13.1 Alcohols and Phenols. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Alcohols possess a hydroxyl group ( OH). Hydroxyl groups in natural compounds.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "13.1 Alcohols and Phenols. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Alcohols possess a hydroxyl group ( OH). Hydroxyl groups in natural compounds."

Transcription

1 13.1 Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols possess a hydroxyl group ( OH) Alcohols and Phenols Hydroxyl groups in natural compounds. Hydroxyl groups are extremely common in natural compounds Alcohols and Phenols Phenols possess a hydroxyl group directly attached to an aromatic ring Alcohols are named using the same procedure we used in Chapter 4 to name alkanes with minor modifications: 1. Identify the parent chain, which should include the carbon that the OH is attached to. 2. Identify and name the substituents. 3. Assign a locant (and prefix if necessary) to each substituent. Give the carbon that the OH is attached to the lowest number possible. 4. List the numbered substituents before the parent name in alphabetical order. Ignore prefixes (except iso) when ordering alphabetically. 5. The OH locant is placed either just before the parent name or just before the ol suffix Alcohols are named using the same procedure we used in Chapter 4 to name alkanes with minor modifications: 1. Identify the parent chain. Alcohols are named using the same procedure we used in Chapter 4 to name alkanes with minor modifications: 3. Assign a locant (and prefix if necessary) to each substituent. Give the carbon that the OH is attached to the lowest number possible taking precedence over C=C double bonds. 2. Identify and name the substituents

2 Alcohols are named using the same procedure we used in Chapter 4 to name alkanes with minor modifications: 5. The OH locant is placed either just before the parent name or just before the ol suffix. R or S configurations should be shown at the beginning of the name. For cyclic alcohols, the OH group should be on carbon 1, so often the locant is assumed and omitted. Common names for some alcohols are also frequently used: Like halides, alcohols are often classified by the type of carbon they are attached to: When an OH group is attached to a benzene ring, the parent name is PHENOL. WHY do we use these classifications? Practice with SKILLBUILDER Name the following molecule. HO Draw the most stable chair conformation for (cis) 1 isopropyl 1,4 cyclohexadiol Cl Br Commercially Important Alcohols Methanol (CH 3 OH) is the most simple alcohol. With a suitable catalyst, about 2 billion gallons of methanol are made industrially from CO 2 and H 2 every year. Methanol is quite poisonous, but it has many uses as: 1. Solvent 2. Precursor for chemical syntheses 3. Fuel

3 Commercially Important Alcohols Ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) has been produced by fermentation for thousands of years. HOW? About 5 billion gallons of ethanol are made industrially from the acid catalyzed hydration of ethylene every year. Ethanol has many uses as: 1. Solvent, precursor for chemical syntheses, fuel 2. Human consumption ethanol suitable for drinking is heavily taxed. If you want to use ethanol for other purposes, how do you avoid the tax? Is it poisonous? Commercially Important Alcohols Isopropanol is rubbing alcohol. Draw its structure. Isopropanol is made industrially from the acidcatalyzed hydration of propylene. Isopropanol is poisonous, but it has many uses as: 1. Industrial solvent 2. Antiseptic 3. Gasoline additive Physical Properties of Alcohols The OH of an alcohol can have a big effect on its physical properties. Compare the boiling points below. Physical Properties of Alcohols Because they can hydrogen (H ) bond, hydroxyl groups can attract water molecules strongly. Alcohols with small carbon chains are miscible in water (they mix in any ratio). WHY? Explain the differences. Alcohols with large carbon chains do not readily mix with water Physical Properties of Alcohols Do HYDROPHOBIC groups repel or attract water? WHY are molecules with large hydrophobic groups generally insoluble in water? Alcohols with three or less carbons are generally water miscible. Alcohols with more than three carbons are not miscible, and their solubility decreases as the size of the hydrophobic group increases Physical Properties of Alcohols The potency as an anti bacterial agent for an alcohol depends on the size of the hydrophobic group. To kill a bacterium, the alcohol should have some water solubility. WHY? To kill a bacterium, the alcohol should have a significant hydrophobic region. WHY? 13-18

4 Physical Properties of Alcohols Hexylresorcinol is used as an antibacterial and as an antifungal agent Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols A strong base is usually necessary to deprotonate an alcohol. It has a good combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. It has significant water solubility. Its nonpolar region helps it to pass through cell membranes. Practice with CONCEPTUAL CHECKPOINT A preferred choice to create an alkoxide is to treat the alcohol with Na, K, or Li metal. Show the mechanism for such a reaction. Practice with CONCEPTUAL CHECKPOINT Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols Recall from Chapter 3 how ARIO is used to qualitatively assess the strength of an acid. Lets apply these factors to alcohols and phenols. Atom 13.2 Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols Lets apply these factors to alcohols and phenols. Resonance Explain why phenol is 100 million times more acidic than cyclohexanol. Show all relevant resonance contributors Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols Given the relatively low pk a of phenols, will NaOH be a strong enough base to deprotonate a phenol? 13.2 Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols Lets apply these factors to alcohols and phenols. Induction: unless there is an electronegative group nearby, induction won t be very significant. Orbital: in what type of orbital do the alkoxide electrons reside? How does that effect acidity?

