CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 3/e

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1 CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 3/e 2005 Barbara D. Miller Exam Copy ISBN (Please use above number to order your exam copy.) Visit to contact your local Allyn & Bacon/Longman representative. p r e f a c e The pages of this Preface may have slight variations in final published form. Allyn & Bacon 75 Arlington St., Suite 300 Boston, MA

2 CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

3 pick up cover image for full bleed THIRD EDITION CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY BARBARA D. MILLER Georgetown University Boston New York San Francisco Mexico City Montreal Toronto London Madrid Munich Paris Hong Kong Singapore Tokyo Cape Town Sydney

4 Library of Cataloging -in-publication Data Rubenstein, James M. The cultural landscape: an introduction to human geography/james M. Rubenstein. 6th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN Microbiology. I. II. Title AA000.A dc21 CIP Senior Editor: Linda Schreiber Executive Editor: Editor in Chief: Paul F. Corey Editorial Director: Tim Bozik Development Editor: Betsy Dilernia Assistant Vice President of Production & Manufacturing: David W. Riccardi Executive Managing Editor: Kathleen Schiaparelli Assistant Managing Editor: Lisa Kinne Production Editor: Debra A. Wechsler Creative Director: Paula Maylahn Associate Creative Director: Amy Rosen Art Director: Heather Scott Assistant to Art Director: John Christiana Art Manager: Gus Vibal Art Editor: Karen Branson Interior Design: Douglas & Gayle, Anne Flanagan Acknowledgements for figures appear on pp , 1996, 1993, 1990 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. Simon & Schuster/A Viacom Company Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America ISBN Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Toronto Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S.A., Mexico Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo Simon & Schuster Asia Pte, Ltd., Singapore Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro PART I PART II BRIEF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY 1 Anthropology and the Study of Culture Methods in Cultural Anthropology 000 ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FOUNDATIONS 3 Economies and Their Modes of Production Consumption and Exchange Birth and Death Personality, Identity, and Human Development Illness and Healing 000 PART III SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 8 Marriage and Domestic Life Social Groups and Social Stratification Politics and Leadership Social Order and Social Conflict 000 PART IV SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS 12 Communication Religion Expressive Culture 000 PART V CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL CHANGE 15 People on the Move Developing Anthropology 000 V

5 CONTENTS PART I INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY PART I INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY 1 Anthropology and the Study of Culture Methods in Cultural Anthropology 000 THE FOUR FIELDS OF GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY 000 Archaeology 000 Biological or Physical Anthropology 000 Lessons Applied: Orangutan Research Leads to Orangutan Advocacy 000 Linguistic Anthropology 000 Cultural Anthropology 000 Applied Anthropology: Separate Field or Cross-Cutting Focus? 000 INTRODUCING CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY 000 A Brief History of the Field 000 The Concept of Culture 000 Multiple Cultural Worlds 000 Unity and Diversity: Tejano Women and Tamales Distinctive Features of Cultural Anthropology THREE THEORETICAL DEBATES 000 Biological Determinism versus Cultural Constructionism 000 Critical Thinking: Adolescent Stress: Biologically Determined or Culturally Constructed? 000 Interpretivism versus Cultural Materialism 000 Individual Agency versus Structurism 000 CHANGING METHODS IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY 000 From the Armchair to the Field 000 Participant Observation: An Evolving Method 000 DOING RESEARCH IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY 000 Beginning the Fieldwork Process 000 Critical Thinking: Shells and Skirts in the Trobriand Islands 000 Working in the Field 000 Fieldwork Techniques 000 Lessons Applied: Multiple Methods in a Needs Assessment Study in Canada 000 Recording Culture 000 Data Analysis 000 SPECIAL ISSUES IN FIELDWORK 000 Fieldwork Ethics 000 Unity and Diversity: Sex Is a Sensitive Subject 000 Danger in the Field 000 Accountability and Collaborative Research 000 vii

