THE HOLOCAUST. By: Kara Mullaney

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1 THE HOLOCAUST By: Kara Mullaney 5/2/2014

2 Imagine if you looked up and saw gray smoke from bodies burning. Imagine if you looked around and couldn t find your family. Imagine if you and your loved ones were killed for no reason other than what a crazy man believed. Imagine if you worked all day and were starved to death. This all happened during the Holocaust. These things are really hard to understand why they happened. The Holocaust is a cruel part of history. Camps Have you learned about the Holocaust? The Nazis were a political group in charge of Germany. Their leader was a man named Adolf Hitler. He did not believe that their should be different types of people in the world. He made camps to kill groups of people he did not consider pure Aryans (white Christians with light hair and light eye color). Groups like Jewish people and Roma (some people call this group Gypsies) were targeted for these camps. Well, during this event there were many different kinds of camps. For example, there were death camps, concentration camps, extermination camps, in those camps were gas chambers that killed hundreds at a time. The Nazis wanted to make the camps but the camps killed many people. Camps are a horrible part of the Holocaust.

3 Concentration camps: Concentration camps were started because Hitler needed workers so he chose slave labor. He thought that there should be only one type of people in the world and didn t care about the others.

4 In concentration camps, most women, elderly, and children and babies were killed immediately. May 1938, slave labor was brought into the camps. The Nazi party didn t stop at Germany. Summer of 1942, jews from Poland, France, and Holland were deported to the camps. By the early 1940 s, 5,000 camps were running. These camps were a horrible part of the Holocaust. Death camps: Death camps were started because Hitler wasn t happy with the low number of deaths and wanted more people to die. In death camps, people were there just to be killed. Many people died at each camp, For example, at one of the camps, Auschwitz, 1.6 million people died. 6 of these camps were known as killing centers. These camps even had gas chambers. These gas chambers were built to kill hundreds of people at a time. These camps were made because Adolf Hitler wanted to kill more people.

5 Extermination camps: In extermination camps, many people died. After one year of these camps running, one million Jewish people died. These camps were made because Hitler needed more deaths quickly. Camp Conditions: These camps had horrible conditions. If you were in these camps, your hair was shaved and you can t recognize your own family. All of your clothes and belongings were taken away. The prisoners also had to wear striped outfits and were tattooed a number on their

6 left arms. It was really hard to survive a camp. You were fed a little bit of watery soup and stale bread. The prisoners had to work all day starving and exhausted. Also, it was likely to catch a disease in these camps. The camps and the conditions killed many people and are a horrible part of the Holocaust. Important people Some people that we remember from the Holocaust are remembered for doing good thing. Others, for bad things. Some people did bad things during the war, and people remember that. There are many people we remember who were soldiers, survivors, and people that hid. Some people are important for bad things and some for bad things. Adolf Hitler: Adolf Hitler is a man remembered from the Holocaust because of the horrible things he did. He led the Nazi party and was the reason for all of the deaths. Hitler became the leader of Germany As his powers grew, so did the Nazi party. Within 3 months of being a leader, Adolf Hitler held full power of a dictator. Hitler once made up a secret police force called the Gestapo that spied on citizens. Anyone who went against his government was sent to the camps. If jews were walking, Hitler sent gangs out to attack them. Adolf Hitler was an Austrian veteran in world war 1 who became the leader of Germany; lead the Nazi movement; the Holocaust was part of his plan to get rid of jewish people. Hitler killed himself April 30, Some people are important for doing good thing and others for doing bad things.

7 Some survivors: Survivors of the Holocaust are remembered because of what they went through to survive. Most survivors after the war died because they couldn t digest normal meals. The survivors are important for good thing like fighting and persevering through the Holocaust. Some people are important for good and others for bad. Anne Frank and Raoul Wallenberg: Anne Frank was a young jewish girl, who hid in an attic own by a dutch friend living in Amsterdam. Anne was known for her diary, which was written while hiding from the Nazi party during world war 2. She hid for two years before being sent to a concentration camp. She was remembered for doing good and amazing things. A swedish diplomat named Raoul Wallenberg is remembered for saving thousands of jewish people by giving them papers letting them go to Sweden. At the end of the war, he was arrested by Soviet soldiers because they thought he was an American spy. He disappeared without a trace. Some people are remembered for doing good things during the war and others, for doing bad things. Survivors It was very hard to survive the Holocaust. Even if you did survive, life was hard after the war. The survivors had hard lives and many died after the war.the survivors had to do many difficult things and had to face many challenges to survive.

