# Part 2: Operational Amplifiers

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1 Part 2: Operational Amplifiers An operational amplifier is a very high gain amplifier. Op amps can be used in many different ways. Two of the most common uses are a) as comparators b) as amplifiers (either NON-INVERTING or INVERTING amplifiers) An op amp has TWO inputs; one non-inverting (called the + input) and one inverting (called the - input). The voltage at the output (V o ) depends on the DIFFERENCE between the voltage at the non-inverting input (V + ) and the voltage at the inverting input (V - ). Expressed mathematically, V o = A.(V + - V - ) where A is the gain or voltage amplification of the op amp (typically ) The diagram below shows an op amp together with its circuit symbol. Op amp circuit symbol N.B. Op amps must, of course, always have a battery or some other supply of energy connected to them. However, in many circuit diagrams the supply connections are not drawn. In the experiments which follow, use digital voltmeters. 1

2 Op Amp as COMPARATOR In the circuit below, the non-inverting input is connected to ground, so V + =0. Use the +7 2v 0-7 2v rechargeable battery packs made specially for op amp experiments. Vary the voltage applied to the inverting input (using the variable potential divider) to show that: if V - > 0 then V o = and if V - < 0 then V o = Repeat the experiment with the INVERTING input connected to ground and the non-inverting input connected to the variable potential divider. Now we find: if V + > 0 then V o = and if V + < 0 then V o = 2

3 Op amp as INVERTING AMPLIFIER A feedback resistor is used to reduce the gain of the op amp. In general, the definition of the gain (A) of an amplifier is A = V V In the particular case of an op amp with negative feedback (as in this circuit) it can be shown that the gain can be calculated using Using R in = 10k and R f = 33k, take at least two readings of V in and V o in order to verify this relation. o in R A = R f in 3

4 Op amp as NON-INVERTING amplifier Try a similar experiment but using the circuit shown below: (again, use R in = 10k and R f = 33k) In this case you should be able to prove that the gain is given by R A = 1+ R f in 4

5 Digital Electronics Digital circuits are constructed from electronic switches. The switches are either ON or OFF; there are no half-way states so the only voltages present in a digital circuit are the supply voltage V s (usually +5v) and zero. If a point in a digital circuit is said to be high we mean that it is at a voltage very nearly equal to V s. If the point is said to be low, it means its voltage is very nearly zero. A high state is represented by 1" and a low state by 0. Experiments with LOGIC GATES Logic gates are special switches. One logic gate by itself is not much use. When many gates are connected together, they become very useful; a computer, for example, is basically made from thousands of gates (and other types of special switches). All the gates in the kit (except the inverters) are two-input gates. The voltage which appears at the output depends on the voltages applied to the two inputs. A truth table is a table which shows how the output is related to the inputs. The INVERTER This is sometimes called an inverting gate or NOT gate. The inverter is the simplest logic gate. You can make one (not a very good one) using one transistor and two resistors. If its input is at 1 its output is at 0. If its input is at 0, its output is at 1. In other words, the output is 1 if the input is NOT 1, hence the name NOT gate. The AND gate Connect input A to OUT A and also to INDIC A Connect input B to OUT B and also to INDIC B Connect the output to INDIC C 5

6 Complete the following truth table. This component is called an AND gate because Repeat the experiment using the other gates in the kit. The NAND gate NAND means NOT AND. This component is called a NAND gate because 6

7 The OR gate This component is called an OR gate because The NOR gate This component is called a NOR gate because 7

8 The EXCLUSIVE OR gate Make sure you understand the difference between an OR gate and an EXCLUSIVE OR gate. Using Logic Gates Using an AND gate. Set the oscillator frequency to about 1Hz. Connect input A to OUT A and also to INDIC A Connect input B to OSCIL and also to INDIC B Connect the output to INDIC C 8

9 Look at indicator C (to see what the output is doing) as you connect input A first to 0 then to 1, as shown in the following diagrams. Gate CLOSED (output stays at 0) Gate OPEN (output oscillates) We see that the state of input A determines whether or not the oscillator pulses will appear at the output. In other words, you can open or shut the gate. Gate open, oscillator pulses are passed on to other parts of the circuit; gate closed the oscillator pulses are not passed on. Try the same thing with a NAND gate (and other gates too if you have time). What differences do you notice? David Hoult

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