Years of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Years of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington"

Transcription

1 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington August, 2011 A. Klementiev Epidemiologist Office of Assessment, Planning, and Improvement Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department Pierce County, Washington 0

2 Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Contents Summary... 2 Introduction... 3 Life expectancy and years of healthy life... 4 Dynamics of life expectancy... 5 Life expectancy vs. years of healthy life... 6 of healthy life by gender... 7 of healthy life by race... 8 Life expectancy and years of healthy life: Pierce County vs. Washington State... 9 Technical Notes References

3 Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Summary This report resulted in the following conclusions: From 1990 to 2009, the average life expectancy at birth for Pierce County population has increased by 3.1 years. So, the yearly increase of life expectancy was about 57 days every year. For 18-years-olds life expectancy was 61.6 years with 51.9 of those years in good or better health in In the period between 1993 and 2009 life expectancy was increasing steadily with statistically significant rate of about 0.17 year of life per calendar year. It cannot be concluded from the available data that perceived general health for the 18-year-olds was improving between 1993 and Compared to 18-year-olds in Washington State, years of healthy life for this age in Pierce County has been consistently lower every year within the period to The difference was not statistically significant for the most of the years and on average it was 1.6 years of life per calendar year. For 65-years- olds life expectancy was 19.2 years with 14.4 of those years in good or better health in In the period between 1993 and 2009 life expectancy was increasing steadily with statistically significant rate of about 0.15 year of life per calendar year. The perceived general health was improving in that period: years of healthy life grew with the rate 0.18 years of healthy life per calendar year. Estimated years of healthy life for 65-year-olds in Pierce County have been consistently lower than in Washington State within the period to The difference was not statistically significant for the most years and on average the difference was 0.6 years of life per calendar year. There is no statistical evidence that perceived general health for 18-years-old males or females has gotten worse or better in the period between and However, life expectancy was increasing during the same period with the rate 0.19 and 0.20 years of life per calendar year for males and females, respectively. The estimates of both rates were statistically significant. Perceived general health for both 65-year-old males and females has gotten noticeably better in the period 1993 and For 65-years-old individuals, years of healthy life has increased by 2.9 years (reaching 14.0 years in 2009) in males and by 2.7 years (reaching 14.8 years in 2009) in females within that period. There were substantial racial differences in survival of black and white populations. As of 2009, the 18-yearold black individuals should expect a shorter life span: 57.2 additional years compared to 61.3 additional years for the white 18-year-old individuals. The 65-year-old black individuals should also expect a shorter life span: 16.6 as compared to 19.0 additional years for the white 65-year-olds. There were also substantial racial differences between black and white populations in perceived general health. As of 2009, the 18-year-old black individuals should expect 41.4 years (or, 72.4%) of their future life in good or better health. This portion for white 18-year-old individuals would be noticeably higher: 52.6 years, or 85.8% of their future life. As of 2009, 65-year-old black individuals should expect a noticeably smaller portion of their remaining life years in good or better health than white individuals. 8.6 years (or, 51.8%) of their additional life years in good or better health. The portion of future life in good or better health for white 65-year-old individuals would be markedly higher: 14.8 years, or 77.9%. Measures of YHL demonstrate gender and racial differences. 2

4 Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Introduction In the United States, increasing the number of healthy years of life for Americans was established as one of the national goals for the second decade of the 21 st century. For assessment of progress toward this Healthy People overarching goal, the metric years of healthy life was developed. This measure combines both length and quality of life in a single number. of healthy life allows assessing whether an increase in life expectancy is accompanied by an increase or decrease in health status. These health effects cannot be assessed by using measures of mortality or morbidity individually. Life expectancy in the United States has risen substantially in the last century: from about 48 years in early 1900 s to 78.1 years in This significant public health achievement is a result of the control of infectious diseases which had deadly affects on infants and children in the early twentieth century. Much of the improvements in the population health in the last century have mostly been attributable to advances in disease prevention and medical technology as well as to greater awareness of health promotion. However, an increase in life expectancy comes with an increase in the proportion of years spent living with chronic disease, or activity limitations, or disability. This increasing proportion is not accounted for in life expectancy because life expectancy counts all years of expected life the same, regardless of whether they are enjoyed in good health or not. Thus, life expectancy as well as other classical mortality indicators are no longer sufficient to determine overall population health status. This is why in the last several decades greater attention has been shifted to taking into account chronic disease and/or disability and therefore determining the number of healthy years that individuals can expect to live in "full health". Simply put, taking into account chronic disease means to be able to measure the unhealthy portion in the expected life span. This kind of measurements related to Pierce County and Washington State are presented in this report. Data regarding years of healthy life can provide important input in terms of monitoring the county s population health, identifying health priorities, and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. As well, maximizing health across the life span have become as important public health goal as increasing life expectancy. Increasing years of healthy life means that lower expenditure for medical care should be expected. On the other hand, on the individual level, increasing years of healthy life reveals an improvement in the individuals quality of life, as a long life with a good health are the primary components of life quality. This report describes the health status of Pierce County residents by looking at trends in life expectancy and years of healthy life for the populations and some subgroups of Pierce County and compares it to Washington State. As one gets older, generally his/her health is getting worse. How this worsening of health is associated with aging? How the increase in life expectancy can be associated with an increase of unhealthy portion of life? How the healthy portion can be measured in the expected life span? For more details on this report please contact the Office of Assessment, Planning, and Improvement, Tacoma- Pierce County Health Department, Washington, (253) , or 1 Healthy People 2020 is a federal initiative that set up the national health agenda for the second decade of the 21 st century providing science-based, 10-year national objectives for promoting health and preventing disease. 3

5 Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Life expectancy and years of healthy life Life expectancy is a summary mortality measure often used to describe the overall health status of a population. Life expectancy is defined as the number of years of life at a given age expected (in the statistical sense) to be lived in the future. Life expectancy is usually based on past mortality experience, and assumes that the same agespecific mortality rates will continue into the future. Life expectancy is commonly used to characterize a population s health. Life expectancy at birth summarizes the mortality at all ages. Life expectancy can also be calculated starting at different ages. For example, life expectancy at age 65 refers to the additional number of years that a person who has already attained age 65 can expect to live beyond age 65. In this report, we present trends and differentials in life expectancy at birth, at age 18, and at age 65. Measures of life expectancy are obtained from life tables, which are based on age-specific death rates. In Pierce County, data on mortality are collected and compiled from death certificate information. For this report, life tables were developed using mortality data for each of nine periods: , , 2000, , and 2003 through Several years of data ( , , ) were pooled to maximize the necessary sample size and improve the stability of the age-specific estimates. of healthy life is a summary measure of population health that represents the average number of healthy years a person can expect to live if age-specific death rates and age-specific morbidity rates remain the same throughout his/her lifetime. The morbidity-related data used for calculating of healthy life is called Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) data. HRQOL is a broad multidimensional concept that is generally synonymous with health status but usually refers to self-reported measures of physical or mental health, acute or chronic conditions, healthrelated behaviors, etc. of healthy life based on self-assessed health measures may be a particularly important indicator of the potential demand for health services and long-term care needs. of healthy life allows for easy comparisons across populations and over long periods of time. of healthy life measures are not often used at the local level despite a shift toward Public Health planning to that level. This is mostly because of lack of HRQOL data specific to a local level. Fortunately for Pierce County, the desired HRQOL measures can be estimated from the core measures of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2 dataset available at the local level. The responses to the following question from the BRFSS category "Health status" were used for the HRQOL data estimation: Would you say that in general your health is -- a: Excellent, or b: Very good, or c: Good, or d: Fair, or e: Poor? Responses of Good, Very good, and Excellent to this question were combined to produce age-specific percentages of perceived good health. These proportions were then used to determine healthy years of life remaining. The methodology is explained in the technical notes section at the end of this report. When using BRFSS data to calculate HRQOL estimates, the earliest age for which of healthy life can be estimated is 18 since the BRFSS survey does not provide information on health perception for those whose age is younger than The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a national telephone survey of randomly selected non-institutionalized adults (ages 18 and older). The BRFSS monitors the prevalence of behavioral risks that contribute to the leading causes of disease and death among adults in the United States. 4

