Name 8/23/2014. The Italian Renaissance Classical and Worldly Values. The Renaissance Begins Chapter 1 section 1

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1 The Renaissance Begins Chapter 1 section 1 The Italian Renaissance Renaissance means rebirth. Renaissance an explosion of creativity in and. The Renaissance started in Italy but spread all over. Why did it begin in Italy? There were ruins from the Roman Empire, that reminded them of their past. Italy s cities became wealthy from trade. City-States were competed with each other. The wealth of Florence No City-State was more famous than Florence. Their wealth first came from trading cloth but soon it came from banking Florence s richest family was the and they were Humanism celebrated people and life in this world. Humanism celebrated accomplishments. Humanists suggested that people might In the Middle Ages people looked to heaven for enjoyment. Classical and Worldly Values People were very religious but began to celebrate achievements. People became they were more interested in this world not just waiting for. were people who financially supported artist 1

2 Individualism Many people celebrated the here and now through luxuries, fine food, music, and art. Celebrating the allowed artists to pursue their craft. people used as a way to show status and promote themselves. Renaissance Man People tried to master many fields of study. A Renaissance should be charming, witty, well educated in the classics, dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. Leonardo was the most famous, he was a painter, a scientist, and an inventor. Perspective Changes in Art - a method used to give a painting depth, making them more realistic. The subject matter changed from mostly religious in the Middle ages to include other subjects including Greek and Myths. First use of linear perspective! Emphasis on Individualism Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Duchess of Urbino Piero della Francesca, Geometrical Arrangement of Figures The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate Leonardo da Vinci 1469 The figure as architecture! 2

3 6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 1512 Chiaroscuro Sfumato Architect Inventor Mona Lisa da Vinci, Mona Lisa OR da Vinci?? The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 & Geometry The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 vertical horizontal 3

4 Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook Leonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his Notebook Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook A study of siege defenses. Studies of water-lifting devices. Michelangelo Michelangelo was a s at heart. His statues showed versions of human beings. He was very devoted to the and many of his sculptors were of religious figures. The Popes as Patrons of the Arts David Michelangelo Buonarotti 1504 Marble The Pieta 1499 Marble Shows Mary holding the body of Jesus after his death 4

5 The Sistine Chapel The Sistine Chapel s Ceiling Michelangelo Buonarroti Michelangelo Buonarroti The Sistine Chapel Details The Sistine Chapel Details The Last Judgment Creation of Man Raphael Known as Italy s best The Madonna's were the best loved of his works His best known painting was The School of Athens Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael

6 Raphael s Canagiani Madonna, 1507 Raphael s Madonna's (1) Sistine Madonna Cowpepper Madonna Renaissance Literature Writers began to express their own thoughts and Writers also began to write in the - their native language Niccolo Machiavelli wrote The in which he explained how rulers must use any means necessary to maintain power Northern Renaissance and cities began to grow after the bubonic and the Hundred Year s War between England and France were over. Many artists travelled to to learn techniques. Many monarchs sponsored Italian artists. Northern Renaissance Oil based paints were developed and used widely. Northern artists painted scenes that gave a sense of feeling and personality of their. Northern Humanists Combined humanism with Christianitymany began to see problems within the Catholic. Northern Humanists wanted to make society fairer, they also promoted education for. Thomas More- wrote about an ideal society where greed, war, and conflict didn t exist. 6

7 Elizabethan Age Printing Press Developed in 1440 by Johann Queen Elizabeth of , Renaissance Woman! Gutenberg. The first printed was Supporter of the arts. the Gutenberg. William Shakespeare- poems Written works were available far and and plays including Romeo and Juliet wide spreading ideas rapidly. and Hamlet. More people began to, the bible was a popular book. People began to form their own ideas of Christianity after reading the bible. 7

8 8/23/2014 Comunicación y Gerencia Chapter 17 section 3 Reformation Reformation??? Reformation is a movement within the Catholic Church to reform it. That means that they wanted to make it better. What do you think was wrong with it? Who do you think tried to reform it? Erasmus Erasmus a Catholic man who wanted everyone to be able to and interpret the bible. He said people should be good and participate in church activities. People should use to help improve the church The Reformation Begins Who reformed the Church? - a man raised to be a lawyer, but decided to go into the. He was taught that God was angry he was of God. Burden of What was wrong with the church? had become more important than preaching of noblemen Reformers were more educated Church needed more Fix up St Peter s Cathedral Land in Italy needed defending, Turks Indulgences a from the church for a person s sin. The church began to sell them Clergy with family 1

9 8/23/2014 Martin Luther looked in the to learn about indulgences; there was nothing in there about it. The idea of selling indulgences seemed He also began to question church policy. He questioned the behavior of the church. He was concerned about where he would spend eternity. The church said that he would go to heaven if he did good things and received the. He prayed and fasted, but lived in fear of God. He read the bible Romans 8:37-39, which talks about a God. He could not understand how a loving God as described in the was the same one that he had learned about all his life. He finally came to the conclusion that salvation was by God and could not be. Romans 1:16-17 This is 95 arguments against indulgences and the church. Luther them to the church in Thousands of were made. 95 Theses Luther was excommunicated. He was fortunate that he was not. It was not his intention to start a new but that is what he did. He started the church. Lutheranism what Luther s new denomination of the church was called. It had three main ideas in Jesus, not good works, would bring salvation The is the final source for truth about God not the church. The church was made up of all its believers not just. 2

10 8/23/2014 Predestination Is your life predetermined Are only certain people allowed to go to heaven John Calvin Born in in the early 1500 s. Studied theology the study of questions about. Began to study Luther s writings and concluded that Luther was right, but he added his own ideas to Luther s teachings. -God s will is absolute and decides everything in the world in. It is kind of like the outcome of your life is already planned and no matter what you do you cannot change that. John Calvin He also taught that neither kings nor bishops could control the church. He wanted his church members to elect their own church elders. 3

11 8/23/2014 Counter-Reformation Catholics and Protestants Chapter 17 section 4 The church wanted to convince people to leave the church and return to the Catholic church. In 1648 was divided into Catholic and Protestant areas. Religious Wars The Catholic church needed to itself as it tried to convince people to return to Catholicism. To do that, they had on and off for 20 years at a place called Trent. These meeting were called the Council of. The Council of Trent set up strict for how bishops and priests should behave. A special school called a was established to train priests. There were battles between the Catholic and the Protestants during this time. The English Reformation England was Catholic Henry VIII He wanted to his first wife, Catherine of Church Had his Bishop annul the marriage Church him Henry then declared that the king was the head of the church. 1

12 8/23/2014 Refusing to accept him as the head of the church could result in the loss of your head!! Many people were killed for this reason. Henry created a new church the Church. Catherine of (annulled), (beheaded), Jane Seymour (died days after giving birth, son Edward) Anne of Cleves (annulled) Catherine Parr (survived). Catherine Howard (beheaded), Mary I Bloody Mary After Henry died, his son became king at age 9. Edward was sick and died. His Mary I became queen. Mary was a devout Catholic. She England to a Catholic nation and had Protestants killed or arrested if they opposed her. She was know as Mary because she had so many people killed. Elizabeth I After Mary died (she ruled for about 5 years) her half sister became queen. Elizabeth was and she restored the Anglican Church to England. Elizabeth was one of the rulers in English history. She never married. 2

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