6 PART II ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FOUNDATIONS Economies and Their Modes of Production 000 Consumption and Exchange 000 Birth and Death 000 Personality, Identity, and Human Development 000 CULTURE AND ECONOMIES 000 Typologies: Modes of Production 000 Links: Globalization and the World Economy 000 MODES OF PRODUCTION 000 Foraging 000 Unity and Diversity: Hare Indians of Northwest Canada and the Importance of Dogs 000 Horticulture 000 Pastoralism 000 Agriculture 000 Lessons Applied: The Global Network of Indigenous Knowledge Resource Centers 000 Critical Thinking: Was the Invention of Agriculture at Terrible Mistake? 000 Industrialism and Post-Industrialism 000 CHANGING MODES OF PRODUCTION 000 Changing Foragers: The Tiwi of Northern Australia 000 Changing Horticulturalists: The Mundurucu of the Brazilian Amazon 000 Changing Pastoralists: Herders of Mongolia 000 Changing Family Farmers: The Maya of Chiapas, Mexico 000 Changing Industrialists: Taiwanese Manufacturers in South Africa 000 THE BIG QUESTIONS REVISITED KEY CONCEPTS SUGGESTING READINGS CULTURE AND CONSUMPTION 000 What Is Consumption? 000 Modes of Consumption 000 Critical Thinking: Can the Internet Create Responsible Consumers? 000 Consumption Funds 000 Consumption Inequalities Forbidden Consumption: Food Taboos 000 CULTURE AND EXCHANGE 000 What Is Exchanged? 000 Unity and Diversity: The Rules of Hospitality in Oman 000 Modes of Exchange 000 Lessons Applied: Assessing the Impact of Native American Casinos 000 Theories of Exchange 000 Changing Patterns of Consumption and Exchange 000 Cash Cropping and Declining Nutrition 000 The Lure of Western Goods 000 The White Bread Takeover 000 Privatizationís Effects in Russia and Eastern Europe 000 Credit Card Debt 000 Continuities and Resistance: The Enduring Potlatch 000 CULTURE AND REPRODUCTION 000 The Foraging Mode of Reproduction 000 The Agricultural Mode of Reproduction 000 The Industrial Mode of Reproduction 000 SEXUAL INTERCOURSE AND FERTILITY 000 Sexual Intercourse 000 Fertility Decision Making 000 Critical Thinking: Family Planning Programs in Bangladesh 000 Fertility Control 000 CULTURE AND DEATH 000 Infanticide 000 Suicide 000 Mortality Associated with Epidemics 000 Lessons Applied: Research on Local Cultural Patterns for Improved Orphan Care in Kenya 000 VIOLENCE 000 Culture, Personality, and Identity 000 The Culture and Personality School 000 Class and Personality 000 Unity and Diversity: Corporate Interests and Male Personality Formation in Japan 000 Person-Centered Ethnography 000 Personality and Identity Formation from Infancy through Adolescence 000 Birth and Infancy 000 Lessons Applied: The Role of Cultural Knowledge in Conflict Mediation in a U.S. Hospital Nursery 000 Socialization during Childhood 000 Adolescence and Identity 000 Critical Thinking: Cultural Relativism and Female Genital Cutting 000 Personality and Identity in Adulthood 000 Becoming a Parent 000 Middle Age 000 The Senior Years 000 The Final Passage 000 viii CONTENTS CONTENTS ix

7 PREFACE PART V CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL CHANGE 15 People on the Move 000 CATEGORIES OF MIGRATION 000 Categories Based on Boundaries 000 Categories Based on Reason for Moving 000 Unity and Diversity: Spirit Possession and School Girls in Madagascar 000 THE NEW IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 000 The New Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean 000 The New Immigrants from East Asia 000 The New Immigrants from Southeast Asia 000 The New Immigrants from South Asia: Asian Indians of New York Maintain Their Culture 000 The New Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union 000 MIGRATION POLICIES AND PROGRAMS IN A GLOBALIZING WORLD 000 Inclusion and Exclusion 000 Migration and Human Rights 000 Critical Thinking: Haitian Cane Cutters in the Dominican Republic A Case of Structure or Human Agency? 000 Protecting Migrants Health 000 Lessons Applied: Studying Pastoralists Movements for Risk Assessment and Service Delivery Development Anthropology 000 TWO PROCESSES OF CULTURAL CHANGE 000 Invention 000 Critical Thinking: Social Effects of the Green Revolution 000 Diffusion 000 Lessons Applied: The Saami, Snowmobiles, and the Need for Social Impact Analysis 000 APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT 000 Theories and Models 000 Institutional Approaches to Development 000 The Development Project 000 Methods in Development Anthropology 000 EMERGING ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT 000 Indigenous Peoples Development 000 Women and Development 000 Human Rights and Development 000 Unity and Diversity: Human Rights versus Animal Rights The Case of the Gray Whale 000 GLOSSARY 000 REFERENCES 000 INDEX 000 Why would anybody want to write an introductory cultural anthropology textbook? Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. feugiat duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED Morem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. feugiat duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suslorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat erci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla equat. Morem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi.. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE THIRD EDITION Morem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt. Recruitment principles: Criteria for determining admission to the unit. Perpetuity: Assumption that the group will continue to exist indefinitely. Identity markers: Particular characteristics that distinguish it from others, such as costume, membership card, or title. Procedures: Prescribed rules and practices for behavior of group members. Autonomy: Ability to regulate its own affairs. (Tiffany 1979:71 72) Morem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation xiv CONTENTS xv

