Rayleigh-Brillouin Scattering in N 2, O 2, and Air

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Rayleigh-Brillouin Scattering in N 2, O 2, and Air"

Transcription

1 Rayleigh-Brillouin Scattering in N 2, O 2, and Air Oliver Reitebuch 1, Benjamin Witschas 1, Ofelia Vieitez 2, Eric-Jan van Duijn 2, Willem van de Water 3, Wim Ubachs 2 1 DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, 2 Vrije Universiteit VU Amsterdam, 3 Eindhoven University Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre

2 A SPONTANEOUS RAYLEIGH-BRILLOUIN SCATTERING EXPERIMENT FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC LIDAR BACKSCATTER Ofelia Vieitez, Eric-Jan van Duijn, Wim Ubachs Laser Centre Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands Afric Meijer, Nico Dam, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen Spontaneous Rayleigh Brillouin scattering experiments Coherent Rayleigh Brillouin scattering experiments Willem van de Water Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands + RUN Theory and TENTI modelling; new code Ad Stoffelen, Jos de Kloe KNMI, de Bilt, Netherlands RB measurements on air, + water vapor Anne Straume, Oliver Le Rille ESA Benjamin Witschas, Oliver Reitebuch DLR Consequences for ALADIN Error budget Look up Tables Study was funded by ESA under ITT AO/1-5467/07/NL/HE Research stay of Witschas at VU Amsterdam was funded by EU FP7/

3 Molecular scattering in air - even more than 100 years after Rayleigh still some open issue IASI 5 nm resolution intensity [a.u.] anti-stokes vibration-rotation Raman lines Stokes vibration-rotation Raman lines [nm] intensity [a.u.] anti-stokes rotational Raman lines Stokes rotational Raman lines -1,4-1,2-1,0-0,8-0,6-0,4-0,2 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 [nm] intensity [a.u.] filter A Cabannes line (Hydrodynamic regime) Cabannes line (Knudsen regime) filter B -3,5-3,0-2,5-2,0-1,5-1,0-0,5 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 pm]

4 355 nm 2.1 µm 10.6 µm 3 km 10 km ±4 GHz ± 0.6 GHz ± 0.1 GHz B. Rye (1998), Appl. Opt., What is the exact lineshape in air? Fiocco and DeWolf (1968) pointed out the difference of Gaussian to Rayleigh-Brillouin lineshape to lidar community Lidar techniques using molecular backscatter and narrow instrumental bandwidths are affected, e.g. wind, T, HSRL Errors for wind retrievals of ADM-Aeolus would be 3% (10 km) to 10% (ground) if Gaussian is used (Dabas et al. 2008) and thus exceeding specification of 0.7% Widely used models for lineshape from Boley et al. (1972) and Tenti et al. (1974) - the Tenti S6 model - are valid for single species, but not for mixtures like air (N 2 +O 2 ) No experimental validation of Tenti S6 model for air; even Tenti S6 was not compared to N 2 for atmospheric pressures Most (or probably all) use Tenti S6 with N 2 gas parameters => Is there a difference between N 2 and air lineshape? What is the influence of the water vapour molecule (up to 4% in atmosphere)?

5 Setup for spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiment at VU Amsterdam Choice 4 : No polarizing optics on detection PM Fabry-Perot etalon Choice 2: 90 o scattering L 7 scattered laser beam light L 1 cleaning L 6 S 2 L 5 L 4 L 3 Choice 1 Laser radiation nm narrowband L 2 M1 S 1 S 3 Choice 3 FSR ~ 7.4 GHz Resolution ~ 0.23 GHz light cleaning enhancement cavity reference laser

6 Measurements and Tenti models at 1000 hpa 3.5x10-4 N mbar 3.0x10-4 N 2 O 2 Air Gaussian Tenti S6 Tenti S7 3.5x10-4 O mbar 3.0x Tenti S6 Tenti S7 3.5x10-4 Air 1000mbar 3.0x Tenti S6 (Air model) Tenti S7 (Air model) Gaussian Intensity [normalized on area] 2.5x x x x x ±3.7 GHz Intensity [normalized to area] 2.5x x x x x Intensity [normalized to area] 2.5x x x x x x x x ±12 % Difference measurement-model [percentage] N mbar Tenti S6 Tenti S7 Gaussian Difference measurement-model [percentage] O mbar Tenti S6 Tenti S7 Difference measurement-model [percentage] 12 Air 1000 mbar Tenti S6 (Air model) Tenti S7 (Air model) Gaussian

7 Measurements and Tenti S6 model at higher pressures For higher pressure 3 spectral features become visible: the central Gross line and the Brillouin doublet Tenti S6 is able to resolve these features Gas parameter with highest uncertainty within Tenti model is bulk viscosity, which is obtained from sound absorption measurements (grey curve) Bulk viscosity was used as fit-parameter to minimize measurement-model difference in this study (black curve)

