproposesuchapproachfurtheron,butonemustrealizethatexceptionsaremainly executed.thatdoesnotmeanthatexceptionscannotbethoughtaboutatthemodellevel,and enactment-levelphenomena. isthatexceptionsarethingsthatappearattheenactmentlevel,whenactivityinstancesarebeing aworkcasefromitsprescribed(ornormal)ow.therstconsequenceofthisworkingdenition 4EXCEPTIONS becausetheyarecommon[ham90,sm89],andcostlybecausetheydemandalotofeorttobedealt with. AsaworkingdenitioninthispaperwewillcallEXCEPTIONSthedeparturesofthehistoryof Webelievethatexceptionsareimportantandcostlyphenomenainanorganization.Important 4.1InformationxInfrastructureExceptions orhelpindealingwiththemanykindsofexceptionsthatwillhappen?below,wediscusssome tionsfromaworkowsystempointofview:howcanaworkowsystembeimpairedbyexceptions, dimensionsinwhichtoclassifyexceptionsfromaworkowpointofview. Therstimportantdistinctiononexceptionsiswhetherthesourceoftheexceptionistheworkow thosedescribeexceptionsfromanorganizationalpointofview,whereasweareinterestedinexcep- Thereareveryfewworksthatdiscussandclassifyexceptions[Saa94,SM89,SMS94]andeven thesystem,workstationsoline,databaseserversoline,printeroline,andsoon.alltheseforms ofexceptionswouldnotappeariftheorganizationwerenotusingawfmsintherstplace.we theworkowsystemitself.theyrefertothereality,thatis,thereissomethingdierentinthis calltheminfrastructureexceptions. isinsomewayfaulty:asoftwarebuginthesystem,aprobleminthecomputernetworkunderlying workcasethatmakesitdeviatefromitsprescribedow. systemitself,ortheoutsidereality.thereareexceptionsthatderivefromthefactthatthewfms theywillaectthesystemitself.forexample,sinceportionsofthenetworkcanbeunreachable, toacentraldatabasearerestored,printingtheelectronicformsintopaperandacceptingthedata awelldesignedwfmsmustallowforoperationslike:storinglledformslocallyuntilconnection enteredintothesepaperformsatalaterstage,andsoon. ThedesignerofaWFMSmustpreparethesystemtodealwithinfrastructureexceptions,since Theotherclassofexceptions,thatwewillcallINFORMATIONexceptions,hasnorelationwith 8

10 Dataexceptionsappearwhensomeofthedatapresentinaworkcaseisincorrectormissing.For 4.2Dataexceptionsxsignalexceptions example,thebudgetclassicationofapurchaseorderwaswronglylled,ortheshippingaddressof acustomerismissing,andsoon.dataexceptionsareusuallydetectedintheactivitywherethat dataisneededandareusuallyhandledbyredoingtheactivitythatgeneratedtheincorrectdata,or insomewaychangesthesetofconditionsaboutaworkcase.forexampleacustomermaycancelan theactivitythatfailedtocollectthemissingdata. orderthatisalreadybeingprocessed.thisinvolvescancelingalltheprescribedfollowingactivities, suingthecustomerforthecosts,changingactivitiesandattributionsinworkcasestotallyunrelated undoingsomeactivitiesthatcanbeundone,startingactivitiesthatarenotpartofanyprocedure,like tothiscase(forexamplebecauseofthecancellation,resourcesthatwheretiedupwiththiscasecan bereleasedtootherworkcases),andsoon. Signalexceptionsareexceptionsthatareboughtupbyexternal,asynchronousinformationthat postponingtheproductionoftheextragoodsforalatertime,andsoon. theexceptionwasreceived.forexample,acustomerrealizedheneedsmoregoodsthanthenumber