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1 Volcanoes These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 35

2 Learning objectives 2 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas?

3 What is a volcano? 3 of 35 A volcano is an opening or vent in the earth s surface through which molten material erupts and solidifies as lava. Volcanic vent

4 Label this cross section of a volcano 4 of 35 Volcanic bombs, ash, lava, gases Magma chamber Parasitic cone Crater Main vent

5 Cross section of a volcano 5 of 35 Crater Volcanic bombs, ash and gases Parasitic cone Main vent Magma chamber

6 Cross section of a volcano 6 of 35

7 Volcanic emissions 7 of 35

8 Volcanic emissions 8 of 35

9 Do all volcanoes erupt? 9 of 35 Active volcano liable to erupt e.g. Mt Etna. Dormant (sleeping) volcano a volcano which has not erupted for many years. For example, Mt Pinatubo erupted in 1991 after 500 years of dormancy. Extinct volcano a volcano which has not erupted for many thousands or millions of years e.g. Edinburgh. However, it is often very difficult to tell whether a volcano will erupt again El Chichon, Mexico erupted in 1982 after being dormant for approximately 1200 years!

10 Learning objectives 10 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas?

11 Why do they happen? 11 of 35 A destructive plate boundary is found where a continental plate meets an oceanic plate. The oceanic plate descends under the continental plate because it is denser. As the plate descends it starts to melt due to the friction caused by the movement between the plates. This melted plate is now hot, liquid rock (magma). The magma rises through the gaps in the continental plate. If it reaches the surface, the liquid rock forms a volcano.

12 Destructive plate boundary 12 of 35

13 Why do they happen? 13 of 35 At a constructive plate boundary, two plates move apart. As the two plates move apart, magma rises up to fill the gap. This causes volcanoes. However, since the magma can escape easily at the surface, the volcano does not erupt with much force.

14 Constructive plate boundary 14 of 35

15 Volcano shapes 15 of 35 Why do volcanoes have different shapes?

16 Volcano shapes 16 of 35

17 Volcanic activity at plate margins 17 of 35

18 Learning objectives 18 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas?

19 Where are volcanoes found? 19 of 35 Around which plate do we find most volcanoes?

20 20 of 35 Hawaii The Hawaiian islands are a chain of volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean. Look at their location on the map below. Why is this an unusual place for them to be located?

21 Hot spot volcanoes 21 of 35 In the animation above, why are the volcanoes to the left of the hot spot extinct?

22 Learning objectives 22 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas?

23 23 of 35 Mt St Helens eruption (May 1980) Mt St Helens is located on the Ring of Fire. Internet Links

24 Mt St Helens causes of the eruption 24 of 35 Mt St Helens is located on a destructive plate boundary where a continental plate (North American) meets an oceanic plate (Juan de Fuca). Juan de Fuca plate North American plate Which plate is denser? Describe what happens when the oceanic plate descends under the continental plate.

25 Mt St Helens the eruption 25 of 35

26 Mt St Helens consequences of the eruption 26 of 35 N 0 10km

27 Mt St Helens consequences of the eruption AFTER 27 of 35 BEFORE

28 What damage did the eruption cause? 28 of 35

29 Mt St Helens consequences of the eruption 29 of 35 Why do you think animals such as the vole and gopher survived the blast? How did their survival benefit the area? What benefits might the volcanic activity have brought to Mt St Helens?

30 Learning objectives 30 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas?

31 Predicting eruptions 31 of 35

32 The problem of prediction 32 of 35 Volcanologists (people who study volcanoes) are skilled at predicting the likelihood of an eruption. However, it's very difficult to pinpoint exactly when an eruption will happen. Often, moving magma doesn't result in an eruption, but instead cools below the surface. Monitoring potential eruptions is expensive. With many volcanoes erupting only every few hundred years, it's not possible to monitor every site.

33 Learning objectives 33 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas?

34 Why do people live in volcanic areas? 34 of 35 This lava is weathered (broken down) to form a fertile soil. Can you think of any other reasons? Tourists are attracted to areas of volcanic activity. Geothermal energy can be produced in many volcanic areas.

35 35 of 35 Internet links Volcano World - a fun and informative web site Virtual field visits The Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page Global Volcanism Program Fallout: Eye on the Volcano Savage earth

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