5 13.2 Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols Solvation is also an important factor that affects acidity. Water is generally used as the solvent when measuring pk a values. Which of the alcohols below is stronger? 13.2 Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols Solvation explains the difference in acidity. ARIO cannot be used to explain the difference Draw partial charges on the solvent molecules to show why solvation is a stabilizing effect. Practice with SKILLBUILDER Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols Use ARIO and solvation to rank the following molecules in order of increasing pk a Preparation of Alcohols We saw in Chapter 7 that substitution reactions can yield an alcohol. What reagents did we use to accomplish this transformation? We saw that the substitution can occur by S N 1 or S N Preparation of Alcohols 13.3 Preparation of Alcohols In Chapter 9, we learned how to make alcohols from alkenes. The S N 1 process generally uses a weak nucleophile (H 2 O), which makes the process relatively slow. Why isn t a stronger nucleophile ( OH) used under S N 1 conditions? Recall that acid catalyzed hydration proceeds through a carbocation intermediate that can possibly rearrange. How do you avoid rearrangements? Practice with CONCEPTUAL CHECKPOINTs 13.7 and

6 A third method to prepare alcohols is by the reduction of a carbonyl. What is a carbonyl? s involve a change in oxidation state. Oxidation states are a method of electron bookkeeping. Recall how we used formal charge as a method of electron bookkeeping: Each atom is assigned half of the electrons it is sharing with another atom. What is the formal charge on carbon in methanol? For oxidation states, we imagine the bonds breaking heterolytically, and the electrons go to the more electronegative atom Each of the carbons below have zero formal charge, but they have different oxidation states. Calculate the oxidation number for each. The reduction of a carbonyl requires a reducing agent. Is the conversion from formic acid carbon dioxide an oxidation or a reduction? What about formaldehyde methanol? Practice with SKILLBUILDER Is the reducing agent oxidized or reduced? If you were to design a reducing agent, what element(s) would be necessary? Would an acid such as HCl be an appropriate reducing agent? WHY or WHY NOT? There are three reducing agents you should know: 1. We have already seen how catalyzed hydrogenation can reduce alkenes. It can also work for carbonyls. Reagents that can donate a HYDRIDE are generally good reducing agents: 2. Sodium borohydride Forceful conditions (high temperature and/or high pressure)

7 Reagents that can donate a HYDRIDE are generally good reducing agents: 3. Lithium aluminum hydride (LAH) Note that LAH is significantly more reactive that NaBH 4. LAH reacts violently with water. WHY? How can LAH be used with water if it reacts with water? HYDRIDE delivery agents will somewhat selectively reduce carbonyl compounds. The reactivity of HYDRIDE delivery agents can be finetuned by using derivatives with varying R groups. Alkoxides Cyano groups Sterically hindered groups LAH is strong enough to also reduce esters and carboxylic acids, whereas NaBH 4 is generally not. To reduce an ester, two hydride equivalents are needed. Which steps in the mechanism are reversible?

8 Predict the products for the following processes Preparation of Diols Diols are named using the same method as alcohols, except the suffix, diol is used. Practice with SKILLBUILDER Preparation of Diols If two carbonyl groups are present, and enough moles of reducing agent are added, both can be reduced Preparation of Diols Recall the methods we discussed in Chapter 9 to convert an alkene into a diol Grignard Reactions Grignard reagents are often used in the synthesis of alcohols. To form a Grignard, an alkyl halide is treated with Mg metal Grignard Reactions The electronegativity difference between C (2.5) and Mg (1.3) is great enough that the bond has significant ionic character. How does the oxidation state of the carbon change upon forming the Grignard? The carbon atom is not able to effectively stabilize the negative charge it carries. Will it act as an acid, base, electrophile, nucleophile, etc.?

9 13.6 Grignard Reactions If the Grignard reagent collides with a carbonyl compound, an alcohol can result. Note the similarities between the Grignard and LAH mechanisms Grignard Reactions Because the Grignard is both a strong base and a strong nucleophile, care must be taken to protect it from exposure to water. If water can t be used as the solvent, what solvent is appropriate? What techniques are used to keep atmospheric moisture out of the reaction? Grignard Reactions Grignard examples: 13.6 Grignard Reactions Design a synthesis for the following molecules starting from an alkyl halide and a carbonyl, each having five carbons or less. With an ester substrate, excess Grignard reagent is required. WHY? Propose a mechanism. List some functional groups that are NOT compatible with the Grignard. Practice with SKILLBUILDER Protection of Alcohols Consider the reaction below. WHY won t it work? 13.7 Protection of Alcohols A three step process is required to achieve the desired overall synthesis. The alcohol can act as an acid, especially in the presence of reactive reagents like the Grignard reagent. The alcohol can be protected to prevent it from reacting