8 Is there a difference between lineshape of N 2 and air? Rel. difference between lineshape for N 2 and air from measurements and Tenti S6 model at 2000 hpa, 297 K, normalized to maximum of lineshape. Most (or all) use Tenti S6 model with N 2 parameters No measurements of lineshape were performed up to now for air (79% N 2, 21% O 2 ) There is a measurable difference between N 2 and air The difference can be modeled with Tenti S6 using appropriate gas parameters as input for molar mass shear viscosity bulk viscosity thermal conductivity

9 Is there an effect of humidity? intensity [a.u.] 4.0 4, , , , , , , ,5 0 % 0 humidity % humidity varying 100 % humidity varying humidity Atmosphere can contain up to 4 % water vapor (100 % rel. humidity at 37 C) Measurements showed no significant difference between lineshape of dry and humid air up to 2.6% water vapor 0.0 0, , ,5-2, , ,0-0, , , , , , , ,0 deviation [%] frequency [GHz] residual 0% - 100% residual 0% - varying% residual varying - 100% signal ~ sqrt(n) No need to consider water vapor within lineshape model for atmospheric conditions frequency [GHz]

10 Summary Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering was measured at nm, at a scattering angle of 90, at ambient temperature ( 300 K), and for pressures of 0.3 bar to 3 bar for N 2, O 2, and air by a setup at VU Amsterdam with a narrowband laser, a scattering cell within an enhancement cavity, and a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. For the first time the Cabannes lineshape was measured for dry air (N 2 +O 2 ) and for humid air with up to 2.6 % water vapor content. For the first time the lineshapes of N 2 and air were compared to Tenti S6 and S7 model Conclusion It was confirmed that Tenti S6 is (slightly) better than Tenti S7 Bulk viscosity parameter was varied as model input to minimize measurement to model difference => resulted in a factor of 2 higher bulk viscosity values as reported from sound absorption experiments in literature Deviations between Tenti S6 model and measurements are below +-2% for atmospheric pressures, if appropriate gas parameters are used as model input Water vapor does not influence lineshape - at least up to 2.6% content (compared to a maximum atmospheric content of 4%)

Molecular Velocity Distribution in Air

Molecular Velocity Distribution in Air Molecular Velocity Distribution in Air Abstract The present paper contains a description of how the velocity distribution of a molecular gas can be determined using light scattering by light with a wavelength

More information

ADM-Aeolus pre-launch campaigns with an airborne instrument demonstrator

ADM-Aeolus pre-launch campaigns with an airborne instrument demonstrator ADM-Aeolus pre-launch campaigns with an airborne instrument demonstrator Oliver Reitebuch Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Background The ADM-Aeolus instrument ALADIN uses several novel techniques, like

More information

ADM-AEOLUS VERTICAL SAMPLING

ADM-AEOLUS VERTICAL SAMPLING ADM-AEOLUS VERTICAL SAMPLING Ad Stoffelen, Gert-Jan Marseille, Karim Houchi, Jos de Kloe, Otto Hooghoudt (KNMI) Heiner Körnich (MISU), Harald Schyberg (MetNo) Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute,

More information

Fiber optics sensors. J. Dubard. Laboratoire commun de métrologie LNE-CNAM

Fiber optics sensors. J. Dubard. Laboratoire commun de métrologie LNE-CNAM Fiber optics sensors J. Dubard Laboratoire commun de métrologie LNE-CNAM Outline Introduction Sensor metrology needs Biosensor Current sensor Temperature sensor Conclusion 2 Introduction Fiber optics sensors

More information

Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

Spectral Imaging by Upconversion 35 Spectral Imaging by Upconversion Jeppe Seidelin Dam 1, Christian Pedersen 1 and Peter Tidemand-Lichtenberg 1, 1 DTU Fotonik, Deparment of Photonics Engineering, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde,

More information

Calibration and Validation of Wind and Aerosol Measurement by the Mobile Doppler LIDAR

Calibration and Validation of Wind and Aerosol Measurement by the Mobile Doppler LIDAR Project Summary ID. 5291 LIDAR Cal/Val Calibration and Validation of Wind and Aerosol Measurement by the Mobile Doppler LIDAR Zhi-Shen Liu, Bing-Yi Liu, Zhi-Gang Li, Oliver Reitebuch, and Benjamin Witschas

More information

2014 SORCE Science Meeting. Accurate Determination of the TOA Solar Spectral NIR Irradiance Using a Primary Standard Source and the

2014 SORCE Science Meeting. Accurate Determination of the TOA Solar Spectral NIR Irradiance Using a Primary Standard Source and the Accurate Determination of the TOA Solar Spectral NIR Irradiance Using a Primary Standard Source and the Bouguer-Langley Technique. D. Bolsée, N. Pereira, W. Decuyper, D. Gillotay, H. Yu Belgian Institute