6 of life Deaths per 100, of life Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Dynamics of life expectancy Life expectancy at birth in Pierce County grew in the period (Fig. 1). The overall life expectancy was the highest ever reported in 2009 at 78.8 years. A newborn infant in Pierce County Figure 1 Life expectancy at birth: Pierce County, born in 1999 could expect to live an average of 76.9 years, assuming that Life expectancy at birth, Pierce County the age-specific death rates in effect at 80 the time of birth continued through the entire lifetime. Ten years later the average life-years increased noticeably 78 to 78.8 years for an infant born in in Pierce County. This growth means that the life expectancy at birth of people living in Pierce County has 76 been increasing on average by about 76 days every year in the last ten years Figure 2 Death rates for 65+ years old: Pierce County, ,000 5,000 4,000 Mortality for 65+ years old, Pierce County 5,371 5,358 5,399 5,254 5,191 4,843 5,011 4,678 4,774 4,665 4,520 Figure 3 Life expectancy for 18-year-olds: Pierce County, to 2009 Life expectancy for 18-year-olds, Pierce County The observed increase of life expectancy in Pierce County cannot be explained by decline of mortality in early ages: infant mortality rate did not change noticeably in the last three decades. Rather, the life expectancy increase can be attributed to the fact that death rates in the older age groups were decreasing. This can be illustrated by the drop of mortality observed in the age group 65+ years old whose death rate decreased noticeably in the period from 5,358 to 4,520 deaths per 100,000 (Fig. 2). Life expectancy estimates for 18 and 65-year-olds are presented in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. For 18 and 65-years-olds life expectancy grew steadily within the period from to The life expectancy growth rates were statistically significant and equal to 0.17 and 0.15 year of life per calendar year for 18 and 65-years-olds, respectively. As one gets older, generally his/her health is getting worse. There has been concern that greater longevity of life may bring with it worsening of health 5

7 of life of life Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Figure 4 Life expectancy for 65-year-olds: Pierce County, to Life expectancy for 65-year-olds, Pierce County Is the increase in life expectancy associated with an increase of unhealthy portion of life? How the healthy portion of life in the expected life span can be measured? In order to answer these questions, we shall compare life expectancy and years of healthy life estimated for the two ages of interest: 18 and 65-yearsolds. Life expectancy vs. years of healthy life Life expectancy and years of healthy life of Pierce County 18 and 65-year-olds are presented in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. of healthy life for 18-year-olds showed no significant change between 1993 and On the other hand, life expectancy for this age grew steadily with statistically significant rate of about 0.17 year of life per calendar Figure 5 Life expectancy and years of healthy life for 18-year-olds: Pierce County, to 2009 Life expectancy and years of healthy life for 18-year-olds, Pierce County LE year. So, the gap between life expectancy and years of healthy life (interpreted as expected years in poor health) was increasing with the average rate 0.07 year of life per calendar year. It cannot be concluded from this data that the increase rate of years in poor health was statistically significant. In other words, we cannot conclude that the observed increase in life expectancy was associated with an increase of unhealthy portion of life. YHL Within this same period between 1993 and 2009, there has been a statistically significant increase in years of healthy life for 65-year-olds (by 0.18 years of healthy life per calendar year). This growth in years of healthy life means that the perceived general health of 65- year-olds has been improving. The improvement in perceived general health was accompanied with growing life expectancy whose growth rate was 0.15 year of life per calendar year. Like in case of 18-year-olds, it cannot be concluded that the observed increase in life expectancy was associated with an increase of unhealthy portion of life for 65-year-olds. Based on 2009 data, 18-year-old residents can expect to live an additional 61.6 years on average with approximately 51.9 of those years in good or better perceived health. 6

8 of life of life Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Figure 6 Life expectancy and years of healthy life for 65-yearolds: Pierce County, to 2009 Life expectancy and years of healthy life for 65-year-olds, Pierce County LE YHL year-olds can expect to live an additional 19.2 years on average with approximately 14.4 of those years in good or better perceived health. There is no statistical evidence that the portion of expected years in poor health for the both ages of interest was increasing in the last more than ten years. A portion of good or better health in the expected life span is decreasing with age: 18 years olds should expect 84.3% of their future life in good or better health whereas for 65 years olds the proportion is lower: 75.0%. of healthy life by gender of healthy life for Pierce County 18 and 65-year-old males and females are presented in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8. Figure 7 of healthy life for 18-year-old males and females: Pierce County, to of healthy life for 18-year-olds males and females: Pierce County Mal Fem Mal Fem In 2009, the estimate of years of healthy life for 18-year-old males was 51.3 years representing 86.7% of their remaining average life span (59.3 years). The estimate of years of healthy life for 18-yearold females was 52.7 years representing 82.5% of their life expectancy (63.9 years). In other words, an 18-year-old woman should expect to live 4.6 years longer life than 18-year-old man, but she would spend shorter proportion of her life span in a good health than her same-age male counterpart. Estimated figures of years of healthy life for 18 year olds have been consistently lower for males than for females for all years within the period to 2009 except for The difference was not statistically significant for the most of the years. There is no statistical evidence that years of healthy life for 18-years-old males or females increased or decreased in the period between and 2009 (Fig. 7). During the same period, life expectancy increase was 0.19 and 0.20 years of life per year in males and females, respectively. The increase of life expectancy was statistically significant for both genders. For 65-years-old males, years of healthy life increased by 2.9 years from 11.1 to 14.0 years within the period between and 2009 (Fig. 8). The estimate of the increase rate of years of healthy life was statistically significant and it was equal to 0.19 year of life per calendar year. For 65-years-old females, years of healthy life 7