10 13.7 Protection of Alcohols One such protecting group is trimethylsilyl (TMS) Protection of Alcohols Evidence suggests that substitution at the Si atom occurs by an S N 2 mechanism. Because Si is much larger than C, it is more open to backside attack. The TMS protection step requires the presence of a base. Propose a mechanism Protection of Alcohols The TMS group can later be removed with H 3 O + or F. TBAF is often used to supply fluoride ions Protection of Alcohols Practice with CONCEPTUAL CHECKPOINT Preparation of Phenols 2 million tons of phenol is produced industrially yearly 13.9 Reactions of Alcohols Recall this S N 1 reaction from Section 7.5. Acetone is a useful byproduct. Phenol is a precursor in many chemical syntheses: Pharmaceuticals Polymers Adhesives Food preservatives, etc. For primary alcohols, the reaction occurs by an S N

11 13.9 Reactions of Alcohols The S N 2 reaction also occurs with ZnCl 2 as the reagent Reactions of Alcohols SOCl 2 can also be used to convert an alcohol to an alkyl chloride. Recall from Section 7.8 that the OH group can be converted into a better leaving groups such as a tosyl group Reactions of Alcohols PBr 3 can also be used to convert an alcohol to an alkyl bromide Reactions of Alcohols Fill in the necessary reagents for the conversions below. Note that the last step of the SOCl 2 and PBr 3 mechanisms are S N 2 reactions. Practice with SKILLBUILDER Reactions of Alcohols E1 and E2 In Section 8.9, we saw that an acid (with a nonnucleophilic conjugate base) can promote E Reactions of Alcohols E1 and E2 If the alcohol is converted into a better leaving group, then a strong base can be used to promote E2. Why is E2 unlikely? Recall that the reaction generally produces the more substituted alkene product. E2 reactions do not involve rearrangements. WHY? When applicable, E2 reactions also produce the more substituted product. Practice with CONCEPTUAL CHECKPOINT

12 13.10 Oxidation of Alcohols We saw how alcohols can be formed by the reduction of a carbonyl. The reverse process is also possible with the right reagents Oxidation of Alcohols Oxidation of primary alcohols proceeds to aldehydes and subsequently to carboxylic acids Very few oxidizing reagents will stop at the aldehyde. Oxidation of secondary alcohols produces a ketone. Very few agents are capable of oxidizing the ketone Oxidation of Alcohols Tertiary alcohols generally do not undergo oxidation. WHY? Oxidation of Alcohols When chromic acid reacts with an alcohol, there are two main steps: There are two main methods to produce the most common oxidizing agent, chromic acid: Oxidation of Alcohols Chromic acid will generally oxidize a primary alcohol to a carboxylic acid. PCC (pyridinium chlorochromate) can be used to stop at the aldehyde Oxidation of Alcohols PCC is generally used with methylene chloride as the solvent. Both oxidizing agents will work with secondary alcohols. Practice with SKILLBUILDER

13 13.10 Oxidation of Alcohols Predict the product for the following reaction Biological Redox Reactions Nature employs reducing and oxidizing agents. They are generally complex and selective. WHY? NADH is one such reducing agent Biological Redox Reactions The reactive site of NADH acts as a hydride delivery agent Biological Redox Reactions NAD + can undergo the reverse process: This is one way nature converts carbonyls into alcohols. Why is an enzyme required? The NADH/NAD + interconversion plays a big role in metabolism Oxidation of Phenol Recall that tertiary alcohols do not undergo oxidation because they lack an alpha proton. You might expect phenol to be similarly unreactive Oxidation of Phenol Phenol oxidizes to form benzoquinone, which in turn can be reduced to hydroquinone. Yet, phenol is even more readily oxidized than primary or secondary alcohols. Quinones are found everywhere in nature. They are ubiquitous

14 13.12 Oxidation of Phenol Ubiquinones act to catalyze the conversion of oxygen into water, a key step in cellular respiration. Where in a cell do you think ubiquinones are most likely found? Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Oxidation of Phenol Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Synthetic Strategies Recall some functional group conversions we learned: Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Classify the functional groups based on oxidation state: Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Synthetic Strategies Synthetic Strategies Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ubiquinone catalysis: Synthetic Strategies Give necessary reagents for the following conversions. Practice with SKILLBUILDER Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

15 13.13 Synthetic Strategies Recall the C C bond forming reactions we learned Synthetic Strategies What if you want to convert an aldehyde into a ketone? What reagents are needed for the following conversion? Practice with CONCEPTUAL CHECKPOINT and SKILLBUILDER

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition 12. Alcohols and Phenols Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols contain an OH group connected to a saturated C (sp 3 ) They are important solvents and synthesis

More information

Chapter 17 Alcohols and Phenols

Chapter 17 Alcohols and Phenols John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 17 Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols contain an OH group connected to a saturated C (sp 3 ) They are important solvents

More information

But in organic terms: Oxidation: loss of H 2 ; addition of O or O 2 ; addition of X 2 (halogens).