8 Unity and Diversity THE BIG QUESTIONS REVISITED GLOSSARY SOCIALIZATION AND WOMEN POLITICIANS IN KOREA PARENTAL ATTITUDES affect children s involvement in public political roles. Chunghee Sarah Soh s (1993) research in the Republic of Korea reveals how variation in paternal roles affects daughters political leadership roles. Korean women members of the National Assembly can be divided into two categories: elected members (active seekers) versus appointed members (passive recipients). Korea is a strongly patrilineal and male-dominated society, so women political leaders represent a notable deviance from the usual gender-role expectations (54). This deviance is not stigmatized in Korean culture; rather it is admired within the category of yo go l. A yo go l is a woman with manly accomplishments. Her personality traits include extraordinary bravery, strength, integrity, generosity, and charisma. Physically, a yo go l is likely to be taller, larger, and stronger than most women, and to have a stronger voice than other women. An intriguing question follows from Soh s findings: What explains the socialization of different types of fathers those who help daughters develop leadership qualities and those who socialize daughters for passivity? A political rally of indigenous people in Bolivia. (Source: Roshani Kothari) major economic forms (see Chapter 3). Recall that the categories of economies represent a continuum, suggesting that there is overlap between different types rather than clear boundaries; this overlap exists between types of political organization as well. al organization of foraging groups. Since foraging/ 306 PART I Introduction to Cultural Anthropology FOOD FOR THOUGHT Given your microcultural experience, what socialization factors might influence boys or girls to become politicians? Bands Anthropologists use the term band to refer to the political organization of foraging groups. Since foraging has been the predominant mode of production for almost all of human history, the band has been the most longstanding form of political organization. A band comprises a small group of households, between twenty and a few hundred people at most, who are related through kinship. These units come together at certain times of the year, dependingthese units come together at certain times of the year, depending on their foraging patterns and ritual schedule. Band membership is flexible: If a person has a serious disagreement with another person or a spouse, one option is to leave that band and join another. Leadership is informal in most cases, with no one person being named as a permanent leader for the whole group at all times. Depending on the events at hand, such as organizing the group to relocate or to send people out to hunt, a particular person may come to the fore as a leader for that time. That person s advice and knowledge about the task may be especially respected. There is no social stratification between leaders and followers. A band leader is the first among equals. Leadership is informal and is based on the quality of the individual s advice and personality. If a person gives bad advice, people will not continue to listen. Band leaders have limited authority or influence, but no power. Anthropologists use the term band to refer to the political organization of foraging groups. Since foraging has been the predominant mode of production for almost all ullamcorper suseum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse concipit lobortis nisl ut igduis dolore te feugait nulla fact is that you are the greatist. BOXED FEATURES Morem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. feugiat duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. SUPPLEMENTS WHAT does political anthropology cover? Political anthropology is the study of power relationships in the public domain and how they vary and change cross-culturally. Political anthropologists study the concept of power, as well as related concepts such as authority and influence. They have discovered differences and similarities between politics and political organization in small scale societies and large-scale societies as they looked at issues such as leadership roles and responsibilities, the social distribution of power, and the emergence of the state. WHAT are the major cross-cultural forms of political organization and leadership? Patterns of political organization and leadership vary according to mode of production and global economic relationships. Foragers have a minimal form of leadership and political organization in the band. Band membership is flexible. If a band member has a serious disagreement with another person or a spouse, one option is to leave that band and join another. Leadership in bands is informal. A tribe is a more formal type of political organization than the band. A tribe comprises several bands or lineage groups, with a headman or headwoman as leader. Big-man and big-woman political systems are an expanded form of tribe, with leaders having influence over people in several different villages. Chiefdoms may include several thousand people. Rank is inherited and social divisions exist between the chiefly lineage or lineages and non-chiefly groups. A state is a centralized political unit encompassing many communities and possessing coercive power. States arose in several locations with the emergence of intensive agriculture, increased surpluses, and increased population density. Most states are hierarchical and patriarchal. Strategies for building nationalism include imposition of one language as the national language, monuments, museums, songs, poetry, and other mediarelayed messages about the motherland. Ethnic/national politics have emerged within and across states as groups compete for either increased rights within the state or autonomy from it. HOW are politics and political organization changing? The anthropological study of change in leadership and political organization has documented several trends, most of which are related to the influences of European colonialism or contemporary capitalist globalization. Post-colonial nations struggle with internal ethnic divisions and pressures to democratize. Women as leaders of states are still a tiny minority. In some groups, however, women leaders are gaining ground, as among the Seneca. Globalized communication networks promote the growth of global politics. Cultural anthropologists have rarely addressed the topic of international political affairs and the role of international organizations such as the United Nations. However, they are increasingly interested in demonstrating the usefulness of cultural anthropology in global peacekeeping and conflict resolution. CHAPTER 1 Anthropology and the Study of Culture 313 Morem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. feugiat duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qgait nulla facilisi.. Instructor s Manual and Test Bank Morem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. feugiat duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Barbara D. Miller Washington, D.C. A-DNA A nucleotide sequence between the promoter and the structural gene of some operons that can act to regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. abortive transduction Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication acentric chromosome See chromosomal aberration. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic banding pattern or selective staining. acrocentric chromosome Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication active immunity Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication active site See chromosomal aberration. adaptation Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic additive genes A nucleotide sequence between the promoter regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. albinism Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication attenuation A nucleotide sequence between the promoter regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. autosomes Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication B-DNA See chromosomal aberration. back-cross Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic bacteriophage Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication bacteroprstatic Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication balanced polymorphism See chromosomal aberration. Barr body Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic banding pattern or selective staining. base ama;pgie A nucleotide sequence between the promoter regutoon of the structural gene. base substitution Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication of one diploid set of chrmosomes gene. buoyant density Technique for the differential astaining of CAAT box Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication canonical sequence Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication camp See chromosomal aberration. Cro protein Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic crossing over A nucleotide sequence between the promoter regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. cytokinesis Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication cytological map Technique for the differential astaining of cytoplasmic inheritance A nucleotide sequence between the xvi PREFACE xvii