9 of life of life Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington increased by 2.7 years from 12.1 to 14.8 years within the same period. The estimate of the increase rate of years of healthy life was statistically significant and it was equal to 0.25 year of life per calendar year. Figure 8 of healthy life for 65-year-old males and females: Pierce County, to of healthy life for 65-year-olds males and females: Pierce County Mal Fem In 2009, years of healthy life for 65-year-old males was 14.0 years and it was 14.8 years for 65-yearold females. Life expectancies for males and females were 17.6 and 20.6 years, respectively. So, the 65- year-old males could expect to live 79.5% of their future life in good or better health, and this percentage for females was lower: 71.8% Mal Findings Like an 18-year-old, a 65-year-old Fem female would spend shorter proportion of her life span in a good health than her same-age male counterpart. This phenomenon when females have longer life span than males, but males do better with regard to health outcomes is called male female health-survival paradox. The paradox is likely to be due to the fact that the difference in self-assessed health between women and men can be entirely explained by differences in the distribution of the chronic conditions they face. Although on average women have worse self-rated health than men, women and men with the same chronic conditions have the same self-rated health [Ca04]. Another way of explaining the male female health-survival paradox is offered in [Ro99] where it is suggested that the greater proportion of years lived with disability by women may be explained by the longer survival of women after the development of these problems. of healthy life by race 3 Figure 9 of healthy life for 18-year-old black and white, 5-year rolling averages, Pierce County, of healthy life for 18-year-old black and white, Pierce County 03_07 04_08 05_09 Black White In the period , life expectancy at age 18 was 61.3 years for the white population and 57.2 years for the black population. 18-yearold black individuals (Fig. 9) could expect to live 41.4 years in good or better health in the period In the same period, portion of future life in good or better health for the white 18-year-olds would be noticeably higher than for the black: 52.6 years. This means that in addition to the shorter healthy life, the black 18-year-olds should expect a shorter life span: 57.2 additional years compared to 61.3 additional years for the white 18-year-olds. 3 of healthy life usually is not calculated for racial and ethnic populations other than for the white population and the black population due to the inconsistencies in the method of reporting racial and ethnic origins on the death certificate in comparison with the U.S. Census, surveys, and birth certificates [Ko02]. 8

10 of life Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Figure 10 of healthy life for 65-year-old black and white, 5-year rolling averages, Pierce County, of healthy life for 65-year-old black and white, Pierce County 03_07 04_08 05_09 Black White Although the difference between the whites and blacks tends to decline with age, it persists into older age. In the period , for example, a black individual at age 65 can be expected to live 16.6 additional years of life. Out of these additional years of life, he/she would expect to spend 8.6 years of their average additional life years in good or better health (Fig. 10). Corresponding figures for a white 65-year-old would be: life expectancy 19.0 years, years of healthy life years. So, like for 18-year-old blacks, in addition to the shorter healthy life, a black 65-year-old should expect to live a relatively shorter life: 16.6 additional years compared to 19.0 additional years for a white 65-year-old. Findings The difference between the white and black population in expected years with good or better health was 11.2 years for 18-year-olds and 6.2 years for 65-year-olds. The difference was statistically significant at both ages. 18-year-old black individuals could expect to live 72.4% of their future life in good or better health in the period In the same period, portion of future life in good or better health for the white 18-year-olds would be noticeably higher than for the black: 85.8% of their future life. A black individual at age 65 could expect to live 51.8% of his/her average additional life years in good or better health in the period In the same period, portion of future life in good or better health for the white 65- year-olds would be noticeably higher than for the black: 78.0% of their future life. This means that in addition to the shorter healthy life, the black individuals should expect a shorter life span. The difference in years of healthy life estimated for ages 18 and 65 can be considered as an important measure of racial health disparity. Racial inequalities in perceived health are much greater than has been shown by differential mortality: not only are the black people shorter-lived than others but they also experience a greater part of their lives with poor health. For example, if health disparity is estimated in terms of life expectancy at age 18 then the measure would be equal to =4.1 year. On the other hand, if health disparity is defined as difference of years of healthy life for the black and white 18-year-olds, the measure of health disparity would be equal to =11.2 year. Life expectancy and years of healthy life: Pierce County vs. Washington State Life expectancy estimates for 18 and 65-year-olds in Pierce County and Washington State are presented in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12. Within the period between and 2009, life expectancy for 18-years-olds in Pierce County grew steadily from 59.0 years in up to 61.6 years in The growth rate was 0.17 year of life per calendar year and the trend was statistically significant. The growth rate for Washington State was the same as for Pierce County (Fig. 11). Although life expectancy has been improving over the years, for 18-year-olds in Pierce County it still lags behind that (by about 1.2 years) of the whole Washington population. 9

11 of life of life of life Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Figure 11 Life expectancy for 18-year-olds: Pierce County and Washington State, to Life expectancy for 18-year-olds: Pierce County and Washington State Figure 12 Life expectancy for 65-year-olds: Pierce County and Washington State, to 2009 Life expectancy for 65-year-olds: Pierce County and Washington State PC WA PC WA Figure 13 of healthy life for 18-year-olds: Pierce County and Washington State, to 2009 Life expectancy for Pierce County 65- years-olds (Fig. 12) grew steadily from 17.2 years in up to 19.2 years in The life expectancy growth rate for both Pierce County and Washington State was equal to 0.15 year of life per calendar year and it was statistically significant. Life expectancy for 65-year-olds in Pierce County lags behind that of the whole Washington population by about 0.75 years. of healthy life of Pierce County and Washington State 18-year-olds and 65-year-olds are presented in Fig. 13 and Fig. 14. of healthy life for 18-year-olds in Pierce County has been consistently lower than for Washington State 18- year-olds every year within the period to 2009 (Fig. 13). The differences were not statistically significant for the most of the years and on average they were about 1.6 year of life per calendar year. Estimated figures of years of healthy life for 65-year-olds in Pierce County have also been consistently lower than in Washington State within the period to 2009 (Fig. 14). The differences were not statistically significant for the most years and on average they were 0.6 year of life per calendar year. of healthy life for 18-year-olds: Pierce County and Washington State PC WA Findings The patterns of life expectancy and years of healthy life in Washington State was about the same as in Pierce County in the period to No significant change in years of healthy life for 18-year-olds has been observed in Washington State. In the same period life expectancy for the Washington State 18-year-olds grew with the statistically significant rate 0.17 year of life per calendar year. 10

12 of life Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Figure 14 of healthy life for 65-year-olds: Pierce County and Washington State, to 2009 of healthy life for 65-year-olds: Pierce County and Washington State PC WA There has been a noticeable increase in life expectancy and years of healthy life for 65-year-olds in Washington State. Both indicators grew with the statistically significant rate 0.13 year of life per calendar year. In the period of the last nine years, years of healthy life grew more rapidly than life expectancy in Washington State. So the yearly portion of years of poor health 4 was decreasing with the rate 0.09 year of life per calendar year (Fig. 8). The rate of decrease was statistically significant. This means that in addition to living longer the Washingtonians should expect healthier 5 life after reaching age 65. This phenomenon was not observed in 65- year-old Pierce County population. Compared to 18-year-olds in Washington State, years of healthy life for this age in Pierce County has been consistently lower every year within the period to The difference was not statistically significant for the most of the years and on average it was 1.6 year of life per calendar year. Estimated figures of years of healthy life for 65-year-olds in Pierce County have also been consistently lower than in Washington State within the period to The difference was not statistically significant for the most years and on average the difference was 0.6 year of life per calendar year. Although it has been improving over the years, life expectancy for 18-year-olds in Pierce County still lags behind that (by about 1.2 years) of the whole Washington population. 4 Defined as the difference between life expectancy and years of healthy life. 5 Healthier than the Washingtonians of the same age in the previous years. 11