But in organic terms: Oxidation: loss of H 2 ; addition of O or O 2 ; addition of X 2 (halogens). Reactions of Alcohols Alcohols are versatile organic compounds since they undergo a wide variety of transformations the majority of which are either oxidation or reduction type reactions. Normally: Oxidation

More information

Class XII Chemistry Chapter: Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers

Class XII Chemistry Chapter: Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers 1 Class XII Chemistry Chapter: Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers Top concepts: 1. Structure of alcohols, phenols and ethers: 2. Preparation of alcohols: 3. Preparation of phenols: 2 4. Physical properties of

More information

Chapter 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions

Chapter 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions The α Position The carbon next to the carbonyl group is designated as being in the α position Electrophilic

More information

ALCOHOLS: Properties & Preparation

ALCOHOLS: Properties & Preparation ALLS: Properties & Preparation General formula: R-, where R is alkyl or substitued alkyl. Ar-: phenol - different properties. Nomenclature 1. ommon names: Name of alkyl group, followed by word alcohol.

More information

Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids.

Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids. Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids. R Carboxylic acids are classified according to the substituent

More information

19.2 Halogenation 4/18/2012. Is the reaction substitution, elimination, addition or pericyclic?

19.2 Halogenation 4/18/2012. Is the reaction substitution, elimination, addition or pericyclic? 19.1 Introduction to Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution In Chapter 18, we saw how aromatic C=C double bonds are less reactive than typical alkene double bonds. Consider a bromination reaction: 19.1 Introduction

More information

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Fourteen 1

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Fourteen 1 An alcohol has an OH bonded to an alkyl group; a phenol has an OH bonded directly to an aromatic ring; and an ether has an O bonded to two organic groups. Chapter Fourteen 1 Ethyl alcohol, dimethyl ether,

More information

Chapter 11 Alkynes 1

Chapter 11 Alkynes 1 Chapter 11 Alkynes 1 Alkynes Introduction Structure and Bonding Alkynes contain a carbon carbon triple bond. Terminal alkynes have the triple bond at the end of the carbon chain so that a hydrogen atom

More information

Chapter 10. Structure and Synthesis of Alcohols

Chapter 10. Structure and Synthesis of Alcohols KOT 222 Organic Chemistry II Chapter 10 Structure and Synthesis of Alcohols 1 What are alcohols?? Organic compounds containing hydroxyl group, -OH. Examples: CH 3 -OH methanol CH 3 CH 2 -OH ethanol H 3

More information

Organic Chemistry II with Dr Roche

Organic Chemistry II with Dr Roche Organic Chemistry II with Dr Roche Lecture Notes Email http://roche.camden.rutgers.edu alroche@camden.rutgers.edu Office SCI-311 Labs SCI 328/309/319 Office Phone 856-225-6166 Text (a) Organic Chemistry

More information

Lecture Notes Chem 51B S. King. Chapter 18 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

Lecture Notes Chem 51B S. King. Chapter 18 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Lecture otes Chem 51B S. King Chapter 18 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution I. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution The most characteristic reaction of aromatic compounds is electrophilic aromatic substitution,

More information

Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and Nitriles

Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and Nitriles Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and itriles Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: There are really only four things to worry about under this heading; acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides. We ll start with

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and Chirality

Chemistry B11 Chapter Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and Chirality hemistry B11 hapter 14-15 Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and hirality Alcohols: the functional group of an alcohol is an hydroxyl group -O. 3 O 3 2 2 O Naming alcohols: 1. Select the longest chain that contains

More information

(b) (1S,2S)-2-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid. (b) CH 3 CH 2 CHCN CH 2 CH 3. (d) 2-ethylbutanenitrile

(b) (1S,2S)-2-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid. (b) CH 3 CH 2 CHCN CH 2 CH 3. (d) 2-ethylbutanenitrile hem 226 Problem Set #10 Fundamentals of rganic hemistry, 4 th edition, John McMurry. hapter 10 1. Give IUPA names for compounds - (e). (c) 3 3 2 3-methylbutanoic acid Br 3 2 2 4-bromopentanoic acid 3 2

More information

Writing a Correct Mechanism

Writing a Correct Mechanism Chapter 2 1) Balancing Equations Writing a Correct Mechanism 2) Using Arrows to show Electron Movement 3) Mechanisms in Acidic and Basic Media 4) Electron rich Species: Nucleophile or Base? 5) Trimolecular

More information

An alkyne is a hydrocarbon that contain a Carbon carbon triple bond. Acetylene, the simplest alkyne, widely used in industry for the synthesis of

An alkyne is a hydrocarbon that contain a Carbon carbon triple bond. Acetylene, the simplest alkyne, widely used in industry for the synthesis of Alkynes An alkyne is a hydrocarbon that contain a Carbon carbon triple bond. Acetylene, the simplest alkyne, widely used in industry for the synthesis of acetaldehyde, acetic acid, vinyl chloride O O H

More information

Under acidic conditions, carbonyl compounds are protonated on O first, then weak base deprotonates at the α-c to give enol.