dependingonwhatkindofsignalexceptionisreceived,andinwhatstagetheworkcaseisinwhen customertobesurethathecanpayfortheextragoods.ontheotherhand,iftheproductionhas heactuallyordered,andthushechangeshispreviousorder.ifproductionofthisorderhasnot alreadystartedthendealingwiththechangeintheordermayinvolvereschedulingotherorders,or beenscheduledyet,thenacceptingthechangemayonlyinvolveredoingthecreditcheckingonthe Signalexceptionsmaycausealotofchangesontheworkcases,ortheymaybeeasilydealtwith, 4.3EHAs{Exceptionhandlingactions Exceptionsaredealtwithwithpossiblyverycomplexsequenceofoperations,andadhocactivities. Butinsomemorestandardexceptions(forexamplethenotsocripplinginfrastructureexceptions, anddataexceptions)theexceptionhandlingprocessstartswithwhatwewillcallasexception HANDLINGACTION,abbreviatedasEHAs.EHAsarenotthewholeoftheexceptionhandling previouslydoneactivitymustberedoneinordertocorrectawronginformationintheworkcase. process,butaresimpleoperationsthatareprovidedbytheworkowsystemandthatinitiatesthe situation,theyshouldbepartofthetoolsavailabletoenactment-leveluser.webelievethatwfms WeseeEHAsasrun-timefunctionalitiesthatareprovidedbytheworkowsystemindependentof pieceofincorrectinformation.thettsendtoresponsibleeharedirectstheworkcasesothata redirectionprocessthatwouldeventuallyleadtotheresolutionoftheexception. thatdonotimplementanyehaareincapableofdealingwithexceptionsatall. whentheyrealizethataworkcasemustdeviatefromitsprescribedow. theproceduresthatarecurrentlyimplemented.theehasareactivatedbyenactment-levelusers SinceEHAaretheprimarywayinwhichaenactmentleveluserwillstartaexceptionhandling AnexampleofEHAissendingaworkcasebacktowhoeverwasresponsibleforllingaparticular someofthemostcommoneha. Attachanexplanationtoadocumentorcomponentsofthedocument.Sometimesenatmentlevelusersmustexplainthecontextinwhichoneformoraeldofformwaslledtoother usersdowntheow.thattransferofcontextcouldexplain,forexample,themeaningtherst includereturntosender,returntoresponsiblefordataandreturntocustomerehas. pleteorincorrectdataisdetectedatalateractivityandmustthereforebealtered.this Redoinstancesofactivitiesthathavealreadybeenexecuted.Thismayhappenwhenincom- ThereareamultitudeofEHAsthatshouldbemadeavailableinaworkowsystem.Wecanlist 9

11 Addorchangeinformationintheworkcase.Thismayhappenwhenaenactment-leveluser correctionofthedatacanbeeasilydone(amissingshippingaddresscanbediscoveredby phoningthecustomer)eventhoughtheactivitybeingperformedbythatoceworkermay detectsmissingorincorrectdata(dataexceptions)andcorrectthemhimself,withoutlooping backtopreviousactivitiesintheworkcase.thismayhappeniftheoceworkerrealizesthe nothavetherighttochangeoraddthatinformation. thisworkcase. usersattributetosomeofeldsintheform,orexplainwhythereissomedataexceptionin Skippingoversomeactivitiesoftheow,asmayhappenwhenanspecialurgentcasehasto InfrastructurespecicEHAsthathavebeenimplementedbythedesigneroftheWFMS(ifthey Reassigninganactivitytosomeotheractor.ThisEHAcanbeusedtoreassigntheworkload ofaworkerthatcalledinsick,whoseworkstationisdown,oritcanbeusedbyaworkerthat realizesthatsomeoneelseismorecapabletodealwiththiscaseandthusasksforhelpfrom thatperson. infrastructureexception. beputthroughinhaste,orwhensomepartsoftheorganizationareunreachableduetoan Forwardingtheworkcasetopeoplethathavetherightstomakebroaddecisionsaboutthem. Temporarilyorpermanentlydumpingtheworkcaseoutofthesystem.Thisinvolveprinting arenotautomatic),likestorelocallyuntilnetworkisok,ormergelocalandglobaldatabases andsoon. 