More information

Christine E. Hatch University of Nevada, Reno

Christine E. Hatch University of Nevada, Reno Christine E. Hatch University of Nevada, Reno Roadmap What is DTS? How Does it Work? What Can DTS Measure? Applications What is Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS)? Temperature measurement using only

More information

The Wind Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus. Recent Science Activities and Status of Instrument Development

The Wind Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus. Recent Science Activities and Status of Instrument Development The Wind Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus Recent Science Activities and Status of Instrument Development Oliver Reitebuch Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt DLR Oberpfaffenhofen

More information

Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure

Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2014, 1 1. Introduction Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure The laser is a very important optical tool that has found widespread use in science and industry,

More information

Infrared Thermometer Calibration A Complete Guide

Infrared Thermometer Calibration A Complete Guide Infrared Thermometer Calibration A Complete Guide Application note With proper setup and planning, infrared calibrations can be accurate. The steps outlined below should be followed to perform accurate

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing 1 Atmosphere Anything missing in between? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) is radiated by atomic particles at the source (the Sun), propagates through

More information

Raman spectroscoopy. Matti Hotokka Department of Physical Chemistry Åbo Akademi University

Raman spectroscoopy. Matti Hotokka Department of Physical Chemistry Åbo Akademi University Raman spectroscoopy Matti Hotokka Department of Physical Chemistry Åbo Akademi University The phenomenon Electronically excited state Virtual level, light is not absorbed Resonance Raman Vibrational levels

More information

RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR

RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR A. Maghrabi 1 and R. Clay 2 1 Institute of Astronomical and Geophysical Research, King Abdulaziz City For Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086 Riyadh 11442,

More information

Instrumental Analysis CHEM 3420 / 7420G Problem Set 5

Instrumental Analysis CHEM 3420 / 7420G Problem Set 5 Instrumental Analysis CHEM 3420 / 7420G Problem Set 5 Problems 13-1(a-c), 13-2(a-c), 13-3, 13-4, 13-6, 13-7, 13-11, 13-20 13-1 T = 10 -Abs a. 0.038 Abs is 91.6% transmittance b. 0.958 Abs is 11.0% transmittance

More information

We know the shape of the solar spectrum. Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick.

We know the shape of the solar spectrum. Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick. We know the shape of the solar spectrum. How is this spectral shape and irradiance of the solar light affected by the earth s atmosphere? Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick. The

More information

Winter College on Optics: Fundamentals of Photonics - Theory, Devices and Applications

Winter College on Optics: Fundamentals of Photonics - Theory, Devices and Applications 2572-17 Winter College on Optics: Fundamentals of Photonics - Theory, Devices and Applications 10-21 February 2014 Optical Fiber Sensors Basic Principles Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Pisa Italy Optical Fiber

More information

G. Karasinski, T. Stacewicz, S.Chudzynski, W. Skubiszak, S. Malinowski 1, A. Jagodnicka Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Poland

G. Karasinski, T. Stacewicz, S.Chudzynski, W. Skubiszak, S. Malinowski 1, A. Jagodnicka Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Poland P1.7 INVESTIGATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL WITH MULTIWAVELENGTH LIDAR G. Karasinski, T. Stacewicz, S.Chudzynski, W. Skubiszak, S. Malinowski 1, A. Jagodnicka Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University,

More information

VAMP Vertical Aeolus Measurement Positioning

VAMP Vertical Aeolus Measurement Positioning VAMP Vertical Aeolus Measurement Positioning Ad.Stoffelen@knmi.nl Gert-Jan Marseille, Karim Houchi, Jos de Kloe (KNMI) Heiner Körnich (MISU), Harald Schyberg (MetNo) Space Shuttle, 84, 3 pm LT Vertical

More information

3-axis fiber-based interferometry replacing glass scales attocube systems AG

3-axis fiber-based interferometry replacing glass scales attocube systems AG 3-axis fiber-based interferometry replacing glass scales attocube systems AG Königinstr.11a D-80539 Munich Klaus Thurner attocube interferometric sensor for displacement tracking with nanometer precision

More information

Absorption Spectra Measurements for the Ozone Molecule in the nm Region

Absorption Spectra Measurements for the Ozone Molecule in the nm Region Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 30: 291 299, 1998. 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 291 Absorption Spectra Measurements for the Ozone Molecule in the 350 830 nm Region J. BRION,

More information

The Raman effect was theoretically predicted in The first experimental observation was made by. Copyright 1997 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc

The Raman effect was theoretically predicted in The first experimental observation was made by. Copyright 1997 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc 8. Raman scattering The Raman effect was theoretically predicted in 1923 The first experimental observation was made by C.V. Raman in 1928. Copyright 1997 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc Raman scattering