9 can act to regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. dalton Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic banding pattern or selective staining. Darwinian fitness Technique for the differential astaining of deficiency (deleteion) A nucleotide sequence between the can act to regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. deme Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication of one diploid set of chrmosomes. denatured DNA Technique for the differential astaining of deficiency (deleteion) A nucleotide sequence between the can act to scriptoon of the structural gene. deme Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication of one diploid set of chrmosomes. deme Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication of one diploid set of chrmosomes. deme Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication of B-DNA See chromosomal aberration. back-cross Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic bacteriophage Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication bacteroprstatic Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication balanced polymorphism See chromosomal aberration. Barr body Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic banding pattern or selective staining. base ama;pgie A nucleotide sequence between the promoter regutoon of the structural gene. base substitution Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication buoyant density Technique for the differential astaining of base ama;pgie A nucleotide sequence between the promoter regutoon of the structural gene. base substitution Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication buoyant density Technique for the differential astaining of CAAT box Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication canonical sequence Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication camp See chromosomal aberration. Cro protein Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic crossing over A nucleotide sequence between the promoter regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. cytokinesis Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication cytological map Technique for the differential astaining of cytoplasmic inheritance A nucleotide sequence between the can act to regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. dalton Technique for the differential astaining of mitotic or meiotic chromsomes to produce a characteristic banding pattern or selective staining. Darwinian fitness Technique for the differential astaining of deficiency (deleteion) A nucleotide sequence between the can act to regulate the transit of RNA polymerase and thus control transcriptoon of the structural gene. deme Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication of one diploid set of chrmosomes. denatured DNA Technique for the differential astaining of deficiency (deleteion) A nucleotide sequence between the can act to scriptoon of the structural gene. deleteion Polyploid condidtion resulting fromt he replication Ethics of the American Anthropological Association. Anthropology Newsletter, September. Canadian Sikh Study and Teaching Society. n.d. Anand Karj: Marriage Ceremony of the Sikhs. Vancouver: Canadian Skih Study and Teaching Society. Carrithers, Michael Is Anthropology Art or Sciende? Current Anthropology. June. Women s Dirversity in a Postcolonial World. Ethics of the American Anthropologicar. REFERENCES Canadian Sikh Study and Teaching Society. n.d. Anand Karj: Marriage Ceremony of the Sikhs. Vancouver: Canadian Skih Study and Teaching Society. Ethics of the American Anthropological Association. Anthropology Newsletter, September. Minorities in Britain. Edited by Sallie. xviii GLOSSARY xix