5WORKFLOWSASEXCEPTIONHANDLINGTOOLS Webelievethatitisveryinterestingtoviewworkowsystemsastoolsthatallowpeopleinthe alldocumentsintheworkcase,andforthesystem'srecord,startconsideringthecaseas temporarilyinactive,permanentlyinactiveorevenremoveallrecordsabouttheworkcase fromthesystem.thisehacanbeusedtodealwithsomemoresevereinfrastructureand reallyhigh[ham90,sm89]),butdealingwiththemisataskforwhatpeopleintheorganization organizationtodealwithexceptions.exceptionsarenotonlytherule(inthesensethatalthough aparticularexceptionisveryunlikely,theprobabilityofhavinganexceptionofanykindmaybe signalexceptions. withsignalexceptionsatthemodellevel. 5.1Exceptionhandlingsupportattheenactmentlevel Exceptionhandlingattheenactmentlevelinvolvestwosteps:detectionoftheexception,and andatthemodellevel.wewilldiscusshowtodealwithdataexceptionsattheenactment-leveland couldusesomehelp. inmind,byprovidingtools,ideas,concepts,methodologiesandsoon,bothattheenactmentlevel handlingoftheexception[sm89].fordataexceptions,detectionsmeanstherealizationthatsome Tobeabletohelptheactorsdealingwithexceptions,aWFMSshouldbeconceivedwiththat user'sattentiontodatathatsignicantlydeviatefromstoredexamples,historicalmeans,andsoon. pieceofdataintheworkcaseisincorrectormissing,usuallyduringtheexecutionofanactivitythat needthedata.awfmscanhelptheusertodetectdataexceptionsby,forexample,bringingthe 10

12 leveluserwithasmanyehasaspossibleseemstobeagoodwayofempoweringthemtodealwith exceptions. ofthemissingdata,oranyotherofthemanyehadiscussedabove.thusprovidingtheenactment- withanexceptionbeginswithatheuserperforminganehas:obtainingandenteringthemissing data,orsendingtheworkcasebacktowhoeverwasresponsibleforthewrongdata,forwardingthe workcasetowhoeverhastherighttoauthorizethefurtherprocessingoftheworkcaseintheabsence Oncetheexceptionhasbeendetected,ithastobedealtwith.Aswementionedabove,dealing classesofactivities.forexample,acommonexceptioninexternaldatagatheringactivitiesisincompleteinformation.asystemshouldallowforincompleteinformationtobeentered,andshouldalso Byknowingthis,aWFMScanprovideitsenactment-leveluserswithnetunedEHAforparticular itiesbeingperformed.certaintypesofexceptionsaremorecommontocertaintypesofactivities. themissinginformation)oradataexceptionwillhappen(whenthemissinginformationbecomes needed). forecastthateitheracorrespondingsignalexceptionwilloccur(thecustomerwillcalltoprovide Dataprocessingactivitiesareapotentialsourceofdataexceptions:theworkersmaynotknowall AnotherwayaWFMScanhelpthehandlingofexceptions,isthroughitsknowledgeoftheactiv- therulesforgeneratingnewdata,themeaningoftherulesmaychangeacrossdierentdepartments whichinformationwithinadataprocessingactivity,sincesomeoftheinformationmaybeincorrect intheorganization[gal77],andsoon.soitisimportantthatawfmsrememberswhoproduced nalactivitiesmustbecarefullyconceivedtodealwithbothdataexceptionsandsignalexceptions generatedduringtheexecutionoftheexternalactivity. andafurthercontactwithwhoevergeneratedthemwillprobablybenecessarytocorrectthem.by keepingtrackofwhodidwhat,thesystemwouldallowaworkerfurtherdownthelinetoperforma returntoresponsibleeha. 