More information

Raman spectroscopy Lecture

Raman spectroscopy Lecture Raman spectroscopy Lecture Licentiate course in measurement science and technology Spring 2008 10.04.2008 Antti Kivioja Contents - Introduction - What is Raman spectroscopy? - The theory of Raman spectroscopy

More information

Nikolaus Dietz and Vincent Woods. Department of Physics & Astronomy. Georgia State University; Atlanta GA

Nikolaus Dietz and Vincent Woods. Department of Physics & Astronomy. Georgia State University; Atlanta GA Real-time optical characterization of ammonia ( ) by UV absorption spectroscopy Nikolaus Dietz and Vincent Woods Department of Physics & Astronomy Georgia State University; Atlanta GA http://www.phy-astr.gsu.edu/dietzrg/hpcvd.html

More information

CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED

CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED 2.1 Preparation of Pure polymorphic forms Lamivudine polymorphic Form I and Form II drug substances were prepared in Aurobindo Pharma Limited Research

More information

MODERN PHYSICS. CET questions from Bohr s atom model, Lasers and Scattering

MODERN PHYSICS. CET questions from Bohr s atom model, Lasers and Scattering MODERN PHYSICS CET questions from Bohr s atom model, Lasers and Scattering 1. For the electron to revolve around the atomic nucleus without radiating energy, the electronic orbit should be : (1) Circular

More information

ADVANCED COMBUSTION DIAGNOSTICS OPTICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS DELIVERING RESULTS

ADVANCED COMBUSTION DIAGNOSTICS OPTICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS DELIVERING RESULTS ADVANCED COMBUSTION DIAGNOSTICS OPTICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS DELIVERING RESULTS Optical Systems Provide the Solution for Combustion Characterization Optical systems are ideal for combustion diagnostics

More information

Characterization of Atomization Processes in Suspension/Emulsion Sprays

Characterization of Atomization Processes in Suspension/Emulsion Sprays Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 10 (2016) 223-230 doi: 10.17265/1934-8975/2016.04.002 D DAVID PUBLISHING Characterization of Atomization Processes in Suspension/Emulsion Sprays Walter Schäfer 1

More information

Fundamentals of modern UV-visible spectroscopy. Presentation Materials

Fundamentals of modern UV-visible spectroscopy. Presentation Materials Fundamentals of modern UV-visible spectroscopy Presentation Materials The Electromagnetic Spectrum E = hν ν = c / λ 1 Electronic Transitions in Formaldehyde 2 Electronic Transitions and Spectra of Atoms

More information

Specifying Plasma Deposited Hard Coated Optical Thin Film Filters. Alluxa Engineering Staff

Specifying Plasma Deposited Hard Coated Optical Thin Film Filters. Alluxa Engineering Staff Specifying Plasma Deposited Hard Coated Optical Thin Film Filters. Alluxa Engineering Staff December 2012 Specifying Advanced Plasma Deposited Hard Coated Optical Bandpass and Dichroic Filters. Introduction

More information

Accurate Characterization of Source Spectra Using an Optical Spectrum Analyzer Application Note

Accurate Characterization of Source Spectra Using an Optical Spectrum Analyzer Application Note Accurate Characterization of Source Spectra Using an Optical Spectrum Analyzer Application Note 1550-5 2 An optical spectrum analyzer performs power versus wavelength measurements, a very useful tool for

More information

The He-Ne Laser * He-Ne Laser System. Power supply and ballast. interatomic collision. 1E-7 sec

The He-Ne Laser * He-Ne Laser System. Power supply and ballast. interatomic collision. 1E-7 sec The He-Ne Laser * I. Introduction The He-Ne laser (Figure 1) uses a low pressure (ca. 1 Torr He, 0.1 Torr Ne) mixture excited by a dc electric discharge. A ballast resistor is placed in series with the

More information

Interference of C 60 molecules Why is it not macroscopic and how is it destroyed?

Interference of C 60 molecules Why is it not macroscopic and how is it destroyed? Interference of C 60 molecules Why is it not macroscopic and how is it destroyed? Jan Schick Master seminar - Macroscopic quantum eects WS 2012/2013 1 Introduction A simple approach to the topic macroscopic

More information

Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution

Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution PhD candidate: Ferrante Carino Advisor:Tullio Scopigno Università di Roma ƒla Sapienza 22 February 2012 1 Pump-probe experiments: generalities

More information

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI I. Background theory. 1. Movement of nuclei in a diatomic molecule - oscillations and rotations. 2. Internal

More information

EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MEASURMENT OF GASES AND VAPOURS USING INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES

EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MEASURMENT OF GASES AND VAPOURS USING INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES Note: the following are examples of the type of calculations you may be asked to perform in the TE4 narrative paper. This is not a complete exam paper. Calculation questions typically make up 20 out of