Under acidic conditions, carbonyl compounds are protonated on O first, then weak base deprotonates at the α-c to give enol. Substitution reactions of carbonyl compounds at the α-position Carbonyl compounds are acidic at α-c (e.g. C 2 C ); this is because of the electrophilic nature of carbonyl C= bond. The pka values of simple

More information

Chapter 7 - Alkenes and Alkynes I

Chapter 7 - Alkenes and Alkynes I Andrew Rosen Chapter 7 - Alkenes and Alkynes I 7.1 - Introduction - The simplest member of the alkenes has the common name of ethylene while the simplest member of the alkyne family has the common name

More information

4/18/2011. 9.8 Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions. Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions

4/18/2011. 9.8 Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions. Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions 9.8 Substituent effects in the electrophilic substitution of an aromatic ring Substituents affect the reactivity of the aromatic ring Some substituents activate the ring, making it more reactive than benzene

More information

Alkynes and Their Reactions

Alkynes and Their Reactions Alkynes and Their Reactions Naming Alkynes Alkynes are named in the same general way that alkenes are named. In the IUPAC system, change the ane ending of the parent alkane name to the suffix yne. Choose

More information

Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis

Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Alkynes Hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds Acetylene, the simplest alkyne is produced industrially from methane and steam at high temperature

More information

Chapter 17: Reactions of Aromatic Compounds

Chapter 17: Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Chapter 17: Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Electrophilic aromatic substitution (17-1) Most common (normal) reaction of aromatics HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 NO 2 + H2O 452 Similar to alkenes, benzene (aromatics) has

More information

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur 1 Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) that replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached

More information

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions, Course Notes Archive, 1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions An organic reaction in which an electrophile substitutes a hydrogen atom in an aromatic

More information

Electrophilic Addition Reactions

Electrophilic Addition Reactions Electrophilic Addition Reactions Electrophilic addition reactions are an important class of reactions that allow the interconversion of C=C and C C into a range of important functional groups. Conceptually,

More information

Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 16 Aldehydes and Ketones I. Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbonyl Group

Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 16 Aldehydes and Ketones I. Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbonyl Group Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 16 Aldehydes and Ketones I. Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbonyl Group Bela Torok Department of Chemistry University of Massachusetts Boston Boston, MA 1 Nomenclature

More information

Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8

Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8 Alkynes! Hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds! Acetylene, the simplest alkyne

More information

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides (Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides The oxidation state of carbon in a carboxylic acid is the highest of the organic

More information

CHAPTER 11 Alcohol Reactivity

CHAPTER 11 Alcohol Reactivity CHAPTER 11 Alcohol Reactivity 1 Summary Table Oxidation: Adding O, Losing H Chromic Acid (Cr(VI)) is a powerful oxidizing agent 4 Oxidation Mechanism When Aldehydes are formed by Cr(VI) in water, they

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS

IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS Alcohols are organic compounds that which considered as derivatives of water. One of the hydrogen atoms of water molecule (H-O-H) has been replaced by an alkyl or substituted

More information

Alcohols (R-OH) and Alkyl halides R-X (X = F, Cl, Br, I) Alcohols. Suffix:

Alcohols (R-OH) and Alkyl halides R-X (X = F, Cl, Br, I) Alcohols. Suffix: Alcohols (R-O) and Alkyl halides R-X (X = F, Cl,, I) Alcohols Alcohols contain a R-O functional group. Primary, secondary or tertiary? O O O Nomenclature: Suffix: numbering scheme: The number locating

More information

CHEMISTRY 263 Module7. Hydrogenation of Alkenes Text Sections: Homework Chapter7: Module8. Alkenes and Alkynes II: Addition reactions

CHEMISTRY 263 Module7. Hydrogenation of Alkenes Text Sections: Homework Chapter7: Module8. Alkenes and Alkynes II: Addition reactions 1 CHEMISTRY 263 Module7. Hydrogenation of Alkenes The Function of the Catalyst - Syn and anti- addition Hydrogenation of Alkynes - Syn- addition of hydrogen: Synthesis of cis-alkenes - Anti addition of

More information

Reactions of Aromatic Compounds

Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Aromatic compounds are stabilized by this aromatic stabilization energy Due to this stabilization, normal S N 2 reactions observed with alkanes do not occur with aromatic

More information

The Chemistry of Alcohols and Thiols

The Chemistry of Alcohols and Thiols 0 0 The Chemistry of Alcohols and Thiols This chapter focuses on the reactions of alcohols and thiols. Like alkyl halides, alcohols undergo substitution and elimination reactions. owever, unlike alkyl

More information

very strong bases very strong nucleophiles

very strong bases very strong nucleophiles hapter 14: rganometallic ompounds - eagents with carbon-metal bonds 14.1: rganometallic Nomenclature (please read) 3 -Li Butyllithium Mg vinylmagnesium bromide ( 3 ) u - Li Dimethylcopper lithium 14.:

More information

Protonation. favored H 3 O + R O O H

Protonation. favored H 3 O + R O O H arboxylic Acids arboxylic acids have one property that distinguishes them from most other organic compounds they re acidic. Now not as acidic as fuming sulfuric acid, but still pretty darned acidic. The

More information

Laboratory 22: Properties of Alcohols

Laboratory 22: Properties of Alcohols Introduction Alcohols represent and important class of organic molecules. In this experiment you will study the physical and chemical properties of alcohols. Solubility in water, and organic solvents,

More information

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring.

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring. Chapter : rganic Compounds with xygen Alcohols, Ethers Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a benzene ring.

More information

It does not react N.R.