5.2Exceptionhandlingatthemodellevel thatrepresenttheseexternalactivities(proxyactivities)andinternalactivitiesthatfollowexter- withintheexternalactivity;noritcanforecastproblemsthatwillappear.thus,internalactivities bothdataandsignal:thesystemhasnowayofcheckingtheconsistencyofthedatagenerated Externalactivities,sincetheyareoutsidethecontrolofthesystem,areasourceofexceptions Exceptionhandlingatthemodellevelamountstoplanningonhowtodealwithexpectedsignal exceptions.webelievethatthereareexceptionsthatcanbeexpectedtohappen,andatthemodel mustbeexpressiveenoughforthemodel-levelusertospecifytheeectsoftheexceptionateach underlyingtheworkcase). workcasetobeprocessedwithurgency);andcancellation(theinitiatorwantstocanceltherequest thedataprovidedbytheinitiatoroftheworkcasehaschanged);urgency(theinitiatorwantsthe shouldincludedealingwiththemwhendesigningtheprocedures. areverycommon,andasamatterofmethodology,thedesigneroftheorganization'sprocedures levelonecanspecifyhowtodealwiththoseexpectedexceptions.therearesignalexceptionsthat stageoftheprocess.webelievethisisamajordeciencyinmostcurrentproceduredescription languages.theselanguagesareonlyexpressiveenoughtodescribethe\normal"owofaprocedure, andprovidesnosupporttorepresentexternalevents. Inordertoplanforsignalexceptionsatthemodellanguage,theproceduredescriptionlanguage Commonsignalexceptionsare:inquire(whatisthestageofaworkcase);changedata(someof forcesmodel-leveluserstothinkaboutwhathastobedonewhenataskisnotacceptedascompleted kindsofexceptions.forexample,theactiontechnologyworkowlanguage[mwff92,mm92] languagetoolssothemodel-userscanexpresshowthoseexceptionsshouldbehandled,andaquestion ofprovidingthemodel-leveluserswithamethodologythatguidesthemintothinkingaboutthese Dealingwithsignalexceptionsatthemodellevelisbothaquestionofprovidingthenecessary 11

13 bywhoeveraskedforit,sincesatisfactionisoneofthestepsthelanguagerequirestobespecied FinallythereareexceptionsshouldbedealtwithbythedesigneroftheWFMSitself:theinfrastructureexceptions.ThedesignerofaWFMSmustpreparethesystemtodealwithinfrastructure indescribingaprocedureorsubprocedure.thiskindofforcingthemodelusertothinkabout exceptionsshouldbeextendedtootherkindsofpredictablesignalexceptionsliketheonesdescribed above. 5.3Exceptionhandlingwhendesigningaworkowsystem managementsystems.itexpandedthemodel/enactmentdistinctionintoadescription/execution Thispapertriedtoproposessomedistinctionsanddenitionaboutconceptsrelatedtoworkow cludesinfrastructure,asthemostcommonexceptioninthatsurvey). 