13 Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington Technical Notes Definition of years of healthy life (YHL) is based on two main components, survival and health related quality of life (HRQOL) (Erickson et al., 1995). Survival is determined by the total numbers of years lived by a cohort in the Life Table population in each age interval. HRQOL is represented by people s perceptions of their physical and/or mental health. These perceptions are expressed in the responses to the questions in the BRFSS Health Status module. General formula for years of health life 6 YHL for the youngest age x α in the α-th age interval: w w (*) Y α = (1/ α )u j L j = (1/ α ) u j n j [ j+1 + a j ( j j+1 )] j=α j=α where α - number alive at exact age x α in the life table population, α = 0,, w; w +1 - number of age intervals; u j weight representing rate of being healthy in the j-th age interval; L j - total number of years lived by a cohort in the life table population in the j-th age interval; n j - length of the j-th age interval; a j average fraction of age interval (x j, x j+1 ) lived by an individual dying at an age included in the age interval (x j, x j+1 ). Values of health-related weights u j characterize different levels of HRQOL. Depending on what aspect of population health is considered, the weight u j can be the function of self-estimate of either physical health, mental health, or both. Weights u j for evaluating General Health In the BRFSS module Health Status the variable General Health is characterized by five categories whose values are shown in column GH Value (below). Corresponding binary variable g j (i) is used for calculating the weights u j. Table 1 General health values and binary variable g j (i) Weight u j is defined as the proportion of responses with Excellent, Very good, or Good General Health within a given age group j as R j u j = (1/R j ) g j (i). i =1 The weight u j defined as above is used in (*). 6 More in [Kl06] 12

14 Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department. August, 2010 of Healthy Life and Life Expectancy: Pierce County, Washington References [Ca04] [Er95] [Kl06] Case A, Paxson C Sex Differences in Morbidity and Mortality, Oct 2004, Paper provided by Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies. Erickson P, Wilson R, and Shannon I of Healthy Life, Healthy People 2000 Statistical notes, NCHS, No.7, April Klementiev A, An Alternative Measure of of Healthy Life, in: Estes, Richard J. (Ed.) Advancing Quality of Life in a Turbulent World; Series: Social Indicators Research Series, Vol. 29 Springer: December [Ko02] Kochanek, KD, et al. Deaths: Final Data for National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 53, No. 5. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS, [Mo03] [Ro99] Molla MT, Madans JH, Wagener DK, et al. Summary measures of population health: Report of findings on methodologic and data issues. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; Robine JM, Romieu I, Cambois E, Health expectancy indicators, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1999, 77 (2)

Chapter 4 Executive Summary: The growing gap in longevity between rich and poor and its impact on redistribution through Social Security

Chapter 4 Executive Summary: The growing gap in longevity between rich and poor and its impact on redistribution through Social Security LATER RETIREMENT, INEQUALITY IN OLD AGE, AND THE GROWING GAP IN LONGEVITY BETWEEN RICH AND POOR Barry Bosworth, Gary Burtless, Kan Zhang Chapter Executive Summary: The growing gap in longevity between

More information

Highlights of the Prince Edward Island Report on

Highlights of the Prince Edward Island Report on Highlights of the Prince Edward Island Report on Common Health Indicators September 22 Health Status Health Outcomes Service Quality Health and Social Services Health Indicators This document provides

More information

2 CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE Figure 1. Life Expectancy at Birth, by Race and Sex, 1950 to 2004 (Years) White Female Black Female White

2 CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE Figure 1. Life Expectancy at Birth, by Race and Sex, 1950 to 2004 (Years) White Female Black Female White CBO A series of issue summaries from the Congressional Budget Office APRIL 17, 2008 Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy Summary In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily

More information

bulletin 126 Healthy life expectancy in Australia: patterns and trends 1998 to 2012 Summary Bulletin 126 NOVEMBER 2014

bulletin 126 Healthy life expectancy in Australia: patterns and trends 1998 to 2012 Summary Bulletin 126 NOVEMBER 2014 Bulletin 126 NOVEMBER 2014 Healthy life expectancy in Australia: patterns and trends 1998 to 2012 Summary bulletin 126 Life expectancy measures how many years on average a person can expect to live, if

More information

Impact of Chronic Disease on Functional Status Among Non-Elderly Adults in Los Angeles County

Impact of Chronic Disease on Functional Status Among Non-Elderly Adults in Los Angeles County Impact of Chronic Disease on Functional Status Among Non-Elderly Adults in Los Angeles County Paul Simon, MD, MPH Amy Lightstone, MPH Jonathan Fielding, MD, MPH Los Angeles County Department of Health

More information

Rural Health Reform Policy RESEARCH CENTER

Rural Health Reform Policy RESEARCH CENTER Rural Health Reform Policy RESEARCH CENTER Rural-Urban Disparities in Heart Disease Policy Brief #1 from The 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook Alana Knudson, PhD; Michael Meit, MA, MPH; Shena Popat,

More information

Center for Demography and Ecology

Center for Demography and Ecology Center for Demography and Ecology University of Wisconsin-Madison Racial Differentials in Longevity and Health Status: U.S. Population 198-199 Hani Guend Alberto Palloni CDE Working Paper No. 3-7 1 Racial

More information

Independent Life Expectancy in New Zealand

Independent Life Expectancy in New Zealand Independent Life Expectancy in New Zealand 2013 Acknowledgements This report was written by Vladimir Stevanovic with support from Michelle Liu. The authors acknowledge valuable input from peer reviewers

More information

Health Expectancy by Immigrant Status, 1986 and 1991

Health Expectancy by Immigrant Status, 1986 and 1991 Health Expectancy by Immigrant Status, 1986 and 1991 Jiajian Chen, Russell Wilkins and Edward Ng* Abstract Analyses based on census data, vital statistics, and data from the Health and Activity Limitation

More information

Cohort Estimates of Life Expectancy at Age 65. April 2011

Cohort Estimates of Life Expectancy at Age 65. April 2011 Cohort Estimates of Life Expectancy at Age 65 April 2011 Contents Background... 3 Methodology... 3 Results... 5 Table 1: Projected cohort expectations of life (years), at age 65, Males and Females England

More information

in children less than one year old. It is commonly divided into two categories, neonatal

in children less than one year old. It is commonly divided into two categories, neonatal INTRODUCTION Infant Mortality Rate is one of the most important indicators of the general level of health or well being of a given community. It is a measure of the yearly rate of deaths in children less

More information

Chronic Conditions A challenge for the 21st century. No one is immune to chronic conditions. Men and CHRONIC AND DISABLING CONDITIONS

Chronic Conditions A challenge for the 21st century. No one is immune to chronic conditions. Men and CHRONIC AND DISABLING CONDITIONS Chronic Conditions A challenge for the 21st century No one is immune to chronic conditions. Men and women, people of all racial and ethnic groups, and people of all ages and financial means have chronic

More information

National Life Tables, United Kingdom: 2012 2014

National Life Tables, United Kingdom: 2012 2014 Statistical bulletin National Life Tables, United Kingdom: 2012 2014 Trends for the UK and constituent countries in the average number of years people will live beyond their current age measured by "period

