# Design and Implementation of Korean Mathematics Textbooks. JeongSuk Pang Korea National University of Education

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1 Design and Implementation of Korean Mathematics Textbooks JeongSuk Pang Korea National University of Education

2 Outline I Introduction: Background II Overview of Textbook Development III Writing of Textbooks IV Textbooks Selection and Use V Closing Remarks 2

3 Importance of Mathematics Textbooks Curricular materials are influential Directive, coherent, & uniform changes I. Background Korean teachers use textbooks as main instructional resources Development of good textbooks: Important in shaping K-12 mathematics education. \$Design & Implementation \$Linked to changes in the national curriculum. Korean math education reform centers around revising the curriculum in concert with textbooks and teacher guidebooks. Explore the processes: Principles of school math come to influence textbook development 3

4 Outline I Introduction: Background II Overview of Textbook Development Guide: Transition from Curriculum to Textbook Types of Textbooks Textbook Authors 4

5 II-1. Transition from Curriculum Textbooks follow & specify what the curriculum intends. Curriculum - Level-based structure - Students active learning activities MOE Textbooks - Provide students with opportunities to nurture their own self-directed learning Guide - General directions for writing textbooks - Curriculum summary: Goals & characteristics - External forms: Size, quality of paper, color, length, font size - Very specific cautionary notes: What to include/exclude, how to structure textbooks, how to choose & present contents 5

6 II-1. Transition from Curriculum 8 th grade: With regard to Division of polynomial expression, you treat Textbooks follow & specify what only the case that the quotient of dividing a polynomial by a monomial expression is a polynomial. the curriculum intends. Curriculum - Level-based structure - Students active learning activities MOE Textbooks - Provide students with opportunities to nurture their own self-directed learning Guide - General directions for writing textbooks - Curriculum summary: Goals & characteristics - External forms: Size, quality of paper, color, length, font size - Very specific cautionary notes: What to include/exclude, how to structure textbooks, how to choose & present contents 6

7 II-1. Transition from Curriculum General guidelines: Textbooks should Select content that students can use to improve their creative thinking and reasoning ability Contribute to improving the process of teaching & learning Be easy, interesting, & convenient to follow on the part of students Be flexible in a way that teachers can revise them Comparison: Recommended VS Traditional Textbook Perspectives of textbooks, statements in textbooks, structure of a unit, selection & construction of contents, and process of R & D 7

8 Selection of Contents II-1. Transition from Curriculum Recommended Traditional Knowledge-based Contents Teacher-based contents Minor connections to real-life contexts Real-life experience related to important concepts Case-based, student-based contents Consideration of utility 8

9 II-1. Transition from Curriculum Construction of Contents Recommended Traditional Linear construction in terms of mathematical structure Monotonous construction of sentences & illustrations Non-linear construction considering relevant knowledge & real-life experience Various designs & editing 9

10 II-2. Types of Textbooks 3 Models for Textbook Development 1 MOE consigns development to an university or research institute Elementary 2 Multiple teams write textbooks approved by MOE Secondary 3 Non-educators write textbooks adopted by MOE Religion 1 elementary math textbook series 11 th ~12 th: 1 probability & statistics, 1 discrete math 7 th ~10 th : 16 math textbooks 11 th ~12 th : 12 math I, II; 8 calculus; 4 practical math 10

11 Construction of a Team: Elementary MOE Select a R & D institute II-3. Textbook Authors Appoint a principal researcher: lead the overall process of textbook development No direct connection with MOE & publishers Research Team 10 people - professors (math. ed.) from MOE Works across grades Writing Team 8-10 for each math book - in-service teachers; - 3 professors 50 teachers (total) Operates per grade Framework constituted by the institute 11

12 Construction of a Team: Secondary II-3. Textbook Authors Many people volunteer to write textbooks 3~8 professors with in-service teachers - mathematics > mathematics education - teachers active participation is a new trend Authors work for publishers Characteristics Collaboration between professors and teachers: Negotiation between theory and practice. Authors: Not have released time from regular jobs Entails a substantial commitment: Willingness. Inducement is related more to the honor of being a textbook author than to any direct economic reward. 12

13 Outline I Introduction: Background II Overview of Textbook Development III Writing of Textbooks General Flow of Textbook Development Contributing Factors Construction of Contents and Problems Revisions and Approval of Textbooks 13

14 III. Writing Textbooks Outline of Textbook Development & Implementation Grade st, 2 nd Announcement D E I D E I 3 rd, 4 th of national math curriculum 5 th, 6 th D E I 7 th Announce D A I ment of 8 th Development (D) approval D A I Experiment (E) plan 9 th Implementation D A I 10 th (I) Announce D A I Approval (A) ment of 11 th approval D A I plan 12 th D A I 14

15 Decision of institute III-1. General Flow: Elementary Process MOE Institute Note Establishment of criteria & guidelines for writing textbooks Writing & submitting a R & D proposal O Review team & writing team Review & approval of the proposal O Writing & submitting a detailed proposal Constructing a review committee & deciding details of writing textbooks O O O O 10 professors & 10 teachers or supervisors Writing textbooks (revisions) O 8~12 month for each book Submitting & Reviewing a 1 st draft O O 15