6CONCLUSIONSandFUTUREDIRECTIONS exceptionssincetheyarepotentiallyverycommon([sms94]liststechnicalmalfunction,whichin- functionalitiesthatwascalledexceptionhandlingactivities(ehas).theseehasinsomeway thetwolevelsaresomewhatsymmetricbutthepresenceofexceptionsmayforceaworkcaseto deviatefromtheowprescribedintheprocessdescriptionlevel.furthermore,exactlybecausethe anduser-interfacedescription;andtheexecutionlevelincludesanenactmentandamanagement enactmentleveluserwillhavetodealwiththeexceptions,thesystemmustprovideherwithextra transfersomeamountofcontroloftheworkcasefromthesystemtotheuser,andthusawfms distinction.thedescriptionlevelincludesthefollowingcomponents:process,data,organization component.therelationbetweentheprocessmodelinglevelandtheenactmentlevelwasdescribed: EHAwouldbeexactlyappropriatetodealwithanexception. shouldprovideitsenactmentleveluserswithavarietyofehas,inthehopethatoneparticular thatabetterunderstandingofthenatureoftheexceptionandthenatureoftheactivityinwhichit occurswouldallowadesignerofawfmstoprovideanehathatwouldmoreappropriatelydeal ofhavingabatchactivityintheow. accordingtomanydimensions.aparticularlyimportantonearethebatchversusworkcase-based activities;wearenotawareofanyproceduredescriptionlanguagethatfullyaddressestheproblems oftheactivitiesthemselveshasbeenlessemphasized.thisworkattemptedtodescribeactivities tionlanguageshaveconcentratedindescribingmainlytheowofaprocedure,andthedescription Finallythispaperalsoattemptedtoclassifyexceptionsaccordingtomanydimensions.Wehope Oneoftheimportantcomponentsoftheprocessdescriptionlevelistheactivities.Processdescrip- events(orsignals)limitshowmuchexceptionplanningcanbedoneatthedescriptionlevel:ifone cannotrepresentacancellationsignalfromthecustomer,howcanonerepresentwhatshouldbe donewhenthatsignalarrivesindierentstagesoftheprocedure.wearecurrentlydevelopinga theyareunabletorepresentasynchronousevents,theycannotfullyrepresentbatchactivities,and inadequatetodenethecomplexitiesofoceprocedures.theselanguagespresentthreeproblems: theydonotspecifythetypesofactivitiespresentintheow.theinabilitytorepresentasynchronous ofaaugmentedproceduredescriptionlanguage.someoftheowlanguagesavailablenowadaysare withthatsituation. proceduredescriptionlanguagecombiningtheconceptoftriggers[joo94]andstatecharts[har88] Therearemanyaspectsinwhichthisworkisbeingextended.Onofthemisthedevelopment particularmissingdata)arethemanifestationofabrokensymmetrybetweenthedatamodeland ofthedescriptionlevelandtheenactmentlevel.intuitionwouldsuggestthatdataexceptions(in thatwouldallowrepresentingtheprescribedtreatmentofsomesignalexceptions. Anotherdirectionoffutureresearchistheelaborationoftherelationshipoftheothercomponents 12

14 itmaynotbepossibletosatisfythoserequirements.furthermore,thatseemstobepossibleto classifysomeehasasprocedure-centered,thosethatcausearedirectionofaworkcaselikeredoan theenactmentlevel:thedatamodeldescribeswhatthedatashouldbe,butattheenactmentlevel theorganizationmodelandtheinterfacemodel. 6.1Acknowledgments notcauseredirectionlikeadddatatotheworkcaseorattachcommenttoworkcase. ThesecondauthorwouldliketothankClarenceEllisandtheCoordinationTechnologyResearch GroupattheUniversityofColoradoatBoulderfordiscussionsonmanytopicsdevelopedinthis activity,orsendworkcasetootheruser;anddata-centered,thoseehathatchangesdatabutdo paper.allerrorsandomissionsaresoleresponsibilityoftheauthors. Finallythereistheneedtofurtherelaboratethetwoothercomponentsofthedescriptionmodel: References [A+94]M.Aderetal.WooRKS,anobjectorientedworkowsystemforoces.Ithacatechnicalreport,BullS.A.,T.A.O.S.A.,UniversitadiMilano,andCommunicationand [EK93]C.EllisandK.Kedara.Dynamicchangewithinworkowsystems.Technicalreport, [AK94]K.R.AbbotandS.K.Karin.Experienceswithworkowmanagement:Issuesforthe [Ell79]C.Ellis.Informationcontrolnets:Amathematicalmodelofoceinformationow.In ManagementSystemsUnit,1994.ftp://cui.unige.ch/OO-articles/ITHACA/WooRKS. CooperativeWork(CSCW'94).ACM,1994. UniversityofColorado,ComputerScienceDept.,1993. nextgeneration.inproceedingsofthe1994acmconferenceoncomputersupported [EN93]C.EllisandG.Nutt.Modellingandanalysisofcoordinationsystems.Technicalreport, [EW94]C.EllisandJ.Wainer.Aconceptualmodelofgroupware.InProceedingsofthe1994 ComputerSystems,pages225{239,1979. ACMConferenceonComputerSupportedCooperativeWork(CSCW'94),pages79{88, CU-CS ,DepartmentofComputerScience,UniversityofColoradoatBoulder, Proceedingsofthe1979ACMConferenceonSimulationMeasurementandModellingof [IBM95]IBM. [Har88]D.Harel.Onvisualformalisms.CommunicationsoftheACM,31:514{530,1988. [Gal77]J.R.Galbraith.OrganizationDesign.Addison-Wesley,1977. [Ham90]M.Hammer.Reengineeringatwork:Don'tautomate,obliterate.HarvardBusiness Review,July,August [Joo94]S.Joosten.Triggermodellingforworkowanalysis.InG.ChroustandA.Benczur,educts,pages236{247,Oldenbourg,Vienna, itors,proceedingscon'94:workowmanagement,challenges,paradigmsandprod- IBMFlowMarkforOS/2Version2,

15 [MM92]R.Medina-Mora.Actionworkowtechnologyandapplicationsforgroupware.In [MWFF92]Medina-Mora,R.,Winograd,T.,Flores,R.,andFlores,F.Theactionworkowapproachtoworkowmanagementtechnology.InProceedingsoftheACMCSCW'92, [SM89]D.M.StrongandS.M.Miller.Exceptionhandlingandqualitycontrolinoceoperations.WorkingPaperNumber89-16,BostonUniversity,SchoolofManagement,Boston, pages281{288,1992. mentofcomputerscience,universityofcoloradoatboulder,1994. MA,1989. [Saa94]H.Saastamoinen.Exceptions:Threeviewsandataxonomy.Technicalreport,Depart- D.Coleman,editor,GroupWare'92,1992. [SMS94]H.Saastamoinen,M.Markkanen,andV.Savolainen.Surveyofexceptionsinoceinformationsystems.Technicalreport,CU-CS ,DepartmentofComputerScience, [Zis77]M.D.Zisman.Representation,SpecicationandAutomationofOceProcedures.PhD [Wor]WorkowManagementCoalition.Glossary-AWorkowManagementCoalitionSpecication.http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk:80/WfMC/glossary.html. Technicalreport,MCCTechnicalReportCT ,Austin,Texas,1992. [SR92]B.SinghandG.L.Rein.Roleinteractionnets(rins):Aprocessdescriptionformalism. thesis,1977. UniversityofColoradoatBoulder,

16 92-03OntheIrrelevanceofEdgeOrientationsontheAcyclicDirectedTwoDisjointPathsProblem,C.L.Lucchesi,M.C.M.T.Giglio C.L.Lucchesi,T.Kowaltowski RelatoriosTecnicos{ PointSetPatternMatchingind-Dimensions,P.J.deRezende,D.T.Lee 92-01ApplicationsofFiniteAutomataRepresentingLargeVocabularies, 92-04ANoteonPrimitivesfortheManipulationofGeneralSubdivisionsand 92-05An(l;u)-TransversalTheoremforBipartiteGraphs,C.L.Lucchesi, thecomputationofvoronoidiagrams,w.jacometti 92-08MaintainingIntegrityConstraintsacrossVersionsinaDatabase, 92-07NewExperimentalResultsForBipartiteMatching,J.C.Setubal 92-06ImplementingIntegrityControlinActiveDatabases,C.B.Medeiros, C.B.Medeiros,G.Jomier,W.Cellary M.J.Andrade D.H.Younger 92-12BrowsingandQueryinginObject-OrientedDatabases,J.L.deOliveira, 92-10ExamplesofInformalbutRigorousCorrectnessProofsforTreeTraversing 92-09OnClique-CompleteGraphs,C.L.Lucchesi,C.P.Mello,J.L.Szwarcter 92-11DebuggingAidsforStatechart-BasedSystems,V.G.S.Elias,H.Liesenberg R.deO.Anido Algorithms,T.Kowaltowski 15