More information

Statistical Bulletin. National Life Tables, United Kingdom, 2011-2013. Key Points. Summary. Introduction

Statistical Bulletin. National Life Tables, United Kingdom, 2011-2013. Key Points. Summary. Introduction Statistical Bulletin National Life Tables, United Kingdom, 2011-2013 Coverage: UK Date: 25 September 2014 Geographical Area: Country Theme: Population Key Points A newborn baby boy could expect to live

More information

Exercise Answers. Exercise 3.1 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. A

Exercise Answers. Exercise 3.1 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. A Exercise Answers Exercise 3.1 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. A Exercise 3.2 1. A; denominator is size of population at start of study, numerator is number of deaths among that population. 2. B; denominator is

More information

Measures of disease frequency

Measures of disease frequency Measures of disease frequency Madhukar Pai, MD, PhD McGill University, Montreal Email: madhukar.pai@mcgill.ca 1 Overview Big picture Measures of Disease frequency Measures of Association (i.e. Effect)

More information

U.S. Birth Rate Falls to a Record Low; Decline Is Greatest Among Immigrants

U.S. Birth Rate Falls to a Record Low; Decline Is Greatest Among Immigrants Social & Demographic Trends Thursday, November 29, 2012 U.S. Birth Rate Falls to a Record Low; Decline Is Greatest Among Immigrants Gretchen Livingston, Senior Researcher D Vera Cohn, Senior Writer FOR

More information

Upstate New York adults with diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes and estimated treatment costs

Upstate New York adults with diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes and estimated treatment costs T H E F A C T S A B O U T Upstate New York adults with diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes and estimated treatment costs Upstate New York Adults with diagnosed diabetes: 2003: 295,399 2008: 377,280 diagnosed

More information

1 Introduction. Mortality over the twentieth century. Why take a century-long view?

1 Introduction. Mortality over the twentieth century. Why take a century-long view? 1 Introduction Mortality over the twentieth century There have been many advances in the health of Australians over recent decades. These were recently summarised in the latest biennial health report of

More information

Prepared by: Michael R. Cousineau, Dr.PH Gregory D. Stevens. Ph.D. With assistance from Jessica Van Gurt. USC Division of Community Health

Prepared by: Michael R. Cousineau, Dr.PH Gregory D. Stevens. Ph.D. With assistance from Jessica Van Gurt. USC Division of Community Health Disparities in Health in the United States A conceptual framework for a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding health disparities and proposing policy solutions towards their elimination First Draft

More information

Richard Banda and Margaret T. Mwanamwenge

Richard Banda and Margaret T. Mwanamwenge FERTILITY 4 Richard Banda and Margaret T. Mwanamwenge This chapter presents the 2001-2002 ZDHS results on fertility levels, trends, and differentials. The analysis is based on the birth histories collected

More information

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, March 31, 2015

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, March 31, 2015 For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, March 31, 2015 USDL-15-0528 Technical information: (202) 691-7410 nls_info@bls.gov www.bls.gov/nls Media contact: (202) 691-5902 PressOffice@bls.gov NUMBER OF JOBS

More information

9. Substance Abuse. pg 166-169: Self-reported alcohol consumption. pg 170-171: Childhood experience of living with someone who used drugs

9. Substance Abuse. pg 166-169: Self-reported alcohol consumption. pg 170-171: Childhood experience of living with someone who used drugs 9. pg 166-169: Self-reported alcohol consumption pg 170-171: Childhood experience of living with someone who used drugs pg 172-173: Hospitalizations related to alcohol and substance abuse pg 174-179: Accidental

More information

Health of Wisconsin. Children and young adults (ages 1-24) B D. Report Card 2013. July 2010

Health of Wisconsin. Children and young adults (ages 1-24) B D. Report Card 2013. July 2010 Health of Wisconsin Summary Grades Life stage Health grade Health disparity grade Infants (less than 1 year of age) C D Children and young adults (ages 1-24) B D Working-age adults (ages 25-64) B C Older

More information

Healthy People 2010: General Data Issues

Healthy People 2010: General Data Issues Healthy People 2010: 1. Introduction In November 2000, the Healthy People 2010 objectives were published in two volumes [1]. Concurrently, a third volume, the statistical compendium Tracking Healthy People

More information

I. DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF POPULATION AGEING

I. DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF POPULATION AGEING World Population Ageing 9- I. DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF POPULATION AGEING Underlying global population ageing is a process known as the demographic transition in which mortality and then fertility decline

More information

The Growing Burden of Chronic Disease in America

The Growing Burden of Chronic Disease in America Practice Articles The Growing Burden of Chronic Disease in America Gerard Anderson, PhD a Jane Horvath, MHSA a In 2000, approximately 125 million Americans (45% of the population) had chronic conditions

More information

Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015

Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015 Educational Attainment in the United States: 215 Population Characteristics Current Population Reports By Camille L. Ryan and Kurt Bauman March 216 P2-578 This report provides a portrait of educational

More information

Table of Contents. Florida Population Atlas 1

Table of Contents. Florida Population Atlas 1 Florida Population Atlas 1 Table of Contents About the Florida Population Atlas... 2 Explanation of Florida Population Characteristics and Trends..2-5 Figures & Maps... 6-30 Florida Population Characteristics

More information

Medical Care Costs for Diabetes Associated with Health Disparities Among Adults Enrolled in Medicaid in North Carolina

Medical Care Costs for Diabetes Associated with Health Disparities Among Adults Enrolled in Medicaid in North Carolina No. 160 August 2009 Among Adults Enrolled in Medicaid in North Carolina by Paul A. Buescher, Ph.D. J. Timothy Whitmire, Ph.D. Barbara Pullen-Smith, M.P.H. A Joint Report from the and the Office of Minority

More information

Population Change and Public Health Exercise 4A

Population Change and Public Health Exercise 4A Population Change and Public Health Exercise 4A 1. The crude birth rate of a country was 40 per 1000 population in a particular year. In the same, the proportion of women in the age group 15 to 49 years

More information

LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH

LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH Life expectancy at birth refers to the average number of years that a group of newborn babies could expect to live if they experience the current death rates throughout their lifetime.

More information

Report: A demographic portrait of Northern Ireland. Introduction. Northern Ireland population

Report: A demographic portrait of Northern Ireland. Introduction. Northern Ireland population Report: A demographic portrait of Introduction Today has the fastest growing and youngest population of all UK countries. Population increase has been a general trend since its inception, due primarily

More information

A Comparison of Period and Cohort Life Tables Accepted for Publication in Journal of Legal Economics, 2011, Vol. 17(2), pp. 99-112.

A Comparison of Period and Cohort Life Tables Accepted for Publication in Journal of Legal Economics, 2011, Vol. 17(2), pp. 99-112. A Comparison of Period and Cohort Life Tables Accepted for Publication in Journal of Legal Economics, 2011, Vol. 17(2), pp. 99-112. David G. Tucek Value Economics, LLC 13024 Vinson Court St. Louis, MO

More information

Education: It Matters More to Health than Ever Before

Education: It Matters More to Health than Ever Before ISSUE BRIEF Education: It Matters More to Health than Ever Before Americans with fewer years of education have poorer health and shorter lives, and that has never been more true than today. In fact, since

More information

Life Expectancy in Wirral

Life Expectancy in Wirral Life Expectancy in Wirral September 2016 Produced by Wirral Council Public Health Intelligence Team Life Expectancy in Wirral 2012-14 By Hannah Cotgrave, Business & Public Health Information Analyst, Wirral

More information

Policy Forum. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Illinois: Are There Any Solutions?