It does not react N.R. Benzene versus yclohexene versus yclohexadiene 1 l l cyclohexene l l cyclohexadiene l Expect this to react similarly "cyclohexatriene" It does not react l N.R. benzene Benzene is resonance stabilized,

More information

AROMATICITY. Chapter 8 REACTIONS OF BENZENE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 2 ND EDITION PAULA YURKANIS BRUICE

AROMATICITY. Chapter 8 REACTIONS OF BENZENE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 2 ND EDITION PAULA YURKANIS BRUICE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 2 ND EDITION PAULA YURKANIS BRUICE Chapter 8 AROMATICITY REACTIONS OF BENZENE RAED M. AL-ZOUBI, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY - N 4 L 0 JORDAN UNIVERSITY OF

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Javier E. Horta, M.D., Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Lowell Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity

More information

Chem 2425 Review Test 2

Chem 2425 Review Test 2 Name: Class: Date: Chem 2425 Review Test 2 Draw structures corresponding to each of the given names. 1. 2-phenyl-2-propanol 2. 2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol 3. tetrahydrofuran 4. allyl benzyl ether 5. diethyl

More information

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Chemistry 110 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, rganic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Alcohols have a ydroxyl Group, -, bonded to tetrahedral

More information

2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition

2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition 2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition Two frequently used definitions of acidity The Brønsted-Lowry definition Lewis definition Brønsted-Lowry acid A substance that donates a hydrogen ion

More information

Alcohols, phenols and ethers

Alcohols, phenols and ethers Alcohols, phenols and ethers Chapter 14 water alcohol ether without pain Opioid analgesics phenol ether ester amine alcohol Morphine Codeine Heroin Functional groups: collections of atoms that define a

More information

Functional Group Chemistry

Functional Group Chemistry 48 Experiment #3. rganic hemistry Functional Group Unknowns Functional Group hemistry Introduction The chemistry of an organic molecule is primarily dictated by its functional groups. Some functional groups

More information

Acids and Bases: Molecular Structure and Acidity

Acids and Bases: Molecular Structure and Acidity Acids and Bases: Molecular Structure and Acidity Review the Acids and Bases Vocabulary List as needed. Tutorial Contents A. Introduction B. Resonance C. Atomic Radius D. Electronegativity E. Inductive

More information

Organic Chemistry Questions

Organic Chemistry Questions Organic Chemistry Questions 1 Molecules of 1-propanol and 2-propanol have different (1) percentage compositions (2) molecular masses (3) molecular formulas (4) structural formulas 2 Which compound is an

More information

Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification. John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO

Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification. John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO john.a.bush@gmail.com Atoms and Elements Elements are the fundamental substances that compose matter

More information

Carboxylic Acid Structure and Chemistry: Part 2

Carboxylic Acid Structure and Chemistry: Part 2 Principles of Drug Action 1, pring 2005, Carboxylic Acids Part 2 Carboxylic Acid tructure and Chemistry: Part 2 Jack Deuiter IV. eactions of the Carboxylic Acid eactions Depending on their overall structure,

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

Reaction 2. Radical addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) to alkenes. (NOT COVERED THIS TIME)

Reaction 2. Radical addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) to alkenes. (NOT COVERED THIS TIME) http://courses.chem.psu.edu/chem38/reactions/reactions.html Reaction 1. Electrophilic addition of hydrogen halides (HX) to alkenes. HCl, HBr in ether KI + H 3 PO 4 room temperature electrophilic addition

More information

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Deductions based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests can be extremely useful in organic structure determination. Both solubility and

More information

Benzene benzene aromatic hydrocarbons aromatic not not

Benzene benzene aromatic hydrocarbons aromatic not not Benzene 1 NT 87 90 ompound 87 has the formula 6 6, is known as benzene, and it is a hydrocarbon derived from petroleum distillates. Benzene is the parent compound for a class of compounds known as aromatic

More information

Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination

Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination What does the term "nucleophilic substitution" imply? A nucleophile is an the electron rich species that will react with an electron poor species A substitution

More information

Acid-Base Chemistry of Sugars

Acid-Base Chemistry of Sugars Acid-Base Chemistry of Sugars Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors while Lewis bases are electron pair donors. Last time we saw that sugar molecules have a carbonyl carbon that acts as a Lewis acid

More information

Substituted Alkanes. Alcohol Amine Ether Thiol

Substituted Alkanes. Alcohol Amine Ether Thiol Substituted Alkanes While alkanes have very few reactions that occur, combustion and some radical reactions, substituted alkanes display a variety of reactions and properties X ften the amount of information

More information

Carbocations are electrophiles, and can therefore be useful reagents for forming new C-C bonds in EAS processes.