17 93-02TheHierarchicalRingProtocol:AnEcientSchemeforReadingReplicatedData,NabordasC.Mendonca,RicardodeO.Anido HansK.E.LiesenbergRelatoriosTecnicos{ AlexBFSAlgorithmforProperIntervalGraphRecognition,CelinaM.H SistemaGerenciadordeProcessamentoCooperativo,Ivonne.M.Carrazana, 93-06Implementac~aodeumBancodeDadosRelacionalDotadodeumaInterface Lucchesi 93-03MatchingAlgorithmsforBipartiteGraphs,HerbertA.BaierSaip,ClaudioL TransformingStatechartsintoReactiveSystems,AntonioG.FigueiredoFilho, 93-07EstadogramasnoDesenvolvimentodeInterfaces,FabioN.deLucena,Hans defigueiredo,jo~aomeidanis,celiap.demello Nelson.C.Machado,Celio.C.Guimar~aes Cooperativa,NascifA.AbousalhNeto,AriadneM.B.R.Carvalho 93-10Minimizac~aodoConsumodeEnergiaemumSistemaparaAquisic~aode 93-08IntrospectionandProjectioninReasoningaboutOtherAgents,Jacques 93-09Codicac~aodeSequ^enciasdeImagenscomQuantizac~aoVetorial,Carlos AntonioReinaldoCosta,PauloLciodeGeus Wainer DadosControladoporMicrocomputador,PauloCesarCentoducatte,Nelson K.E.Liesenberg 93-13ModellingGeographicInformationSystemsusinganObjectOriented 93-12Boole'sconditionsofpossibleexperienceandreasoningunderuncertainty, 93-11AnImplementationStructureforRM-OSI/ISOTransactionProcessing PierreHansen,BrigitteJaumard,MarcusPoggideArag~ao Madeira ApplicationContexts,FlavioMoraisdeAssisSilva,EdmundoRobertoMauro CastroMachado 93-15UsingExtendedHierarchicalQuorumConsensustoControlReplicated 93-14ManagingTimeinObject-OrientedDatabases,LincolnM.Oliveira,Claudia Framework,FatimaPires,ClaudiaBauzerMedeiros,ArdemirisBarrosSilva 93-17MetodologiasparaConvers~aodeEsquemasemSistemasdeBancosdeDadosHeterog^eneos,RonaldoLopesdeOliveira,GeovaneCayresMagalh~aes Data:fromTraditionalVotingtoLogicalStructures,NabordasChagasMendonca,RicardodeOliveiraAnido Kowaltowski,EvandroBacarin 93-16LL{AnObjectOrientedLibraryLanguageReferenceManual,Tomasz

18 93-18RuleApplicationinGIS{aCaseStudy,ClaudiaBauzerMedeiros,Geovane 93-19Modelamento,Simulac~aoeSntesecomVHDL,CarlosGeraldoKrugereMario 93-20ReectionsonUsingStatechartstoCaptureHuman-ComputerInterface CayresMagalh~aes 93-22MinimizationofBinaryAutomata,TomaszKowaltowski,ClaudioLeonardoLucchesieJorgeStol 93-21ApplicationsofFiniteAutomatainDebuggingNaturalLanguageVocabularies,TomaszKowaltowski,ClaudioLeonardoLucchesieJorgeStol LucioC^ortes Behaviour,FabioNogueiradeLucenaeHansLiesenberg 93-23RethinkingthednaFragmentAssemblyProblem,Jo~aoMeidanis 93-24EGOLib UmaBibliotecaOrientadaaObjetosGracos,EduardoAguiar 93-27AUniedCharacterizationofChordal,Interval,IndierenceandOther 93-25Compreens~aodeAlgoritmosatravesdeAmbientesDedicadosaAnimac~ao, 93-26GeoLab:AnEnvironmentforDevelopmentofAlgorithmsinComputational Patrocnio,PedroJussieudeRezende 93-28ProgrammingDialogueControlofUserInterfacesUsingStatecharts,Fabio ClassesofGraphs,Jo~aoMeidanis Geometry,PedroJussieudeRezende,WelsonR.Jacometti RackelValadaresAmorim,PedroJussieudeRezende 93-29EGOLib{ManualdeRefer^encia,EduardoAguiarPatrocnioePedroJussieude NogueiradeLucenaeHansLiesenberg Rezende 17