Policy Forum. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Illinois: Are There Any Solutions? Policy Forum I N S T I T U T E O F G O V E R N M E N T&P U B L I C A F F A I R S I N S T I T U T E O F G O V E R N M E N T&P U B L I C A F F A I R S Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Illinois: Are

More information

Adolescent Mortality. Alaska s adolescent mortality rate is 29% higher than the national rate and almost 1.6 times the Healthy People 2010 target.

Adolescent Mortality. Alaska s adolescent mortality rate is 29% higher than the national rate and almost 1.6 times the Healthy People 2010 target. Alaska Maternal and Child Health Data Book 23 15 Adolescent Mortality Nationally, unintentional injury, assault and suicide account for 51% of deaths among adolescents ages 1-14 years in 2. Over the last

More information

Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2009

Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2009 Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2009 Household Economic Studies Issued May 2011 P70-125 INTRODUCTION Marriage and divorce are central to the study of living arrangements and family

More information

Top 5 Leading Causes of Death

Top 5 Leading Causes of Death Top 5 Leading Causes of Death May 2014 1100 Graham Road Circle Stow, Ohio 44224 (330) 926-5764 Introduction The top 5 causes of death is an important indicator in determining where to focus prevention

More information

MDHHS Winnable Battles

MDHHS Winnable Battles Michigan Department of Health & Human Services MDHHS Winnable Battles Social Determinants of Health Eden V. Wells, MD, MPH, FACPM Michigan Department of Health and Human Services Putting people first,

More information

Health Care Access to Vulnerable Populations

Health Care Access to Vulnerable Populations Health Care Access to Vulnerable Populations Closing the Gap: Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Florida Rosebud L. Foster, ED.D. Access to Health Care The timely use of personal health services

More information

Health Indicators of Inuit Nunangat within the Canadian Context and

Health Indicators of Inuit Nunangat within the Canadian Context and Health Indicators of Inuit Nunangat within the Canadian Context 1994-1998 and 1999-2003 Produced by Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. This report uses data generated by Statistics Canada and Health Canada s First

More information

Basic Health Statistics. Porcupine Health Unit

Basic Health Statistics. Porcupine Health Unit Basic Health Statistics Porcupine Health Unit 2012 . Basic Health Statistics Porcupine Health Unit 2012 . Table of Contents Demographics...7 a. Population Size...7 Figure 1: Percentage change in the Population

More information

Women, Wages and Work A report prepared by the UNC Charlotte Urban Institute for the Women s Summit April 11, 2011

Women, Wages and Work A report prepared by the UNC Charlotte Urban Institute for the Women s Summit April 11, 2011 A report prepared by the UNC Charlotte Urban Institute for the Women s Summit April 11, 2011 A report prepared for the Women s Summit by the UNC Charlotte Urban Institute 1 Table of Contents Table of Contents...

More information

HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Santa Clara County 2012

HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Santa Clara County 2012 HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Santa Clara County 2012 Contents Summary of key findings... 2 Technical notes... 3 Overview of HIV/AIDS in Santa Clara County... 4 People living with HIV/AIDS... 6 Trends in HIV/AIDS

More information

The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in North Carolina September 2012 Update

The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in North Carolina September 2012 Update The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in North Carolina September 2012 Update Samuel N. Tchwenko, MD, MPH Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Branch Chronic Disease & Injury Section Division of Public Health

More information

DHS EdData Education Profiles

DHS EdData Education Profiles DHS EdData Education Profiles This series of country education profi les uses internationally comparable data from USAID s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to characterize children s participation

More information

Population Percent C.I. All Hennepin County adults aged 18 and older 11.9% ± 1.1

Population Percent C.I. All Hennepin County adults aged 18 and older 11.9% ± 1.1 Overview ` Why Is This Indicator Important? Physical inactivity can lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Physical activity can help control weight, reduce the risk of heart disease and some cancers, strengthen

More information

NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD FOR RELEASE NOVEMBER 3, 2014 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON THIS REPORT: Aaron Smith, Senior Researcher

NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD FOR RELEASE NOVEMBER 3, 2014 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON THIS REPORT: Aaron Smith, Senior Researcher NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD FOR RELEASE NOVEMBER 3, 2014 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON THIS REPORT: Aaron Smith, Senior Researcher 202.419.4372 RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, November,

More information

Texas Diabetes Fact Sheet

Texas Diabetes Fact Sheet I. Adult Prediabetes Prevalence, 2009 According to the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, 984,142 persons aged eighteen years and older in Texas (5.4% of this age group) have

More information

Namvar Zohoori, MD, MPH, PhD Chronic Disease Director, Associate Director for Science, Arkansas Department of Health. Associate Professor, Department

Namvar Zohoori, MD, MPH, PhD Chronic Disease Director, Associate Director for Science, Arkansas Department of Health. Associate Professor, Department Namvar Zohoori, MD, MPH, PhD Chronic Disease Director, Associate Director for Science, Arkansas Department of Health. Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology, U. Of Arkansas for Medical Sciences,

More information

Denver County Births and Deaths 2013

Denver County Births and Deaths 2013 Denver County Births and Deaths 2013 Selected birth characteristics: County residents, 2013... 2 Selected birth characteristics by age group of mother: County residents, 2013... 3 Selected birth characteristics

More information

EMIC Calculator-International

EMIC Calculator-International User Guide for EMIC Calculator-International What this calculator does This calculator can be used to estimate the maximum amount society could invest upfront in a life-saving intervention at different

More information

COMPRESSION OF MORBIDITY: NEW INSIGHTS IN THE ROLE OF LIFESTYLE FACTORS JOHAN MACKENBACH & WILMA NUSSELDER DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ERASMUS MC

COMPRESSION OF MORBIDITY: NEW INSIGHTS IN THE ROLE OF LIFESTYLE FACTORS JOHAN MACKENBACH & WILMA NUSSELDER DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ERASMUS MC COMPRESSION OF MORBIDITY: NEW INSIGHTS IN THE ROLE OF LIFESTYLE FACTORS JOHAN MACKENBACH & WILMA NUSSELDER DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ERASMUS MC FRIES JF. Aging, natural death, and the compression of

More information

Econ-UA 323 Development Economics. Outline of Answers to Problem Set 7

Econ-UA 323 Development Economics. Outline of Answers to Problem Set 7 Professor Debraj Ray 19 West 4th Street, Room 608 Office Hours: Mondays 2.30 5.00pm email: debraj.ray@nyu.edu, homepage: http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/debraj/ Webpage for course: click on Teaching, and

More information

Your Future by Design

Your Future by Design Retirement Research Series Your Future by Design Health, money, retirement: The different needs of men and women This research report is one of several reports in the Your Future by Design Retirement Research

