Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

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1 Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the nitrogen. Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for each of the three species. N N N N 2 N 2 - N 2 + 2) List the species, N2, N2 -, and N2 + in order of increasing bond angle. Explain your answer using the Lewis Structures you drew in a. N2 - N2 N2 + The 2 lone electrons on the central N in N2 - repels the oxygens the most. The single lone electron on the central N in N2 repels the oxygens less, thus d increasing the bond angle. Since there is no lone electron on N2 +, there is even less repulsion and a larger bond angle.

2 3) Give the hybridization and molecular geometry for N2 N > sp 2 hybridized, bent geometry 4) Identify the one species of the three, N2, N2 -, or N2 + that dimerizes (reacts with itself) and explain what causes it to do so. N2 dimerizes to N24 because it has a single lone electron and is thus a radical. It has no resonance stability like N2 - or N2 + 5) Use the principles of bonding to explain the following statement: Phosphorous forms the fluorides P3 and P5, whereas nitrogen only forms N3. Phosphorous can use its d orbitals to bind in addition to its s and p orbitals, thus expanding its shell and allowing it to bond to more fluorines. Since nitrogen can only use its s and p orbitals, it is limited to binding 3 fluorines. 6) Use the principles of bonding to explain the following statement: The S2 molecule has a dipole moment, whereas the C2 molecule has no dipole moment The S2 molecule has a lone pair on its central sulfur, thus making the overall molecule polar and capable of a dipole moment. C2 has no lone pair on its central carbon, thus making the overall molecule nonpolar and incapable of a dipole moment. 7) Use the principles of bonding to explain the following statement: Molecules of As3 are polar, whereas the molecules of As5 are nonpolar. As3 has a triangular pyramid structure with a lone pair on the central Arsenic.As5 has a triangular bipyramidal shape. Arsenic no longer has an lone pair and the overall molecule is thus nonpolar. 8) Use the principles of bonding to explain the following statement:

3 The N-- bonds in N2- are equal in length, whereas they are unequal in HN2. The N- bond in nitrite ion has resonance structure, making the bonds 1.5 instead of a true single and double bond. HN2 is prevented to have resonance structures by the addition of the hydrogen. 9) Use the principles of bonding to explain the following statement: or sulfur, the fluorides S2, S4, and S6 are known to exist, whereas for oxygen only 2 is known to exist. Sulfur can use its d orbitals to bind in addition to its s and p orbitals, thus expanding its shell and allowing it to bond to more fluorines. Since oxygen can only use its s and p orbitals, it is limited to binding 2 fluorines. 10) Consider the carbon dioxide molecule, C2, and the carbonate ion, C3 2- Draw the Lewis Structure for each. C C 11) The molecular geometry of C2 is linear C 2 C 3-2

4 12) The molecular geometry of C3 2- is trigonal planar 13) Account for the fact that the carbon oxygen bond length in C3 2- is greater than the carbon oxygen bond length in C2 The C- bond in carbonate ion has resonance structure, making the bonds instead of a true single and double bonds. C2 has true double, shorter bond. 14) Consider the molecules C4 and S4 Draw the Lewis Structure for each molecule. C S C 4 S 4

5 15) The molecular geometry of C4 is tetrahedral 16) The molecular geometry of S4 is trigonal bipyramidal 17) Account for the fact that C4 is nonpolar while S4 is polar S4 has a lone pair on its central sulfur atom while C4 does 18) Compare and contrast the three major models (ionic, covalent, and metallic) for bonding. (Hint: What happens to the electrons?) Ionic bonding is between a metal and a nonmetal. Electrons are taken and not shared. Covalent bonding is between a nonmetal and a nonmetal. Electrons are shared between molecules. Metallic bonding is between a metal and a metal. Electrons are delocalized in a sea around the positive nuclei. 19) What are isoelectronic ions? Use electronic configurations to show that S 2-, K +, and Ti 4+ are isoelectronic. List the three ions in order of INCREASING size. Isoelectric ions are ions with the same electron configuration. S 2-, K +, and Ti 4+ all have the same electron configuration as Argon: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6. Increasing size Ti 4+, K +, S 2-20) Describe one property of metals. Use the electron sea model to account for this property.

6 Metals have a high melting point. This is because they are held together by metallic bonds. Metallic bonds are a very strong force because the electrons are delocalized in a sea of electrons around the positive nuclei. 21) Compare and contrast the physical properties of ionic and covalent compounds. Covalent compounds have a low polarity while ionic compounds have a high polarity. Covalent compounds share their electrons while ionic compounds take their electrons from other species. Covalent bonds have a low melting/boiling point while ionic compounds have a high melting/boiling point. Covalent compounds are typically liquids or gases at room temperature while ionic compounds are typically solid.

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