World Health Organization Emerging and other Communicable Diseases, Surveillance and Control

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1 WHO/EMC/BAC/98.3 Control of epidemic meningococcal disease. WHO practical guidelines. 2 nd edition World Health Organization Emerging and other Communicable Diseases, Surveillance and Control This document has been downloaded from the WHO/EMC Web site. The original cover pages and lists of participants are not included. See for more information.

2 World Health Organization This document is not a formal publication of the World Health Organization (WHO), and all rights are reserved by the Organization. The document may, however, be freely reviewed, abstracted, reproduced and translated, in part or in whole, but not for sale nor for use in conjunction with commercial purposes. The views expressed in documents by named authors are solely the responsibility of those authors. The mention of specific companies or specific manufacturers' products does no imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

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15 Map 2. Major outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis, Carte 2. Principales épidémies de méningite à méningocoques, WHO 97508

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17 Burkina Faso Senegal Gambia Guinea- Bisseau Guinea Sierra Leone Liberia Mauritania Côte d Ivoire Mali Niger Chad Nigeria Central African Republic Cameroon Benin Ghana Togo Sudan Uganda Kenya Ethiopia Eritrea Djibouti Somalia WHO Meningitis belt The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

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21 25 20 Thousands WHO No. cases/deaths Cases Deaths WHO 98160

22 180 Cases per population Nonepidemic years 1957 Epidemic year 1970 Epidemic year N D J F M A M J J A S O Month WHO g g g g p 70 Incidence per /year WHO

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24 g p PAKISTAN? 1985 NEPAL N DJAMENA 1988 KHARTOUM 1988 MECCA 1987 NEW DEHLI? 1985 ADDIS ABABA 1989 ATLANTIC OCEAN NAIROBI 1989 INDIAN OCEAN WHO 98163

25 Absolute humidity (g/m3) Cases RAIN RAIN RAIN Mean maximum temperature ( C) HARMATTAN HARMATTAN HARMATTAN WHO 98164

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38 900 Mass vaccination 1 st Campaign 2 nd Campaign Weekly incidence February March April May WHO 98165

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