19 94-03OAlgoritmoKMPatravesdeAut^omatos,MarcusVinciusA.Andradee 94-01AStatechartEnginetoSupportImplementationsofComplexBehaviour, 94-02Incorporac~aodoTempoemumsgbdOrientadoaObjetos,^AngeloRoncalli AlencarBrayner,ClaudiaBauzerMedeiros FabioNogueiradeLucena,HansK.E.Liesenberg RelatoriosTecnicos{ TimesAssncronos:UmaNovaTecnicaparaoFlowShopProblem,Helvio 94-04OnEdge-ColouringIndierenceGraphs,CelinaM.H.deFigueiredo,Jo~aoMeidanis,CeliaPicinindeMello PereiraPeixotoePedroSergiodeSouza ClaudioL.Lucchesi 94-05UsingVersionsingis,ClaudiaBauzerMedeirosandGenevieveJomier 94-10Introduc~aoaosEstadogramas,FabioN.deLucena,HansK.E.Liesenberg 94-09APrologmorphologicalanalyserforPortuguese,JacquesWainer,Alexandre 94-08Reasoningaboutanotheragentthroughempathy,JacquesWainer 94-07InterfacesHomem-Computador:UmaPrimeiraIntroduc~ao,FabioNogueira 94-11MatchingCoveredGraphsandSubdivisionsofK4andC6,MarceloH.de Farcic delucenaehansk.e.liesenberg 94-12UmaMetodologiadeEspecicac~aodeTimesAssncronos,HelvioPereira Peixoto,PedroSergiodeSouza CarvalhoandClaudioL.Lucchesi 18

20 95-03W3noEnsinodeGraduac~ao?,HansLiesenberg 95-02Adaptiveenumerationofimplicitsurfaceswithanearithmetic,LuizHenriquedeFigueiredo,JorgeStolsional,PedroJ.deRezende,RenatoFileto RelatoriosTecnicos{ Paradigmasdealgoritmosnasoluc~aodeproblemasdebuscamultidimen GuaranteeingFullFaultCoverageforUIO-BasedMethods,RicardoAnido 95-07Xchart-BasedComplexDialogueDevelopment,FabioNogueiradeLucena, 95-05ProtocolsforMaintainingConsistencyofReplicatedData,RicardoAnido, 95-04Agreedymethodforedge-colouringoddmaximumdegreedoublychordal N.C.Mendonca andanacavalli HansK.E.Liesenberg graphs,celinam.h.defigueiredo,jo~aomeidanis,celiapicinindemello 95-08ADirectManipulationUserInterfaceforQueryingGeographicDatabases, 95-10AHighlyRecongurableNeighborhoodImageProcessorbasedonFunctionalProgramming,NeucimarJ.Leite,MarceloA.deBarros JulianoLopesdeOliveira,ClaudiaBauzerMedeiros 95-11ProcessadordeVizinhancaparaFiltragemMorfologica,IlkaMarinhoBarros, 95-09BasesfortheMatchingLatticeofMatchingCoveredGraphs,ClaudioL ModelosComputacionaisparaProcessamentoDigitaldeImagensemArquiteturasParalelas,NeucimarJer^onimoLeite RobertodeAlencarLotufo,NeucimarJer^onimoLeite Lucchesi,MarceloH.Carvalho 95-16AgentesReplicanteseAlgoritmosdeEco,MarcosJ.C.Euzebio 95-15NP-HardnessResultsforTension-FreeLayout,C.F.X.deMendoncaN.,P VertexSplittingandTension-FreeLayout,P.Eades,C.F.X.deMendoncaN ModelosdeComputac~aoParalelaeProjetodeAlgoritmos,RonaldoParente 95-17AnaisdaIIOcinaNacionalemProblemasCombinatorios:Teoria,AlgoritmoseAplicac~oes,Editores:MarcusViniciusS.PoggideArag~ao,CidCarvalho Eades,C.L.Lucchesi,J.Meidanis demenezesejo~aocarlossetubal 95-18AsynchronousTeams:AMulti-AlgorithmApproachforSolvingCombinatorialMultiobjectiveOptimizationProblems,RosianedeFreitasRodrigues, desouza PedroSergiodeSouza 19

Oconteudodopresenterelatorioedeunicaresponsabilidadedo(s)autor(es). (Thecontentsofthisreportarethesoleresponsibilityoftheauthor(s).

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