10 Canadian Sikh Study and Teaching Society. n.d. Anand Karj: Marriage Ceremony of the Sikhs. Vancouver: Canadian Skih Study and Teaching Society. Carrithers, Michael Is Anthropology Art or Sciende? Current Anthropology. June. Ethics of the American Anthropological Association. Anthropology Newsletter, September. Canadian Sikh Study and Teaching Society. n.d. Anand Karj: Marriage Ceremony of the Sikhs. Vancouver: Canadian Skih Study and Teaching Society. Carrithers, Michael Is Anthropology Art or Sciende? Current Anthropology. June. Carrithers, Michael Is Anthropology Art or Sciende? Current Anthropology. June Re-Orienting Western Feminissms: Women s Dirversity in a Postcolonial World. London: Cambridge University Press. Ethics of the American Anthropological Association. Anthropology Newsletter, September. Canadian Sikh Study and Teaching Society. n.d. Anand Karj: Marriage Ceremony of the Sikhs. Vancouver: Canadian Skih Study and Teaching Society. Carrithers, Michael Is Anthropology Art or Sciende? Current Anthropology. June. Ethics of the American Anthropological Association. Anthropology Newsletter, September. A ABA Juvenile and Child Welfare Reporter, 65n Abbot, Grace, 45 Abortion, 53, 55 IDX1 Accessibility, 58, 81t, , , Here is a turnover; here is a turnover IDX2 coping with accessibility problems, 202 Here is a turnover here is a turnover IDX3 cultural differences and, 201 Here is a turnover here is a turnover Here is a turnover here is a turnover definition of, 201 indigenous workers and, 202 language differences and, 201 service system ideal, 201 agencies, specialized racial and ethnic, service system ideal, 201 Accountability, 81t, 112, , 285, 286 citizen participation and, 209 in federations, 199 lack of, as a contrary effect, 250 mechanisms for, 206 Activism. See Social activism Adams, Jane, 35 Adaptability across program users, 79t, 142 Adequacy, 29 31, 79t, , 184 Administrative appeals. See Due process issues in social programs Administrative complexity, 79t, 141, 161 Administrative costs, 142 Administrative discretion. See Discretion, administrative Administrative hearings. See Fair hearings Administrative law judges, 158, 206 principle of, 159, Administrative rule, 5, 80t, 85, 151, , 246, 278 Administrative system. See Service delivery system Administrators, 71, 74 Adoption, 61, 62, 183, 211 Advocacy. See Client advocacy AFDC. See Aid to Families of Dependent Children Affective disorders, 261 African Americans. See Blacks Aid to Families of Dependent Children (AFDC), 1, 34n, 138, 145, 154, 161, 161t, 165, 166, 171, 178, , , 250, 253, 254 AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, 173 Alcoholics Anonymous, 202 Alice in Wonderland, 257 Alienation, 164 Alinsky, Saul, 227 American Bar Association (ABA), 225 American Cancer Society, 225 American Diabetes Association, 225 American Medical Association (AMA), 42, 267 American Psychiatric Association, 267 American Red Cross, 225, 227 Analyst, personal value perspective of, 79t, Andrukaitus, S. N. 31n Appeals. See Fair hearings; Due process issues in social programs Arnhoff, F. N., 214n Arnstein, Sherry, 209 INDEX Asset test. See Means test Association of Social Security Administrative Law Judges, 158 Attachment to the workforce, 80t, 162 B Ball, Robert, 181 Barnet, C., 214n Barton, Walter, 291n, 292n Basic Economic Opportunity Grant (BEOG), 165 Bass, R., 288, 293n Bassuk, E., 290, 292n, 293n Baumheier, Edward D., 180 Beam, B. T., 243n, 244n Bell, Winifred, 240, 244n Belous, Fred, 49 Benefits and services adaptability across users, 79t administration, complexity of, 79t analysis of, examples, coerciveness, 79t consumer sovereignty, 79t cost effectiveness, 79t evaluation criteria, 79t trade offs among, 79t political risk, 79t social problem analysis, fit with, 79t stigmatization, 79t target efficiency, 79t cash, 79t, 132, 137t commodities, 135, 137t credit, 79t expert services, 79t loan guarantees, 79t material goods and commodities, 79t positive discrimination, 79t power over decisions, 79t protective regulations, 79t xx REFERENCES xxi