Carbocations are electrophiles, and can therefore be useful reagents for forming new C-C bonds in EAS processes. 1 (Continuation of Chapter 17 ) VIII. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Carbocations are electrophiles, and can therefore be useful reagents for forming new C-C bonds in EAS processes. Friedal and Craft demonstrated

More information

Chapter 18. Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

Chapter 18. Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones hapter 18. Reactions of 1 Aldehydes and Ketones Reaction of a nucleophile with an aldehyde or ketone gives an alkoxide, and subsequent hydrolysis leads to an alcohol. This chapter will define differences

More information

Avg. 16.4 / 25 Stnd. Dev. 8.2

Avg. 16.4 / 25 Stnd. Dev. 8.2 QUIZ TREE Avg. 16.4 / 25 Stnd. Dev. 8.2 xidation of Alcohols with Chromium (VI): Jones xidation 2 Alcohols are oxidized by a solution of chromium trioxide in aqueous acetone (2), in the presence of an

More information

CH 102 Practice Exam 2 PCC-Sylvania

CH 102 Practice Exam 2 PCC-Sylvania CH 102 Practice Exam 2 PCC-Sylvania True/False Indicate if the statement is true or false. 1.Tertiary alcohols are not easily oxidized. 2.Secondary alcohols can be oxidized to aldehydes. 3.Primary alcohols

More information

methyl RX example primary RX example secondary RX example secondary RX example tertiary RX example

methyl RX example primary RX example secondary RX example secondary RX example tertiary RX example ucleophilic Substitution & Elimination hemistry 1 eginning patterns to knowfor S and E eactions - horizontal and vertical templates for practice Example 1 - two possible perspectives (deuterium and tritium

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

Benzene Benzene is best represented as a resonance hybrid:

Benzene Benzene is best represented as a resonance hybrid: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) is a substitution reaction usually involving the benzene ring; more specifically it is a reaction in which the hydrogen atom of an aromatic ring is replaced as

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic.

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic. Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also

More information

Lecture 8. Friedel-Crafts reaction: Mechanism: Carbocation is the reactive electrophile. AlCl4- picks up a proton.

Lecture 8. Friedel-Crafts reaction: Mechanism: Carbocation is the reactive electrophile. AlCl4- picks up a proton. New Section 3 Page 1 2:37 PM Friedel-Crafts reaction: Mechanism: Carbocation is the reactive electrophile. AlCl4- picks up a proton. Limitations come from the mechanism: Carbocationic intermediates prone

More information

Organic Chemistry Practice Exam #4

Organic Chemistry Practice Exam #4 rganic Chemistry 32-235 Practice Exam #4 Part 1: 1. The correct IUPAC name for the following structure is. C 2 CC 2 C C 2 5-hexen-3-ol 3-hydroxy-5-hexene (E) 4-hydroxy-1-hexene 1-hexen-4-ol (D) Isohexen-3-ol,

More information

Review of an Alkene. Therefore even though a carbon-carbon σ bond rarely reacts, the π bond reacts readily

Review of an Alkene. Therefore even though a carbon-carbon σ bond rarely reacts, the π bond reacts readily Review of an Alkene Two sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms 1 σ bond 83 Kcal/mol 1 π bond 63 Kcal/mol A π bond is much lower in energy than a σ bond Therefore even though a carbon-carbon σ bond rarely reacts,

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules

Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Atomic Orbitals (2.1-2.5) Wave functions that represent the probability of finding electrons in a specific region of space s, p, d, f orbitals In

More information

Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups

Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups 1 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms with characteristic chemical and physical properties. It is the reactive part

More information

Chapter 13. Conjugated Unsaturated Systems. Conjugation, Resonance and Dienes. Conjugation, Resonance and Dienes. What is the conjugation?

Chapter 13. Conjugated Unsaturated Systems. Conjugation, Resonance and Dienes. Conjugation, Resonance and Dienes. What is the conjugation? Chapter 13 Conjugation, Resonance and Dienes What is the conjugation? Conjugation occurs whenever p orbitals are located on three or more adjacent atoms. Conjugated Unsaturated Systems The four p orbitals

More information

Benzene does not undergo electrophilic addition. It undergoes electrophilic aromatic substitution maintaining the aromatic core

Benzene does not undergo electrophilic addition. It undergoes electrophilic aromatic substitution maintaining the aromatic core Substitution Reactions of Benzene and Its Derivatives Benzene does not undergo electrophilic addition It undergoes electrophilic aromatic substitution maintaining the aromatic core Electrophilic aromatic

More information

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Chapter Thirteen Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Saturated: A molecule whose carbon atoms bond to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated: A molecule that contains a carbon carbon multiple

More information

Alcohols. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH 1-propanol OH

Alcohols. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH 1-propanol OH Chapter 12 rganic Compounds with xygen and Sulfur 12.1 Alcohols, Thiols, and Ethers Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( ) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( )

More information

ALCOHOLS AND PHENOLS; ETHERS AND EPOXIDES; THIOLS AND SULFIDES

ALCOHOLS AND PHENOLS; ETHERS AND EPOXIDES; THIOLS AND SULFIDES ALCHLS AND PHENLS; ETHERS AND EPXIDES; THILS AND SULFIDES A STUDENT SHULD BE ABLE T: 1. Give the IUPAC name when given the structure, and draw the structure given the name of open-chain and monocyclic

More information

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7 Alcohols, Ethers and More 1 What do you do when you are in Pain? What do you do when you are in a lot of pain? 2 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom, groups

