Source: Photograph copyright Paul Hickson, 1980 Image by NPS

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1 Volcanoes Source: Photograph copyright Paul Hickson, 1980 Image by NPS

2 I. Volcanoes release magma A. Molten rock is less dense than solid rock so it rises through fractures Shield Volcano

3 B. Speed of magma depends on silica 1. felsic magma- a. High silica b. Thick content. c. Light-colored d. Slow-moving e. violent eruptions

4 2. Mafic magma a. Low silica b. Thin c. dark d. Fast-moving e. Eruptions are not violent

5 C. Gas content of magma determines violence of eruptions 1. The more gas, the more violent 2. CO 2, sulfur, H 2, H 2 O vapor High gas Low Gas

6 D. Lava composition are a little different than their magma was. Why? 1. Gas is released 2. New material is added

7 E. Tephra-solid fragments of lava

8 Tephra is classified by size

9 1. ash- < 2 mm in diameter Ash

10 2. Lapilli mm

11 3. Blocks- >64 mm

12 4. Bombs- >64 mm, but are ejected as liquid & harden as they fall

13 Pyroclastic flow- hot, fast, high-density mixture of ash, pumice, rock fragments and gas formed during explosive eruptions. Image from: U.S. Geological Survey, photo by B. Yount

14 II. 3 Types of Volcanoes A. Cinder Cones B. Composite Volcanoes C. Shield Volcanoes

15 A. Cinder Cones 1. Steep-sided 2. Gas-charged, felsic lava 3. Single vent 4. Bowl-shaped crater at the summit 5. Rarely more than 1000 ft tall Sunset Crater in Arizona

16 Cinder Cones Cinder Cones Cinder cone

17 B. Composite or Stratovolcanoes 1. Steep-sided symmetrical cones 2. Felsic lava 3. Explosive 4. Make up about 60% of Earth s volcanoes 5. Layered structure consisting of layers of lava & pyroclastic material 6. Large (1-10 km across)

18 Composite volcano Mt. St Helens Source:http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/ Composite Volcano Mt Fuji in Japan

19 C. Shield Volcanoes 1. Built of fluid basaltic lava flows 2. Lava pours out in all directions from a central summit vent, or group of vents 3. Gently sloping sides like a warriors shield 4. Some of the largest volcanoes are shield volcanoes (3-4 mi wide, 1,500-2,000 ft tall) 5. Usually no tephra

20 Shield Volcano Layers of basalt lava build over time.

21 Contrasting the 3 types of Volcanoes Cinder Cones Composite Volcano Shield Volcano

22 III. Causes of Volcanoes A. Rift eruptions-occur occur at fractures in the crust on the ocean floor 1. Flow smoothly 2. Can form shield cones 3. Rift eruption at spreading center form pillow lavas

23 4. On land, lava can spread out evenly over large areas to form basalt plateaus Mafic magma

24 B. Subduction boundary eruptions 1. Felsic magma 2. Explosive w/tephra 3. Form cinder cones- steep-sided sided volcanic mountain

25 C. Hot Spots-areas of volcanic activity in the middle of plates 1. ooze mafic magma through shield cones 2. Caused by concentrations of heat from radioactive isotopes in the asthenosphere 3. They stay in the same place even though plates move above them.

26

27 IV. Examples of Famous Volcanoes A. Eldfell 1. Off the coast of Iceland 2. Erupted in Villagers pumped sea water on lava 4. On the mid-atlantic ridge, but it is above sea level. 5. Rift eruption

28 est_asia/heimaey/heimaey.html rope_west_asia/heimaey/heimaey.html

29 B. Mount St. Helens in Washington 1. Cascade range 2. Erupted Subduction boundary eruption 4. Juan de Fuca plate slides under the North American plate 4. Mt. St Helens

30 C. Kilauea-Hawaii 1. Has erupted every year since Hot spot Kilauea

31 Low Gas

32 V. Plutonic Activity A. Pluton (igneous intrusion)- rock masses that form when magma cools inside other rocks.

33 B. Volcanoes Underground 1. Dikes sheets of igneous rock that cut across the rock layers they intrude

34 2. Sills sheets of igneous rocks parallel to the layers they intrude

35 3. Laccolith domelike masses that form when magma that intrudes between rock layers is unable to flow easily. As a result, you get a bulge. The rock layers above push into a dome.

36 4. Batholith largest igneous intrusions that form at the cores of many mountain ranges

37 5. Volcanic neck a plug of hardened magma left in the vent from which lava flowed. Found when an extinct volcano is almost completely eroded.

38

39 Test Monday!!!

40 Pelee

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