11 subsidy, 79t supervision of deviance, 79t vouchers, 79t Bernstein, Blanche, 188n BEOG. See Basic Economic Opportunity Grant Besharov, D., 51, 64n Best, Fred, 49 Beveridge, William, 152 Bickman, L., 214n Bill of Rights, 57 Bill of patients rights, 286 Birth control, 246 Blacks, 24, 184 adoption agencies for, marriage and the income guarantee experiment for, 177 remarriage rates and, 177 service delivery organizations and, 203 social agencies operated by and for, 211 youth unemployment and, Blair, L. H., 214n Blake, William, 215n Block grants, , 271, 285, Bradshaw, Jonathan, 210, 215n Brager, George, 214n Brittain, John, 243n Brookings Institution, 175 Brown, David J., 64n Brown, John, 210, 214n Brown, Michael, 157, 187n Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, 53, 64n, 187n Bureaucracy, 61, 63, 195 Burns, Evelyn, 95n, 255n Burt, M. R., 214n, 293n BEOG. See Basic Economic Opportunity Grant Besharov, D., 51, 64n Best, Fred, 49 Beveridge, William, 152 Bickman, L., 214n Bill of Rights, 57 Bill of patients rights, 286 Birth control, 246 Blacks, 24, 184 adoption agencies for, marriage and the income guarantee experiment for, 177 remarriage rates and, 177 service delivery organizations and, 203 social agencies operated by and for, 211 youth unemployment and, Blair, L. H., 214n Blake, William, 215n Block grants, , 271, 285, Bradshaw, Jonathan, 210, 215n Brager, George, 214n Brittain, John, 243n Brookings Institution, 175 Brown, David J., 64n Brown, John, 210, 214n Brown, Michael, 157, 187n Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, 53, 64n, 187n Bureaucracy, 61, 63, 195 Burns, Evelyn, 95n, 255n Burt, M. R., 214n, 293n BEOG. See Basic Economic Opportunity Grant Besharov, D., 51, 64n Best, Fred, 49 Beveridge, William, 152 Bickman, L., 214n Bill of Rights, 57 Bill of patients rights, 286 Birth control, 246 Blacks, 24, 184 adoption agencies for, marriage and the income guarantee experiment for, 177 remarriage rates and, 177 service delivery organizations and, 203 social agencies operated by and for, 211 youth unemployment and, Blair, L. H., 214n Blake, William, 215n Block grants, , 271, 285, Bradshaw, Jonathan, 210, 215n Brager, George, 214n Brittain, John, 243n Brookings Institution, 175 Brown, David J., 64n Brown, John, 210, 214n Brown, Michael, 157, 187n Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, 53, 64n, 187n Bureaucracy, 61, 63, 195 Burns, Evelyn, 95n, 255n Burt, M. R., 214n, 293n BEOG. See Basic Economic Opportunity Grant Besharov, D., 51, 64n Best, Fred, 49 Beveridge, William, 152 Bickman, L., 214n Bill of Rights, 57 Bill of patients rights, 286 Birth control, 246 Blacks, 24, 184 adoption agencies for, marriage and the income guarantee experiment for, 177 remarriage rates and, 177 service delivery organizations and, 203 social agencies operated by and for, 211 youth unemployment and, Blair, L. H., 214n Blake, William, 215n Block grants, , 271, 285, Bradshaw, Jonathan, 210, 215n Brager, George, 214n Brittain, John, 243n Brookings Institution, 175 Brown, David J., 64n Brown, John, 210, 214n Brown, Michael, 157, 187n Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, 53, 64n, 187n Bureaucracy, 61, 63, 195 Burns, Evelyn, 95n, 255n Burt, M. R., 214n, 293n BEOG. See Basic Economic Opportunity Grant Besharov, D., 51, 64n Best, Fred, 49 Beveridge, William, 152 Bickman, L., 214n Bill of Rights, 57 Bill of patients rights, 286 Birth control, 246 Blacks, 24, 184 adoption agencies for, marriage and the income guarantee experiment for, 177 remarriage rates and, 177 service delivery organizations and, 203 social agencies operated by and for, 211 youth unemployment and, Blair, L. H., 214n Blake, William, 215n Block grants, , 271, 285, Bradshaw, Jonathan, 210, 215n Brager, George, 214n Brittain, John, 243n Brookings Institution, 175 Brown, David J., 64n Brown, John, 210, 214n Brown, Michael, 157, 187n Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, 53, 64n, 187n Bureaucracy, 61, 63, 195 Burns, Evelyn, 95n, 255n Burt, M. R., 214n, 293n xxii INDEX

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