More information

Wavelength Frequency Measurements

Wavelength Frequency Measurements Lecture Course Advanced Experimental Methods W. Ubachs; part B Wavelength Frequency Measurements Frequency: -unit to be measured most accurately in physics - frequency counters + frequency combs (gear

More information

Realization of a UV fisheye hyperspectral camera

Realization of a UV fisheye hyperspectral camera Realization of a UV fisheye hyperspectral camera Valentina Caricato, Andrea Egidi, Marco Pisani and Massimo Zucco, INRIM Outline Purpose of the instrument Required specs Hyperspectral technique Optical

More information

Name of research institute or organization: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)

Name of research institute or organization: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Name of research institute or organization: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Title of project: Study of atmospheric ozone by a LIDAR Project leader and team: Dr. Valentin Simeonov, project

More information

Intended Learning Outcomes

Intended Learning Outcomes An Introduction to Thermal Radiation This problem provides an introduction to thermal and atmospheric physics. Intended Learning Outcomes By the end of this activity students should be able to: Use basic

More information

CABLE ASSET MANAGEMENT PREDICT WITH CERTAINTY. Kuljit Singh BSc Honours MIEE(IET,UK) 5 June 2014

CABLE ASSET MANAGEMENT PREDICT WITH CERTAINTY. Kuljit Singh BSc Honours MIEE(IET,UK) 5 June 2014 CABLE ASSET MANAGEMENT PREDICT WITH CERTAINTY Kuljit Singh BSc Honours MIEE(IET,UK) 5 June 2014 Definitions International Workshop 2014 DTS: Distributed Temperature Sensor DCR: Dynamic Cable Ratings (

More information

Chapter 8. The vibrational and rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules

Chapter 8. The vibrational and rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules Chapter 8. The vibrational and rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules General features nteraction of electromagnetic field with atoms/molecules Spectral range: Wave number ~ (frequency ) Wavelength

More information

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO. Radar measurements FYS Research Section for Plasma and Space Physics

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO. Radar measurements FYS Research Section for Plasma and Space Physics Radar measurements FYS 3610 Radars A radar transmit a radio pulse (pulse code), and receives the returned echo sometime later. Radiowave propagation It can be deduced that a radio signal is reflected in

More information

Summary of this presentation written by John Marshall with all pictures and slides provided by Dr. Weimer

Summary of this presentation written by John Marshall with all pictures and slides provided by Dr. Weimer LIDAR for Remote Sensiing and CALIPSO March 31,, 2004 Presentted by Dr.. Carll Weiimer off Ballll Aerospace & Technollogiies Corp.. Summary of this presentation written by John Marshall with all pictures

More information

P R E A M B L E. The problem is run over one week with the following pattern: Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (2 hours) Lecture

P R E A M B L E. The problem is run over one week with the following pattern: Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (2 hours) Lecture GREENHOUSE EFFECT AN INTRODUCTION TO THERMAL RADIATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is the first part of a four week (15 credit) module in the IScience programme at the University of

More information

Hyperspectral Satellite Imaging Planning a Mission

Hyperspectral Satellite Imaging Planning a Mission Hyperspectral Satellite Imaging Planning a Mission Victor Gardner University of Maryland 2007 AIAA Region 1 Mid-Atlantic Student Conference National Institute of Aerospace, Langley, VA Outline Objective

More information

Interactions Between Electromagnetic Wave and Targets

Interactions Between Electromagnetic Wave and Targets Interactions Between Electromagnetic Wave and Targets Electromagnetic radiation wavelength λ, frequency ν and the velocity υ have the following relation. λ = υ/ν by: Dr. Kiyoshi Honda Space Technology

More information

Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials

Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials PhD theses Gabriella Kecskeméti Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics University of Szeged Supervisor: Dr. Béla Hopp senior research fellow Department

More information

Helium-Neon Laser. 1 Introduction. 2 Background. 2.1 Helium-Neon Gain Medium. 2.2 Laser Cavity. 2.3 Hermite-Gaussian or tranverse Modes

Helium-Neon Laser. 1 Introduction. 2 Background. 2.1 Helium-Neon Gain Medium. 2.2 Laser Cavity. 2.3 Hermite-Gaussian or tranverse Modes Helium-Neon Laser 1 Introduction The Helium-Neon Laser, short HeNe-Laser, is one of the most common used laser for allignement, reference laser and optics demonstrations. Its most used wavelength is at

More information

Controllable Anomalous Dispersion and Group Index Nulling via Bi- Frequency Raman Gain in Rb Vapor for application to Ultraprecision.

Controllable Anomalous Dispersion and Group Index Nulling via Bi- Frequency Raman Gain in Rb Vapor for application to Ultraprecision. Controllable Anomalous Dispersion and Group Index Nulling via Bi- Frequency Raman Gain in Rb Vapor for application to Ultraprecision Rotation Sensing G.S. Pati, Renu Tripathi, M. Messall, K. Salit and

More information

Neuro imaging: looking with lasers in the brain

Neuro imaging: looking with lasers in the brain Neuro imaging: looking with lasers in the brain Aim: To image life cells, label free, with cellular resolution in deep tissue Marloes Groot Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Faculteit Exacte Wetenschappen Natuurkunde

More information

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation.