16 III-1. General Flow: Cont. Process MOE Institute Note Constructing & submitting a revised draft Reviewing the draft Ready for school experiment O O O School experiment O O One year Reflecting school experiment O Revision section Constructing, submitting, & reviewing 2 nd draft Constructing final version of a textbook Implementation O O School-based results O O 16

17 MOE III-1. Flow: Secondary Establish an overall plan of textbook development & a basic approval plan (guidelines & criteria) Appoint an approval committee Announce textbooks approved Establish a detailed plan for approval procedure KICE Evaluate & ask for revisions (by committee) Check if the revisions have been completed Evaluate Publishers Apply for approval Submit 1 st draft Resubmit 2 nd draft Submit teacher guidebook 7~8 months from submitting 1 st draft to getting approved 17

18 Influence of Research III-2. Contributing Factors The degree to which research influences the selection and presentation of lessons is rather limited and indirect. KTRF - Deals with overall aspects of textbook development e.g.) systems of textbook development Many Individual studies KICE - Focuses on subject-bound textbook research e.g.) model of math textbook, implementation - It is up to textbook writers whether such research has a direct influence on textbook development 18

19 III-2. Contributing Factors Influence of Research Elementary: Research interests & issues of principal writers tend to the key elements Secondary - Teacher guidebooks include summary of characteristics of math curricula of other countries & learning theories. - Writers consult textbooks from other countries to find info. on how to relate concepts to everyday life, or for insights into how to present ideas. It depends on the textbook writers as to whether & how much research influences the selection & presentation of math lessons. 19

20 III-2. Contributing Factors Influence of Research: Grade Placement Curriculum developers determine topics & contents specific to each grade level. Research conducted by individuals & KICE Individual Cross-national comparative study of specific mathematical concepts Surveys of major mathematical areas for specific grade levels KICE Systematic survey: Whether topics & contents are appropriate at each grade level e.g.) amount of learning, level of significance & interest of main topics, or appropriateness of approaches National Assessment of Educational Achievement: Monitor the appropriateness of curriculum 20

21 III-3. Construction of Contents Non-repeating Structure Built on block learning Each topic presented at a certain grade is expected to be mastered at that grade level. Level-based differentiated structure: Students at each grade have to master the expected levels. Textbook VS Workbook Textbook activities are limited in terms of the number, type, & difficulty level of problems. 21

22 III-3. Construction of Contents E Reinforcing concepts by various problems Used for homework or self-practice Workbooks Math activities & thinking processes Basic problems Employed in classroom instructions Textbooks S Summary of textbook contents, reading materials, or many problems Not used by teacher Self-learning books Assumption: Most students take advance of workbooks/ self-learning books to anchor key skills & understanding 22

23 III-4. Revisions & Approval Effort to Develop a Good Textbook Systematic & continuous review process leading up to the final version Revisions of Elementary Math Textbooks 4 formal revisions made + writing team s revisions Year-long pilot experiment in schools (30): purposes - to confirm whether new series is appropriate - to collect data & feedbacks for revisions - to have the schools play a role in demonstrating the use of the new textbooks 23

24 III-4. Revisions & Approval Revisions of Elementary Math Textbooks Teachers prepare 2 kinds of feedback: overall evaluation of textbooks & guidebooks + description of specific problems and possible solutions Others (3): Are there contents that should be added? Novelty (4): Are contents realistic and creative? Connection (3): Are connections across grades reflected? Correctness (5): Are contents or terms correct? Appropriateness (5): Can instructional materials be easily used? 24

25 III-4. Revisions & Approval Approval of Secondary Math Textbooks Steps Contents of Evaluations Basic examination Main examination (1 st ) Contents examination Vocabulary check Korean language notation Analysis of editing [Common criteria] e.g.) Educational law-observance Copyright [Subject-specific criteria] Reflection on curriculum Teaching & learning method Representations & notations Editing and outlook Selection & organization of contents Innovation (2 nd ) Confirm whether feedbacks from the 1 st exam are reflected Teacher guidebooks Same as the process of textbooks Both textbooks & guidebooks need to be approved. 25

26 Math-specific criteria (20) III-4. Revisions & Approval \$Does the textbook sufficiently reflect the nature, objectives, contents, teaching and learning methods, and assessment of the national curriculum? \$Does the textbook provide various and effective teaching and learning methods to foster logical thinking, inquiry, problem solving, creativity, reasoning, and applications based on mathematical concepts, principles, and rules? \$Does the textbook take advantage of novel ideas and organize contents in an innovative way? 26

27 2 aspects emphasized III-4. Revisions & Approval Area of innovation Encourage writers to pursue novel ideas contrary to long-term practices of identical textbooks Approval of guidebooks Urge publishers to produce high quality guidebooks Alignment with the Curriculum Elementary: Review & Assessment Board Secondary: Approval Committee - If not aligned, textbooks can t be approved. - Mid 90 s: MOE limited # of approved textbooks (8/43) Current: Approved by 20 criteria - Approval rates: 1/3 (middle), ½ (high) 27