More information

The Role of Insurance in Providing Access to Cardiac Care in Maryland. Samuel L. Brown, Ph.D. University of Baltimore College of Public Affairs

The Role of Insurance in Providing Access to Cardiac Care in Maryland. Samuel L. Brown, Ph.D. University of Baltimore College of Public Affairs The Role of Insurance in Providing Access to Cardiac Care in Maryland Samuel L. Brown, Ph.D. University of Baltimore College of Public Affairs Heart Disease Heart Disease is the leading cause of death

More information

Women See Value and Benefits of College; Men Lag on Both Fronts, Survey Finds

Women See Value and Benefits of College; Men Lag on Both Fronts, Survey Finds Social & Demographic Trends Wednesday, August 17, 2011 Women See Value and Benefits of College; Men Lag on Both Fronts, Survey Finds Paul Taylor, Director Kim Parker, Associate Director Richard Fry, Senior

More information

THE IMPACT OF POPULATION STRUCTURE ON HEALTH DISPARITIES

THE IMPACT OF POPULATION STRUCTURE ON HEALTH DISPARITIES Special Report THE IMPACT OF POPULATION STRUCTURE ON HEALTH DISPARITIES JANUARY 2006 City of Chicago Department of Public Health Office of Epidemiology The Impact of Population Structure on Health Disparities

More information

Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- Benin

Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- Benin Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- Benin Demographic and Health Indicators Benin Sub- Saharan Africa World Total Population (in thousands of people) 1950 2,046 176,775 2,519,495 2002 6,629 683,782

More information

A demographic profile of Portsmouth s past

A demographic profile of Portsmouth s past A demographic profile of Portsmouth s past 1801-2001 Summary Portsmouth has experienced profound changes to its demography over the last 200 years. The population of Portsmouth has increased by more than

More information

1.17 Life expectancy at birth

1.17 Life expectancy at birth 1.17 Life expectancy at birth The life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males and females for a given period. Data sources Life expectancy estimates for the years 2005 2007 presented

More information

Data Analysis and Interpretation. Eleanor Howell, MS Manager, Data Dissemination Unit State Center for Health Statistics

Data Analysis and Interpretation. Eleanor Howell, MS Manager, Data Dissemination Unit State Center for Health Statistics Data Analysis and Interpretation Eleanor Howell, MS Manager, Data Dissemination Unit State Center for Health Statistics Why do we need data? To show evidence or support for an idea To track progress over

More information

Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in European countries

Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in European countries Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in European countries Abstract Jana Langhamrová, Lenka Vraná, Petra Dotlačilová, Tomáš Fiala University of Economics, Prague The paper will analyse and compare

More information

Measurement in Epidemiology: Frequency, Association, and Impact

Measurement in Epidemiology: Frequency, Association, and Impact Measurement in Epidemiology: Frequency, Association, and Impact Mayfong Mayxay M.D., Ph.D. (Trop Med) GFMER - WHO - UNFPA - LAO PDR Training Course in Reproductive Health Research Vientiane, 12 October

More information

Hepatitis C Infections in Oregon September 2014

Hepatitis C Infections in Oregon September 2014 Public Health Division Hepatitis C Infections in Oregon September 214 Chronic HCV in Oregon Since 25, when positive laboratory results for HCV infection became reportable in Oregon, 47,252 persons with

More information

Five Year Summary

Five Year Summary Sexually Transmitted Diseases In the City of St. Louis, MO Five Year Summary 2005-2009 City of St. Louis Department of Health 2011 Acknowledgements The Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services

More information

Louisiana Report 2013

Louisiana Report 2013 Louisiana Report 2013 Prepared by Louisiana State University s Public Policy Research Lab For the Department of Health and Hospitals State of Louisiana December 2015 Introduction The Behavioral Risk Factor

More information

The American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I: 12-Year Followup

The American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I: 12-Year Followup Chapter 3 The American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I: 12-Year Followup of 1 Million Men and Women David M. Burns, Thomas G. Shanks, Won Choi, Michael J. Thun, Clark W. Heath, Jr., and Lawrence

More information

Adult Obesity Prevalence in Canada and the United States

Adult Obesity Prevalence in Canada and the United States Adult Obesity Prevalence in and the Margot Shields; Margaret D. Carroll, M.S.P.H.; and Cynthia L. Ogden, Ph.D. Key findings Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, 2007 2009; the Canadian Heart

More information

Educational Attainment of Veterans: 2000 to 2009

Educational Attainment of Veterans: 2000 to 2009 Educational Attainment of Veterans: to 9 January 11 NCVAS National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics Data Source and Methods Data for this analysis come from years of the Current Population Survey

More information

Health Status, Health Insurance, and Medical Services Utilization: 2010 Household Economic Studies

Health Status, Health Insurance, and Medical Services Utilization: 2010 Household Economic Studies Health Status, Health Insurance, and Medical Services Utilization: 2010 Household Economic Studies Current Population Reports By Brett O Hara and Kyle Caswell Issued July 2013 P70-133RV INTRODUCTION The

More information

Two-thirds. Obesity and Cancer in Iowa 18% 28% 32% Facts & Figures. of adult Iowans are either overweight or obese

Two-thirds. Obesity and Cancer in Iowa 18% 28% 32% Facts & Figures. of adult Iowans are either overweight or obese Obesity and Cancer in Iowa Facts & Figures Two-thirds of adult Iowans are either overweight or obese 18% 28% 32% Percentage increase in the number of Iowans who were overweight and obese between 1998 and

More information

UNINSURED ADULTS IN MAINE, 2013 AND 2014: RATE STAYS STEADY AND BARRIERS TO HEALTH CARE CONTINUE

UNINSURED ADULTS IN MAINE, 2013 AND 2014: RATE STAYS STEADY AND BARRIERS TO HEALTH CARE CONTINUE UNINSURED ADULTS IN MAINE, 2013 AND 2014: RATE STAYS STEADY AND BARRIERS TO HEALTH CARE CONTINUE December 2015 Beginning in January 2014, the federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has

More information

Leading Causes of Death Profile

Leading Causes of Death Profile Leading Causes of Death Profile St. Louis County, Missouri Mortality is an indicator of the health of a population. Cause of death ranking is the standard method that is useful for illustrating the relative

More information

2016 HEALTH PROFILE: TULALIP BAY & THE NORTH COAST. An examination of the social determinants of health in Snohomish County

2016 HEALTH PROFILE: TULALIP BAY & THE NORTH COAST. An examination of the social determinants of health in Snohomish County 2016 HEALTH PROFILE: TULALIP BAY & THE NORTH COAST An examination of the social determinants of health in TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Demographics Socioeconomic Characteristics Education Health Outcomes

More information

The Youth Vote in 2012 CIRCLE Staff May 10, 2013

The Youth Vote in 2012 CIRCLE Staff May 10, 2013 The Youth Vote in 2012 CIRCLE Staff May 10, 2013 In the 2012 elections, young voters (under age 30) chose Barack Obama over Mitt Romney by 60%- 37%, a 23-point margin, according to the National Exit Polls.