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. 1. Basic introduction to the electromagnetic field: Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic spectrum. Basic radiometric quantities:

More information

Vacuum gauges for the fine and high vacuum

Vacuum gauges for the fine and high vacuum Vacuum gauges for the fine and high vacuum Karl Jousten, PTB, Berlin 1. Measurement of vacuum pressures and the calibration chain 2. Overview of measurement principles and gauge types 3. Direct gauges,

More information

The Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics

The Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics The Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics Sumith Doluweera Department of Physics University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 Abstract Nonlinear optics became a very active field of research

More information

Types of Spectroscopy

Types of Spectroscopy Introduction to Infrared and Raman spectroscopy Arto Koistinen UEF / SIB-labs Optical microscopy course 2012 31.10.2012 Types of Spectroscopy = study of interaction between radiation and matter X-ray photoelectron

More information

Coaxial Plasmonic Metamaterials for Visible Light M.A. van de Haar

Coaxial Plasmonic Metamaterials for Visible Light M.A. van de Haar Coaxial Plasmonic Metamaterials for Visible Light M.A. van de Haar Summary Optical metamaterials are materials built from sub-wavelength building blocks, and can be designed to have effective optical properties

More information

Raman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu)

Raman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu) Introduction Raman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu) The scattering of light may be thought of as the redirection

More information

What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material

What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material Laser Ablation Fundamentals & Applications Samuel S. Mao Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Advanced Energy Technology Department March 1, 25 Laser Ablation What

More information

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6 The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance FOUR POSSIBLE FATES OF RADIATION: 1.Transmitted 2. Reflected 3. Scattered 4. Absorbed The atmosphere does ALL of

More information

Solar system studies with the SMA. Arielle MOULLET, Mark GURWELL and the SMA team

Solar system studies with the SMA. Arielle MOULLET, Mark GURWELL and the SMA team Solar system studies with the SMA Arielle MOULLET, Mark GURWELL and the SMA team The solar system at mm wavelengths Thermal continuum emission from surfaces on bodies with little/no atmosphere : Mars,

More information

Oxide Growth. 1. Introduction

Oxide Growth. 1. Introduction Oxide Growth. Introduction Development of high-quality silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) has helped to establish the dominance of silicon in the production of commercial integrated circuits. Among all the various

More information

Preface Light Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Methods

Preface Light Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Methods Preface xi 1 Light Microscopy 1 1.1 Optical Principles 1 1.1.1 Image Formation 1 1.1.2 Resolution 3 1.1.3 Depth of Field 5 1.1.4 Aberrations 6 1.2 Instrumentation 8 1.2.1 Illumination System 9 1.2.2 Objective

More information

High-altitude cold cirrus clouds

High-altitude cold cirrus clouds High-altitude cold cirrus clouds Anatoli Bogdan Division af Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland Aim of the lecture is - to give a short review of the

More information

Spectrophotometry. Theory

Spectrophotometry. Theory is any technique that uses light to measure chemical concentrations. Theory When a sample absorbs electromagnetic radiation it undergoes a change in energy. The interaction happens between the sample and

More information

Optimisation of Aeolus Sampling

Optimisation of Aeolus Sampling Optimisation of Aeolus Sampling Ad.Stoffelen@knmi.nl 1 Gert-Jan Marseille 1, Jos de Kloe 1 Harald Schyberg 2 Linda Megner 3 Heiner Körnch 3 1 KNMI, NL 2 Met.no 3 MISU/SMHI, SE Vertical and Horizontal Aeolus

More information

Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, , 20 Nov.

Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, , 20 Nov. Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, 6833-6835, 20 Nov. 1999) Geoff Andersen and R. J. Knize Laser and Optics Research

More information

Time out states and transitions

Time out states and transitions Time out states and transitions Spectroscopy transitions between energy states of a molecule excited by absorption or emission of a photon hn = DE = E i - E f Energy levels due to interactions between

More information

Triple Stage Raman spectrograph/spectrometer Raman system with scanning microscopy attachment: QTY: One

Triple Stage Raman spectrograph/spectrometer Raman system with scanning microscopy attachment: QTY: One Specifications: Triple Stage Raman spectrograph/spectrometer Raman system with scanning microscopy attachment: QTY: One A. Triple Stage Raman spectrograph/spectrometer: 1. Spectral range : UV_Vis_NIR :

More information

Section 6 Raman Scattering (lecture 10)

Section 6 Raman Scattering (lecture 10) Section 6 Scattering (lecture 10) Previously: Quantum theory of atoms / molecules Quantum Mechanics Valence Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy Scattering The scattering process Elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic

More information

Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer (THMT 09) Poiseuille flow of liquid methane in nanoscopic graphite channels by molecular dynamics simulation

Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer (THMT 09) Poiseuille flow of liquid methane in nanoscopic graphite channels by molecular dynamics simulation Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer (THMT 09) Poiseuille flow of liquid methane in nanoscopic graphite channels by molecular dynamics simulation Sapienza Università di Roma, September 14, 2009 M. T. HORSCH,

More information

Optical Communications

Optical Communications Optical Communications Telecommunication Engineering School of Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Rome, Italy 2005-2006 Lecture #2, May 2 2006 The Optical Communication System BLOCK DIAGRAM OF

More information

Flow cytometry basics fluidics, optics, electronics...

Flow cytometry basics fluidics, optics, electronics... Title Flow cytometry basics fluidics, optics, electronics... RNDr. Jan Svoboda, Ph.D. Cytometry and Microscopy Core Facility IMB, CAS, v.v.i Vídeňská 1083 Fluorescence Fluorescence occurs when a valence

More information

Homework 2 Due Wednesday, July 19, 2006 Astronomy/EPS 12 The Planets

Homework 2 Due Wednesday, July 19, 2006 Astronomy/EPS 12 The Planets Homework 2 Due Wednesday, July 19, 2006 Astronomy/EPS 12 The Planets Chapter 4, Review and Discussion 11 - Why do excited atoms absorb and reemit radiation at characteristic frequencies? As described by

More information

Raman Spectroscopy. 1. Introduction. 2. More on Raman Scattering. " scattered. " incident

Raman Spectroscopy. 1. Introduction. 2. More on Raman Scattering.  scattered.  incident February 15, 2006 Advanced Physics Laboratory Raman Spectroscopy 1. Introduction When light is scattered from a molecule or crystal, most photons are elastically scattered. The scattered photons have the

More information

Spectroscopy Instrumentation

Spectroscopy Instrumentation Chapter 1 Spectroscopy Instrumentation 1.1 Introduction Fourier-transform spectrometers (FTS or FT spectrometers) have been replacing the dispersive instruments in many infrared and near-infrared applications

More information

Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport

Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport Water vapor transport in porous materials Due to the thermal conductivity of water and other unfavourable properties and effects in porous

More information

Coatings. Anti-Reflection Coatings. High Reflection Coatings. Custom Coatings

Coatings. Anti-Reflection Coatings. High Reflection Coatings. Custom Coatings Anti-Reflection Custom Anti-Reflection Custom Ion Assisted Deposition (IAD) process Advance Plasma Source (APS) plasma-ion assisted Deposition Anti-Reflection on Optical Fibers OptoSigma supplies a wide

More information

REACT4C (FP7) Climate optimised Flight Planning

REACT4C (FP7) Climate optimised Flight Planning REACT4C (FP7) Climate optimised Flight Planning Sigrun Matthes DLR, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre and REACT4C Project Team Volker Grewe (DLR), Peter Hullah (Eurocontrol), David Lee (MMU), Christophe

More information

2 Absorbing Solar Energy

2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could

More information

Herschel PACS Test Procedure STM PACS-KT-PR-011 Issue: 1 Revision: -

Herschel PACS Test Procedure STM PACS-KT-PR-011 Issue: 1 Revision: - CASE GmbH Westendstrasse 125 80339 München Herschel PACS Test Procedure STM 1 Revision: - i Document Approval Sheet Title: Herschel PACS Subtitle: Test Procedure STM Doc. No: 1 Revision: - Prepared:......

More information

E. K. A. ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY PHYSICS 3081, THE He-Ne LASER AND OPTICAL RESONATORS

E. K. A. ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY PHYSICS 3081, THE He-Ne LASER AND OPTICAL RESONATORS E. K. A. ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY PHYSICS 3081, 4051 THE He-Ne LASER AND OPTICAL RESONATORS 1) The Laser A laser produces electromagnetic radiation which is both spatially coherent and of narrow spectral

More information

Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect

Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect Friends of Science Society June 2011 By Ken Gregory revised September 2011 Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect Abstract The upward surface radiation is greater than the out-going longwave

More information

Emission Temperature of Planets

Emission Temperature of Planets Emission Temperature of Planets The emission temperature of a planet, T e, is the temperature with which it needs to emit in order to achieve energy balance (assuming the average temperature is not decreasing

More information

Status of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser

Status of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser Status of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser E. Allaria on behalf of the FERMI team Work partially supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Research under grants FIRB-RBAP045JF2 and FIRB-RBAP06AWK3

More information

Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms)

Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms) Part 5: Lasers Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms) Incident photon can trigger emission of an

More information

Sky Monitoring Techniques using Thermal Infrared Sensors. sabino piazzolla Optical Communications Group JPL