More information

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Outline Fats and Oils Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Biodiesel Homework We hear quite a lot about the place of fats and oils in human nutrition. Foods high in fat are at the

More information

Classification of organic compounds By solubility

Classification of organic compounds By solubility Classification of organic compounds By solubility In this experiment we begin the process of determining the structural composition of organic compounds based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests

More information

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I PRACTICE EXERCISE Sn1 and Sn2 Reactions

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I PRACTICE EXERCISE Sn1 and Sn2 Reactions ORGANIC CEMISTRY I PRACTICE EXERCISE Sn1 and Sn2 Reactions 1) Which of the following best represents the carbon-chlorine bond of methyl chloride? d d - d - d d d d - d - I II III IV V 2) Provide a detailed,

More information

Reaction Coordinate Diagrams for the Two Benzene Reactions

Reaction Coordinate Diagrams for the Two Benzene Reactions Organic Chemistry 8 th Edition Paula Yurkanis Bruice Aromatic compounds such as benzene undergo electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions: Chapter 18 Reactions of Benzene and Substituted Benzenes Cap.

More information

Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols

Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols Today s Objectives: 1) Name and draw structural, condensed structural and line diagrams and formulas for organic halides and alcohols 2) Identify types of

More information

Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 20 Amines

Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 20 Amines Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 20 Amines Bela Torok Department of Chemistry University of Massachusetts Boston Boston, MA 1 Nomenclature Nomenclature Primary amines are named in systematic (IUPAC)

More information

Identification of Unknown Organic Compounds

Identification of Unknown Organic Compounds Identification of Unknown Organic Compounds Introduction The identification and characterization of the structures of unknown substances are an important part of organic chemistry. Although it is often

More information

Chapter 8: Chemistry of Alkynes (C n H 2n-2 )

Chapter 8: Chemistry of Alkynes (C n H 2n-2 ) hapter 8: hemistry of Alkynes ( n 2n-2 ) Bonding & hybridization Both are sp-hybridized Bond angles = 180 o 1 σ + 2 π bonds Linear around lassification R R R' σ bond energy: 88 kcal/mol π bond energy:

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules AP Chemistry Chapter - Organic and Biological Molecules.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H n+. Carbons are sp hybridized The

More information

The Structure of Alkynes

The Structure of Alkynes Synthesis of Acetylene Alkynes eating coke with lime in an electric furnace to forms calcium carbide. Then drip water on the calcium carbide. 3 ao a 2 coke lime O * a 2 2 2 O a(o) 2 *This reaction was

More information

KOT 222 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II CHAPTER 17. REACTIONS of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

KOT 222 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II CHAPTER 17. REACTIONS of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS KOT 222 ORGANIC CEMISTRY II CAPTER 17 REACTIONS of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS 1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Substitution of an electrophile for a proton on the aromatic ring. benzene s pi electrons are

More information

24.6 Sources of Phenols

24.6 Sources of Phenols 24.6 Sources of Phenols Phenol is an important industrial chemical. Major use is in phenolic resins for adhesives and plastics. Annual U.S. production is about 4 billion pounds per year. Industrial Preparations

More information

Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test

Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test 2. Write the IUPAC names for the following organic molecules: a) acetone: propanone d) acetylene: ethyne b) acetic acid: ethanoic acid e)

More information

ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13

ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13 ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13 13.1 Introduction An ALKENE is a hydrocarbon with a double C bond that looks like C=C An ALKYNE is a hydrocarbon with a triple C bond that looks like

More information

UNIT (8) OXYGEN CONTAINING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

UNIT (8) OXYGEN CONTAINING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS UNIT (8) XYGEN CNTAINING RGANIC CMPUNDS 8.1 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers An alcohol is an organic compound that contains the hydroxyl group (-) attached to an alkyl group. They are essentially alkanes

More information

The study of the structure and chemistry of stereoisomers is called stereochemistry

The study of the structure and chemistry of stereoisomers is called stereochemistry Structure and Properties of rganic Molecules Reading: Wade chapter 2, sections 2-7- 2-14 Study Problems: 2-35, 2-37, 2-39, 2-40, 2-41, 2-42, Key Concepts and Skills: Identify constitutional isomers and

More information

Chemistry 232 Summer 2016 Quiz 2a

Chemistry 232 Summer 2016 Quiz 2a 1 Chemistry 232 Summer 2016 Quiz 2a KEY Name: (Please print, surname first) ID: Do all questions. Time available: 20 min. Total available marks: 20. Score for this quiz: Answers written partially or completely

More information

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Electrophilic substitution is the typical reaction type for aromatic rings. Generalized electrophilic aromatic substitution: E E Electrophile Lewis acid: may be or neutral.

More information

Friedel Crafts Acylation

Friedel Crafts Acylation Friedel Crafts Acylation An acyl chloride or an acid anhydride is the source of the acyl group. A Lewis acid (AlCl 3 ) is required. The Mechanism for Friedel Crafts Acylation The electrophile adds to the

More information

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes 1) Carbon-Carbon Bonding in Alkanes (C-C), Alkenes (C=C) and Alkynes (C C). Understand the hybridization of atomic orbitals (ground state promotion

More information