Radiation Effects. Radiation can cause, can cure cancer.

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1 Applications & Review This isn t an x ray; it s a bone scan. Radioactive nuclei were used to show the presence of arthritis in a woman s hands. How was this image created? Warming Up A 60 kg laboratory worker receives a whole-body x- ray exposure of 0.50 msv. The x-ray wavelength is 0.15 nm. How many x-ray photons are absorbed in the worker s body? (X rays have an RBE of 1. ) Radiation Effects The effects of radiation on tissue in the body depend on the susceptibility. Rapidly-dividing tissues are the most susceptible: Tumors are extremely susceptible. Bone marrow is very susceptible. The lining of the digestive tract is quite susceptible. The brain is not very susceptible. Damaging bone marrow:!! 2 Sv Damaging the brain:!!!! 50 Sv Radiation can cause, can cure cancer.

2 Using Radiation to Treat: Irradiating Tumors 60 27Co? Using Radiation to Treat: Radioactive Seeds The 125 I in the seeds decays to 125 Te, which emits low-energy x rays and gamma rays. Using Radiation to Diagnose: Gamma Scans 99 42Mo Tc * e t 1 2 = 2.75 days 99 43Tc * Tc + γ t 1 2 = 6.0 hours Milking the radioactive cow Gamma scan of the kidneys/bladder

3 Using Radiation to Diagnose: Gamma Scans Hot spots mean the isotope is present. Using Radiation to Diagnose: Gamma Scans The scan shows metabolic activity, not the bone structure. It shows areas where fractures have occurred. SPECT Scan (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) Normal Brain Alzheimer s

4 Finding Positrons. The magnetic field is out of the board. A B Which is the electron? Which is the positron? Why do the circles get smaller? PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography) 18 9F 18 8 O e + t 1 2 = 110 minutes 15 8O 15 7 N e + t 1 2 = 2.0 minutes What is the energy of the two gamma-ray photons? PET Scan Glucose tagged with 19 F is taken up by the brain. Increased metabolic activity means a higher uptake. Tumor

5 PET Scan 15 O is taken up at greater rates where there is greater metabolic activity. Short half life means high activity, rapid measurement and low total exposure. Hearing unfamiliar language PET Scan 15 O is taken up at greater rates where there is greater metabolic activity. Short half life means high activity, rapid measurement and low total exposure. Hearing familiar language Energy Balance in the Earth System Energy In = Energy Out

6 Incoming Energy P = I A (1- albedo) I=1366 W/m 2 albedo=0.367 Re=6.38x10 6 m What is the area? Outgoing Energy P = e σ A T 4 e=0.90 σ=5.67x10-8 Re=6.38x10 6 m What is the area? Energy In = Energy Out 1.11x10 17 W =2.62x10 7 x T 4 T=255 K = -18 C = 0 F

7 The extra energy comes from the sky. Over the course of the day, the surface of the earth receives more energy in the form of thermal radiation from the sky than it receives in the form of light from the sun. The Greenhouse Effect No atmosphere: -18 C (0 F) With atmosphere: +15 C (59 F) Oscillating charges emit EM waves.

8 Not all gases emit (and absorb) thermal radiation. Nitrogen/Oxygen: Nope. Look at charge sharing. Red=positive Green=negative Blue=neutral Unequal sharing of charges means oscillation leads to emission of EM waves. Carbon Dioxide: Yes. Water Vapor: Oh Yeah. Q t = esat 4 We are changing the emissivity of the atmosphere. CO2 concentration ppm Vostok Ice Core Data March 2011: Years before present

9 CO2 Isotopes Less 13 C with time. Less 14 C with time. So, what happened here?

10 The extra carbon in the atmosphere is old, and it came from plants. 26. Medical gamma imaging is generally done with the technetium isotope 99 Tc *, which decays by emitting a gammaray photon with energy 140 kev. What is the mass loss of the nucleus, in u, upon emission of this gamma ray? 27. Cobalt has one stable isotope, 59 Co. What are the likely decay E = mc 2 Collision with kinetic energy 1.2 TeV. How many protons could you make?

11 New Particles... Including one very, very tiny one. Produced in abundance in the sun. 6 trillion per second The Particle Zoo Production and decay of lambda particle Quarks & Leptons

12 Review, Phase I: Review concepts. 19. An electron is moving near a long, current-carrying wire, as shown in Figure Q What is the direction of the magnetic force on the electron? v u FIGURE Q24.19 I A B B u FIGURE Q25.17 Fixed rail FIGURE Q25.18 Wire 18. A metal wire is resting on a U-shaped conducting rail, as shown in Figure Q The rail is fixed in position, but the wire is free to move. a. If the magnetic field is increasing in strength, which way does the wire move? b. If the magnetic field is Questions decreasing in 833 strength, which way does the wire move? 19. Although sunlight is unpolarized, the light that reflects from B B u RE Q25.17 Fixed rail FIGURE Q25.18 Wire