More information

Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: 2014 to 2060 Population Estimates and Projections

Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: 2014 to 2060 Population Estimates and Projections Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: to Population Estimates and Projections Current Population Reports By Sandra L. Colby and Jennifer M. Ortman Issued March 15 P25-1143 INTRODUCTION

More information

REVIEW OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

REVIEW OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS REVIEW OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA ANCHORAGE, INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH FEBRUARY 1994, VOL. XXIX, NO. 1 Violent Death in Alaska: Who Is Most Likely To Die? By

More information

Working After Retirement: The Gap Between Expectations and Reality

Working After Retirement: The Gap Between Expectations and Reality Working After Retirement: The Gap Between Expectations and Reality FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Paul Taylor, Executive Vice President Cary Funk, Senior Project Director Peyton Craighill, Project Director MEDIA

More information

Who Is Working For Minimum Wage In Ontario? By Sheila Block

Who Is Working For Minimum Wage In Ontario? By Sheila Block Who Is Working For Minimum Wage In Ontario? By Sheila Block October, 2013 The Wellesley Institute engages in research, policy and community mobilization to advance population health. Copies of this report

More information

Perspectives on Productive Aging

Perspectives on Productive Aging Many Older Americans Engage in Caregiving Activities Richard W. Johnson and Simone G. Schaner NUMBER 3, JULY 2005 Many older Americans provide care to young children and frail adults. Although few caregivers

More information

Health Coverage among 50- to 64-Year-Olds

Health Coverage among 50- to 64-Year-Olds Health Coverage among 50- to 64-Year-Olds In 2005, more than 51 million Americans were age 50 64. This number is projected to rise to 58 million in 2010, when the first baby boomers turn 64. The aging

More information

Patterns of Homeownership, Delinquency, and Foreclosure Among Youngest Baby Boomers

Patterns of Homeownership, Delinquency, and Foreclosure Among Youngest Baby Boomers Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR Federal Publications Key Workplace Documents 2-2013 Patterns of Homeownership, Delinquency, and Foreclosure Among Youngest Baby Boomers Alison Aughinbaugh

More information

Cigarette Smoking Behavior in the United States

Cigarette Smoking Behavior in the United States Chapter 2 Cigarette Smoking Behavior in the United States David M. Burns, Lora Lee, Larry Z. Shen, Elizabeth Gilpin, H. Dennis Tolley, Jerry Vaughn, and Thomas G. Shanks INTRODUCTION Native Americans were

More information

Malawi Population Data Sheet

Malawi Population Data Sheet Malawi Population Data Sheet 2012 Malawi s Population Is Growing Rapidly Malawi Population (Millions) 26.1 19.1 13.1 9.9 8.0 4.0 5.5 1966 1977 1987 1998 2008 2020 2030 Malawi s population is growing rapidly,

More information

Rural Poverty At A Glance

Rural Poverty At A Glance Rural Poverty At A Glance During the 199s, America experienced unprecedented economic growth and a large decline in the national poverty rate. Between 1993 and, real GDP (gross domestic product adjusted

More information

watch Introduction January 2012 No. 82

watch Introduction January 2012 No. 82 AND health COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT watch January 2012 No. 82 U N I O N CONSTITUTION Living Longer? Living Better? Estimates of Life Expectancy and Healthy Life Expectancy in

More information

Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison

Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report March 1997, NCJ-160092 Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison By Thomas P. Bonczar and

More information

Young Black America Part Two: College Entry and Completion

Young Black America Part Two: College Entry and Completion Issue Brief April 215 Young Black America Part Two: College Entry and Completion By Cherrie Bucknor* As documented in part one of this series, the high school completion rate of blacks is currently at

More information

An Equity Profile of the Houston-Galveston Region. Summary. Overview. The Equity Indicators Framework

An Equity Profile of the Houston-Galveston Region. Summary. Overview. The Equity Indicators Framework An Equity Profile of the Houston-Galveston Region PolicyLink and PERE An Equity Profile of the Houston-Galveston Region Summary Overview Across the country, regional planning organizations, community organizations

More information

Majority Now Supports Legalizing Marijuana

Majority Now Supports Legalizing Marijuana APRIL 4, 2013 Majority Now Supports Legalizing Marijuana FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT THE PEW RESEARCH CENTER FOR THE PEOPLE & THE PRESS Michael Dimock Director Carroll Doherty Associate Director Seth

More information

A PHILANTHROPIC PARTNERSHIP FOR BLACK COMMUNITIES. Health and Wellness BLACK FACTS

A PHILANTHROPIC PARTNERSHIP FOR BLACK COMMUNITIES. Health and Wellness BLACK FACTS A PHILANTHROPIC PARTNERSHIP FOR BLACK COMMUNITIES Health and Wellness BLACK FACTS THE COST OF MAINTAINING A HEALTHY DIET FOR A FAMILY IS OUT OF REACH FOR MANY AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES. 2 A Philanthropic

More information

Full Health Indicators Report for DeSoto County, MS

Full Health Indicators Report for DeSoto County, MS Full Health Indicators Report for DeSoto County, MS DeSoto County, MS Social & Economic Factors Economic and social insecurity often are associated with poor health. Poverty, unemployment, and lack of

More information

Canada Pension Plan Retirement, Survivor and Disability Beneficiaries Mortality Study

Canada Pension Plan Retirement, Survivor and Disability Beneficiaries Mortality Study f Canada Pension Plan Retirement, Survivor and Disability Beneficiaries Mortality Study Actuarial Study No. 16 June 2015 Office of the Chief Actuary Office of the Chief Actuary Office of the Superintendent

More information

HEALTH FACTORS Clinical Care Insurance Coverage Routine Dental Care Routine Medical Care Prenatal Care Breast Cancer Screening Diabetes Management

HEALTH FACTORS Clinical Care Insurance Coverage Routine Dental Care Routine Medical Care Prenatal Care Breast Cancer Screening Diabetes Management HEALTH FACTORS Clinical Care Insurance Coverage Routine Dental Care Routine Medical Care Prenatal Care Breast Cancer Screening Diabetes Management Colorectal Cancer Screening Cholesterol Screening 1 Insurance

More information

ARE FLORIDA'S CHILDREN BORN HEALTHY AND DO THEY HAVE HEALTH INSURANCE?

ARE FLORIDA'S CHILDREN BORN HEALTHY AND DO THEY HAVE HEALTH INSURANCE? infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births ARE FLORIDA'S CHILDREN BORN HEALTHY AND DO THEY HAVE HEALTH INSURANCE? Too Many of Florida's Babies Die at Birth, Particularly African American Infants In the

More information

Maryland Population POLICY ACADEMY STATE PROFILE. Maryland MARYLAND POPULATION (IN 1,000S) BY AGE GROUP

Maryland Population POLICY ACADEMY STATE PROFILE. Maryland MARYLAND POPULATION (IN 1,000S) BY AGE GROUP Maryland October 2012 POLICY ACADEMY STATE PROFILE Maryland Population MARYLAND POPULATION (IN 1,000S) BY AGE GROUP Maryland is home to almost 5.8 million people. Of these, more than 1.8 million (31.9

More information

The U.S. labor force the number of

The U.S. labor force the number of Employment outlook: 14 Labor force projections to 2014: retiring boomers The baby boomers exit from the prime-aged workforce and their movement into older age groups will lower the overall labor force

More information