Unit 8: Drawing Molecules

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1 Unit 8: Drawing Molecules

2 bjectives Topic 1: Lewis Dot Diagrams & Ionic Bonding 1. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any representative element. 2. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any ionic compound. A Lewis structure is a structural representation of a molecule where dots are used to show electron position around atoms and lines or dot pairs represent covalent bonds between atoms

3 Lewis Dot & Ionic Bonds a.k.a. Lewis structures Steps to drawing Lewis dot diagrams 1. Count up the # of valence e -. (same as family # for A group) 2. Write the symbol for the element. 3. For each valence e -, put a dot around the symbol. 4. Put one dot on each of the 4 sides of the symbol until each side has one dot, then double up. Example: Phosphorus 5 P

4 Lewis Dot & Ionic Bonds For each element, draw the Lewis dot diagram. Aluminum Al Potassium K Xenon Xe

5 Lewis Dot & Ionic Bonds In ionic compounds, the cation gives electron(s) to the anion. Aluminum nitride Al N This transfer makes the cation positively charged and the anion negatively charged. These ions then associate with each other. Lewis Dot Diagram Al 3+ N 3-

6 Lewis Dot & Ionic Bonds Steps to drawing Lewis dot diagrams 1. Write the formula (if not given). 2. Put the oddball ion in the middle. 3. Arrange the other ions around it. 4. Surround the anions with electrons (2 on each side). Example: Indium chloride InCl 3 Cl - In 3+ Cl - Cl -

7 Lewis Dot & Ionic Bonds For each ionic compound, draw the Lewis dot diagram. Calcium oxide Ca Iron(II) chloride Cl - Cl - Fe 2+ Potassium sulfide K + S 2- K +

8 bjectives Topic 2: Lewis Dot Diagrams & Covalent Bonding 1. List the diatomic elements 2. Draw Lewis dot diagrams for molecules ChemThink Due 1/9 & 1/10 Ionic Bonding Tutorial & Question Set Ionic Formulas Tutaorial & Question Set Due 1/15 & 1/16 Covalent Bonding Tutorial & Question Set Molecular Shapes Tutorial & Question Set

9 Types of Bonds Covalent Bonding - True Molecules Nitrogen Ammonia Diatomic Molecule Water

10 Diatomic Elements There are 7 gases that never exist as single atoms. ydrogen, Nitrogen, xygen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine & Iodine e

11 Bonding In ionic compounds, the e - are given from one atom to the other. In covalent compounds, the e - are shared between the two atoms. When each atom donates 1 e -, they form a single bond. Bonds are represented by lines between the atoms. Electrons that don t bond are called lone pairs and are represented by dots. Example: Iodine Lone pair Now each atom has 8 I I Single bond

12 Bonding Steps for drawing molecules 1. Determine which atom goes in the middle a) Never hydrogen b) ddball in formula c) Fewest valence electrons 2. Arrange letters 3. Add up total valence electrons 4. Bond up to the central atom 5. Subtract two electrons for each bond 6. Count how many each atom still needs 7. If need = have, put lone pairs on picture If need > have, draw another bond Example: N 3 and repeat N 0 need = 2, have = 2 N : 5 x 1 = 5 : 1 x 3 = 3 8 bonds : -2 x 3 = -6 2

13 Bonding - practice For each molecule, draw its Lewis structure. Lewis structure: a model of a covalent molecule that shows all of the valence electrons 1. Two shared electrons make a single covalent bond, four make a double bond, etc. 2. unshared pairs: pairs of un-bonded valence electrons 3. Each atom needs a full outer shell, i.e., 8 electrons. Exception: needs 2 electrons

14 Bonding - practice For each molecule, draw its Lewis structure. ydrogen sulfide S 2 2 Cl Carbon tetrachloride Cl C Cl Cl

15 Multiple bonds If each atom contributes 2 e - to share, they form a double bond. Example: carbon disulfide S C S Need: ave: When need > have, draw another bond C = 4 x 1 = 4 S = 6 x 2 = bonds x -2 = bond x -2 = bond x -2 = -2 8

16 Multiple bonds If each atom contributes 3 e - to share, they form a triple bond. Example: nitrogen N N N = 5 x 2 = 10 1 bond x -2 = bond x -2 = bond x -2 = -2 Need: 84 ave: 64 4

17 Multiple bonds nly certain elements can make multiple bonds. Carbon, Nitrogen, xygen, Phosphorus & Sulfur are the only 5 that usually make multiple bonds. (Si may on occasion) ow do you know if they will? If one of these is in the center of the molecule and if it is attached to another one of these and if the central atom doesn t have enough electrons make a double (or triple) bond

18 Multiple bonds - example CCl 2 6 Cl 6 20 C Cl 64 C = 4 x 1 = 4 = 6 x 1 = 6 Cl = 7 x 2 = bonds x -2 = bond x -2 = -2 16

19 Multiple bonds - practice For each compound, draw the Lewis dot structure. Sulfur dioxide S ydrocyanic acid N C C 2 4 C C

20 Mixed Practice Sulfur trioxide S Tellurium dichloride Cl Te Cl Dinitrogen dioxide N N N N

21 A Word about the CA There are two ways to draw these. Dots between elements represent bonds S S Cl Te Cl Cl Te Cl

22 bjectives Topic 3: Molecular Structure VSEPR Theory 1. Identify the shape of molecules based on the # of their bonding partners and lone pairs.

23 Activating Prior Knowledge What charge does an electron have? What do two negative charges do?

24 Bond Angle In a molecule, each atom is surrounded by a negatively charged electron cloud. When atoms bond, their clouds overlap owever, e - try to stay as far away from each other as possible. This is called the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory. Therefore, atoms in a molecule arrange themselves in 3D space to have the maximum bond angles.

25 Bond Angle # bonding # lone example Name partners pairs molecule Linear 1 N/A F F Linear 2 0 C Bent 2 1 Bent 2 2 Trigonal 3 0 planar Pyramidal 3 1 F S F B F N Tetrahedral 4 0 C

26 The Geometry Song If you re linear, your partners are one r two but your lone pairs are none Tetra s the prefix for 4 So four partners, no more Bent s two partners, two lone pairs or one If you re planar your partners are three That s why it s called trigonal you see Your lone pairs are none, Cause if they were one Pyramidal your name would be

27 Geometry Steps for determining geometry 1. Draw molecule 2. Count number of bonding partners and number of lone pairs on central atom 3. Reference chart to find geometry Example: sulfur dichloride Cl S Cl 2 bonding partners 2 lone pairs Bent

28 Bond Angle - Practice For each molecule, determine the molecular structure. CN linear PI 3 pyramidal Si 4 tetrahedral

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