8 After the war:the survivors had hard lives after the war. Many people died when the war was over. The book, The holocaust museum states, They had gone so long without food they couldn t eat normal meals Also this book says, Many hundreds, perhaps thousands of people died because we fed them all the food we had. The survivors were left poor, hungry, and sick after the war. Most survivors died even when they were freed. Soviet soldiers found people that looked like skin over bone. Many of the survivors moved to other places to start new lives.the survivors had to face many challenges to survive. People in Memorial: Some of the Holocaust survivors participate in the Holocaust memorial. Those survivors are there to share their stories with other people and help them learn about the Holocaust. For example, a survivor named Elie Wiesel served as a chairman in the U.S Holocaust memorial concil. He said, It was a miracle that I survived. Also, Elie spoke about the Holocaust and provided Jimmy Carter (president at the time) with the council's recommendations. Some of the children that hid during the Holocaust had their stories told in the memorial. The survivors had to do many difficult things to survive and had to face many challenges. Names/stories: Survivor Elie Wiesel wrote a book called Night that shared his experiences. A survivor named Bart Stern born 1926, Hungary. Bart had to hide in dead bodies to survive. Also, Charlene Schiff had to live in a

9 forest and ate bugs to survive. Many survivors hid in shacks, basements, attics, and/or trenches. Some of the survivors are Olga Held, Hedi Wachenheimer, Jirine Zizkovska, Fred Losch, Solange Berger, Libu (Lilly) Lebovitz, and Thompson Izawa. The survivors had hard lives after the war and many survivors died after the war. The survivors had to do many difficult things and had to face many challenges to survive. The war at End Even though the war ended, people had a hard time living. After the war, the Nazis tried to hide what they did. Even though they tried to hide what happened, they could never erase the memories of what happened. Important Dates: World war 2 ended May 8, Adolf Hitler committed suicide April 30, After Hitler died, Germany surrendered May 7, Lots of horrible things happened during the Holocaust. In October 1945, Nuremberg Germany, the trial began for war crimes against humanity. The first camp was liberated in July Even though the Nazis tried to hide what they did, they could never hide the memories of what they have done. Even when the war ended, people had a hard time living.

10 Nazis Hiding War Crimes: At the end of the war, the Nazis tried to hide the war crimes they committed. They took down concentration camps, took apart gas chambers, and hid other camps under lush landscaping. Many Nazi leaders were sentenced to death but other Nazi soldiers sentences were less harsh. Even though the Nazis tried to hide what they did, they could never hide the memories of what happened. Memorial Many people go to the Holocaust memorial to learn about the Holocaust.Some people may not know what the Holocaust is so they go to the memorial to learn. It is important that we learn about our history so it doesn t happen again. people really care about learning about the Holocaust. Description: The museum has 3 main parts. Each part it s own floor. First floor: The Nazi assault. Second floor: The final solution. Third floor: The last chapter. This museum includes photos, Anne Frank s story,hidden children s stories,artifacts, and documents.the memorial is a good place to learn about the event of the Holocaust and the people in it.

11 People Involved: When the memorial was made, Jimmy Carter was the president of the United States. The U.S government donated nearly 2 acres of land to the memorial. The money for the building came from private donations. This who memorial was designed by James Ingo Freed. In the first 14 years, over 24 million people came to the museum. People really care about learning about the event of the Holocaust and the people in it. Cost: The memorial costs a lot of money but it s worth it. Many people have learned a lot about the Holocaust because of the museum. If people if people learn about the Holocaust and other bad things that happened in history, then it won t happen again.all together the memorial costs $168 million. ($90 million for building and $78 for the exhibits.) people really care about learning and teaching people about the event of the Holocaust and the people in it. During the Holocaust, 11 million people died! Imagine if you saw Nazis having a good time. Behind them were the trains deporting people to the camps just because of their religion. What do you think about that? Many horrible things happened in the Holocaust.

12 But, because those bad things happened, now people are open minded and have learned that everyone is equal no matter what religion. Even though the Holocaust was a cruel part of history, it taught us a lesson.

13 Graphic Enhancements Map of Europe: Map.htm Auschwitz: Gas Chamber: gas chambers we re designed by topf und sohne company who knew/ Dachau camp liberation: Adolf Hitler: n.com/2013/11/adolf hitler to keep honorary citizenship of szczec in/ Survivors tattoo: and survival/story e6frg8 nf Elie Wiesel: Holocaust Memorial inside: g28970 d James Ingo Freed: pe=ph

14 Holocaust Building: Museum.html Striped Pajamas: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ripizzo/ /in/photostream/ Anne Frank: diary of anne fran k pbs masterpiece classic a review/ Raoul Wellenberg: Bart Stern: Work Cited A. World war II. Pete Chrisp. Copyright, Charlton Books. B. The Holocaust. Nick Waynne. Copyright, 1995 C. Anatomy of the Holocaust. Herbert Buchsbaum. Published, 1993 by Scholastic inc. D. The Holocaust museum. Brenda Haugen. Copyright 2008 by Compass Point Books. E. Children of the Holocaust.

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