28 Outline I Introduction: Background II Overview of Textbook Development III Writing of Textbooks IV Textbooks Selection and Use Selection and Payment Use of Textbooks 28

29 IV-1. Selection & Payment Selection Elementary: Same textbooks Secondary: Great concern Simple to Complex Procedure e.g.) committee comprised of all math teachers Individual: Look over and score all math textbooks Committee: Provide strengths & weaknesses of top 3 textbooks Committee of school management: Finally select one Payment for textbooks Government: elementary & middle school students Parents: high school students Students own their math textbooks 29

30 IV-2. Use of Textbooks Textbooks Regarded as a bible: Cover all topics Absolute impact on students mathematical experience Teacher orientation to new textbooks New curriculum is ready Professional development provided in a top-down format Difficult to develop deep understanding of the curriculum Emphasize teacher autonomy in implementing the curriculum The curriculum is interpreted locally by provincial educational offices, and in turn by each individual school, and finally reconstructed by the teacher. 30

31 IV-2. Use of Textbooks Teachers Students Use as the most important teaching material. Tend to teach what it says. Reconstruction is limited e.g.) substituting manipulative, changing sequence Regard as the main learning material. Elementary: Tend to solve every problem. Secondary: Learn basics Tackle self-study or examinee s book 31

32 IV-2. Use of Textbooks How do we monitor if the teacher is using the curriculum correctly? Review of curriculum materials Questionnaires for teachers & supervisors Multiple Studies on the Curriculum Implementation through Interviews with teachers Classroom observations 32

33 IV-2. Use of Textbooks The more teachers understand the intention of the curriculum, the greater the likelihood they will implement it as intended. + Aware of the overall characteristics of the curriculum Attempt to activate the ideas of student-centeredness in classrooms as reflected in teaching objectives, contents, methods, & assessment. I Implementation at the local school level has been insufficient. e.g.) teachers limited reconstruction of the contents 33

34 Outline I Introduction: Background II Overview of Textbook Development III Writing of Textbooks IV Textbooks Selection and Use V Closing Remarks 34

35 V-1. Contents & Design Good quality of textbooks encompasses both contents & design Contents Alignment with the curriculum - Confirmed by multiple means (elementary); approval criteria (secondary) Design Cheap or free textbooks many restrictions New concern - Current: Induce students engagement and interest by considering editing & design of textbooks 35

36 V-2. Teacher Involvement Teacher involvement called for & increased + More than 50 elementary school teachers Almost all teams developing secondary math textbooks include middle or high school teachers Half of the approval committee are secondary school teachers I Breadth of real engagement is limited e.g.) Professors determine the overall directions Vertical collaboration seems dominant. Work load of authors Not have released time difficult to focus on authoring textbooks greater institutional efforts needed 36

37 V-3. Research & Revision The regularity and depth of research have been insufficient. Basic research needed Essential contents in school math Critical criteria for approval Main functions & types of textbooks Models of textbooks More comprehensive study called Various needs of society Educational environment Students learning of math at each grade level Textbooks usage & concomitant analysis Connection between research & textbook development 37

38 V-3. Research & Revision Concern: Once developed or approved, the textbook is used all the way. Teacher interviews Errors or mistakes & surveys of textbooks Field test of textbooks needs to receive greater emphasis & scrutiny Constant evaluation or revision system needs to be implemented while the textbook is being used Classroom observations & subsequent analyses Degree of fit with the curriculum, Opportunity to learn, Appropriateness of themes, etc Whereas textbook development has been the sole focus, its revision is now being called for. 38

39 Variety: 3 different meanings V-4. Variety of Textbooks Various textbooks: constructions of contents: media 1 st : Various textbooks Related to the issue of government-issued, - approved, or free-issued. Elementary: Open question as to whether multiple teams authoring various textbooks would be better Secondary: Criteria & process of approval - Criteria: strict for alignment & inclusive for creativity - Process: problem of staffing an approval committee & lack of time for careful examination. 39

40 V-4. Variety of Textbooks 2 nd : Various constructions of contents Current Single textbook covers both basic math & applied math. Low- & high-achieving students tend to study the same contents. Next Year 3 different textbooks? 1 main textbook with 3 learning materials tailored to students ability? 3 rd : Various media Related to different types of textbooks How to evaluate students within Korean education system & culture e.g.) e-textbooks & other materials using multimedia 40

41 Concern: Negative dispositions & lack of confidence V-5. Students Interest More concrete activities How to promote students interest & dispositions Episodes related to students daily lives Various games & puzzles Not enough? Historical contents 41

42 V-6. Teacher Guidebooks Future Current Powerful in shaping instruction Teachers: Less satisfied Secondary: Once the textbook is approved, its guidebook is easily approved Include more detailed explanations of curriculum & various instructional materials Need to go through systematic evaluation & revision procedure 42

43 43

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