Sky Monitoring Techniques using Thermal Infrared Sensors. sabino piazzolla Optical Communications Group JPL Sky Monitoring Techniques using Thermal Infrared Sensors sabino piazzolla Optical Communications Group JPL Atmospheric Monitoring The atmospheric channel has a great impact on the channel capacity at optical

More information

Hydrogen Bonds in Water-Methanol Mixture

Hydrogen Bonds in Water-Methanol Mixture Bulg. J. Phys. 34 (2007) 103 107 Hydrogen Bonds in Water-Methanol Mixture G.M. Georgiev, K. Vasilev, K. Gyamchev Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia 5J.Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria Received

More information

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1.1 Moon and Terrestrial planets At visible wavelengths all the emission seen from these objects is due to light reflected from the sun. However at radio

More information

M98 HEPA Filter System Performance Study: Testing Methods and Criteria

M98 HEPA Filter System Performance Study: Testing Methods and Criteria M98 HEPA Filter System Performance Study: Testing Methods and Criteria Benjamin D. Green Mechanical Engineer Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division Shipboard CBR Protection Branch benjamin.d.green@navy.mil

More information

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Photonics Technical Note # 21 Fiber Optics Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Optical fibers are circular dielectric wave-guides that can transport optical energy and information. They have a central core surrounded

More information

UV/VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER

UV/VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER UV/VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER MECASYS, Co., Ltd. What is UV/VIS? Electromagnetic Spectrum X-Rays UV VIS NIR IR Micro wave 200nm 400nm 700nm 2500nm 500 µm Type of Radiation X-Rays UV/VIS IR Micro Wave Type of

More information

Effects of Temperature, Pressure and Water Vapor on Gas Phase Infrared Absorption by CO 2

Effects of Temperature, Pressure and Water Vapor on Gas Phase Infrared Absorption by CO 2 Effects of Temperature, Pressure and Water Vapor on Gas Phase Infrared Absorption by CO 2 D. K. McDermitt, J. M. Welles, and R. D. Eckles - LI-COR, inc. Lincoln, NE 68504 USA Introduction Infrared analysis

More information

Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Pyrochlore Superconductors KOs 2 O 6 and RbOs 2 O 6

Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Pyrochlore Superconductors KOs 2 O 6 and RbOs 2 O 6 Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Pyrochlore Superconductors KOs 2 O 6 and RbOs 2 O 6 and Joachim Schoenes Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie,TU Braunschweig in collaboration with Klaus Doll 1,

More information

CABLE MONITORING SOLUTION

CABLE MONITORING SOLUTION POWER CABLE MONITORING SOLUTION Kuljit Singh BSc Honours MIEE(IET,UK) Dan Watley Ph. D, B.A MEng (UK), MIEEE, UK 8-9 November 2011 PREDICT WITH CERTAINTY Definition DTS: Distributed Temperature Sensor

More information

ZETA POTENTIAL ANALYSIS OF NANOPARTICLES

ZETA POTENTIAL ANALYSIS OF NANOPARTICLES ZETA POTENTIAL ANALYSIS OF NANOPARTICLES SEPTEMBER 2012, V 1.1 4878 RONSON CT STE K SAN DIEGO, CA 92111 858-565 - 4227 NANOCOMPOSIX.COM Note to the Reader: We at nanocomposix have published this document

More information

Diurnal Cycle: Cloud Base Height clear sky

Diurnal Cycle: Cloud Base Height clear sky Diurnal Cycle: Cloud Base Height clear sky Helsinki CNN I Madrid, 16 Dezember 2002 1 Cabauw Geesthacht Cabauw Geesthacht Helsinki Helsinki Petersburg Potsdam Petersburg Potsdam CNN I CNN II Madrid, 16

More information

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

More information

Space-borne clear air lidar measurements in the presence of broken cloud

Space-borne clear air lidar measurements in the presence of broken cloud Space-borne clear air lidar measurements in the presence of broken cloud I. Astin, C. Kiemle To cite this version: I. Astin, C. Kiemle. Space-borne clear air lidar measurements in the presence of broken

More information

Near-field optics and plasmonics

Near-field optics and plasmonics Near-field optics and plasmonics Manuel Rodrigues Gonçalves AFM topography 10 Pol. y / (µm) 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 x / (µm) 8 10 nm 60 80 100 120 140 Physik M. Sc. Master Advanced Materials Winter semester

More information

ESA-NASA Working Meeting on LIDAR ALADIN Instrument: Key Issues & Technical Challenges

ESA-NASA Working Meeting on LIDAR ALADIN Instrument: Key Issues & Technical Challenges ESA-NASA Working Meeting on LIDAR ALADIN Instrument: Key Issues & Technical Challenges D. Morançais ALADIN Project Manager Page 1 ALADIN Overview Baffle Telescope Primary Mirror (1.5 m diameter) Receiver

More information