13 10. Three laser beams have wavelengths l 1 = 400 nm, l 2 = 600 nm, and l 3 = 800 nm. The power of each laser beam is 1 W. a. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the photon energies E 1, E 2, and E 3 in these three laser beams. Explain. b. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the number of photons per second N 1, N 2, and N 3 delivered by the three laser beams. Explain. 11. When we say that a photon is a quantum of light, what does that mean? What is quantized? 12. A solar cell is illuminated with 2.0 W of light. Is the maximum possible current greater with 2.0 W of red light or 2.0 W of blue light? 13. An investigator is measuring the current in a photoelectric effect 17. What kind of decay, if any, would you expect for the nuclei with the energy-level diagrams shown in Figure Q30.17? Energy (a) Energy (b) Energy (c) Neutrons Protons Neutrons Protons Neutrons Protons FIGURE Q30.17 Review, Phase II: Synthesis.

14 From Part Summary Questions Review, Phase III: Practice. Scenario #1: Will It Go Round In Circles Beta-minus emitters occur in nature, but the beta-plus emitters that are used in medical procedures such as PET are created artificially. These days, they are made using cyclotrons. The principle of a cyclotron is simple: charged particles (protons, or a nuclei of light atoms) orbit in a circle in a uniform magnetic field. Each orbit, the particles are given a small kick that gradually increases their speed. As the particles speed up, their orbits grows in size until they exit the field region in a beam. The particles in the beam hit a target and the resulting nuclear interactions give rise to short-lived isotopes, including some beta-plus emitters. We ll consider a cyclotron that can produce a beam of deuterons (a deuteron is a nucleus of deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen; each nucleus consists of one neutron and one proton) or a beam of protons.

15 Multiple Choice Questions (3 points): 1) In the above picture, a beam of protons is orbiting as shown. The magnetic field that produces the circular orbit A. is directed into the paper B. is directed out of the paper C. is directed to the left D. is directed to the right 2) A 1.2 T magnetic field is being used to produce a beam of protons traveling at a speed of m/s. To produce a beam of deuterons that exits the device at the same speed, A. the same magnetic field is needed. B. a bigger magnetic field is needed. C. a smaller magnetic field is needed. D. Keanu Reeves comes in to complete the necessary adjustments. Short Answer Question (6 points) Short Answer Question (6 points) In the target, a deuteron or a proton hits a nucleus, is absorbed, and knocks a particle out. If all goes as planned, the nucleus that is left is a beta-plus emitter a positron emitter. Complete the equations for the nuclear reactions that produce the noted isotopes. Then, complete the equations showing the decay of the resulting positron emitters, identifying the daughter nucleus for each case. In what follows, The symbol d stands for a deuteron, p stands for a proton, n for a neutron. d + 14 N 15 O +? p + 18 O 18 F +? p + 14 N 11 C +? 15 O? 18 F? 11 C? B C N O F Ne Scenario #2: Charges, Fields, Forces, Flux Multiple Choice Questions (3 points): At the earth s north pole, the earth s magnetic field is directed straight down. And so, above the earth s atmosphere, protons and electrons in the solar wind charged particles ejected by the sun travel in large circles. 3) The earth s magnetic field is produced by circles of electric current deep in the earth s core. If you are at the earth s north pole looking down toward the earth s center, the direction of this electric current is A. clockwise B. counterclockwise C. north to south D. south to north 4) If you are looking down at the north magnetic pole, the protons travel in orbits, the electrons in orbits. A. clockwise, clockwise B. clockwise, counterclockwise C. counterclockwise, clockwise D. counterclockwise, counterclockwise Orbits of protons, electrons Circular currents producing the field

16 Short Answer Question (6 points) A typical bike speedometer works like this: You clip a magnet to a spoke. This magnet spins in a circle as the wheel goes around. Once each cycle it goes past (not through!) a coil of wire. The flux change in the coil gives a voltage pulse. By timing the voltage pulses (one for each spin of the wheel) the speed can be determined. The diagram below shows the magnet and the coil as they appear when the magnet is next to the coil. A clockwise current in the coil (from the magnet s point of view) is recorded as a positive voltage. Sketch a graph of the voltage vs. time for two cases, one a slow speed and one a high speed. Include at least two pulses on each graph. Horizontal and vertical axes of both graphs should be to the same scale. V Slow V Fast N S t t V 6) The cone cells in the eye contain different types of rhodopsin, the chemical responsible for light sensitivity. An incoming photon will bump an electron from the lowest energy state to a higher. The three different cone cells have three different energy level structures, as shown in the diagram at right. We identify the cones by the color of light to which they are most sensitive. Given the energy level diagrams shown, cones 1, 2 and 3 correspond to: A. red = 1, green = 2, blue = 3 B. red = 3, green = 2, blue = 1 C. red = 2, green = 3, blue = 3 D. red = 1, green = 3, blue = 2 Short Answer Question (6 points): Energy Cone type

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