1 This chapter explores Greek culture, religion, architecture and art. The most prominent art from the early period was pottery. The early Greeks also built small temples, which expanded into monumental temples that were decorated with sculptures. The later portion of the chapter explores Greek art during the Late Classical and Hellenistic Periods. Most of the best-known pieces of Greek art, especially figurative sculpture, come from these two later periods. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH TOPIC: (Be prepared to demonstrate your knowledge on the Chapter Test): Who was Mausoulus? Discuss his contribution to Greek architecture. NOTE: Be prepared for some REVIEW QUESTIONS on the Chapter Test. TOPIC: ALL OF TERMINOLOGY LIST 2 We will be studying Art of the Etruscans and Ancient Romans as our next topic. Feel free to scan the pages in that section and take some notes in order to get a head start.
2 TERMS: Amphora (101), sanctuaries (102), cross-hatching (102), olpe (105), rosette (105), oracle (107), stoa (107), caryatids (107), elevation (108), pediment (108), cella (108), peristyle (108), pronaos (108), in antis (108), volute (110), triglyph (111), metope (111), pathos (113), terra-cotta (114), kore (114), kouros (114), Archaic Smile (114), peplos (115), black-figure style (117), maenads (117), red-figure style (118), symposium (118 and 122), caduceus (119), slip (120), contrapposto (121), kylix (124), tondo (128), oinochoe (128), acropolis (129), parapet (138), agora (138), podium (138), tholos (138), hydria (139), palmettes (139), orthogonal plan (140), tempera (141), lekythos (141), tesserae (146), modeling (147-in the 2/D sense), barbarian (151), expressionism (151) Amphiprostyle Style Temple: Temple with columns in front and back not all around (Athena Nike) Peripteral Style Temple: Temple with columns around all four sides (Temple of Hera I, Parthenon) CONCEPTS TO KNOW: Map Identification for READING QUIZ 11 (103): Regions: Waterways: Cities: Landmarks: Thrace, Asia Minor Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea Rome, Riace, Athens, Sparta, Delphi, Pergamon Rhodes, Mount Olympos DIAGRAMS: Page 110: Page 117: Page 131: Elements of Architecture. Be able to identify three orders and label: DORIC: IONIC: Base, flute, fillet, volute, architrave, frieze, cornice Stereobate, stylobate, shaft, drum, entablature, pediment, triglyph, metope CORINTHIAN: Dentil, acanthus leaf and rosette Be able to make a basic drawing of seven most common forms of Greek vessel: Amphora, hydria, olpe, volute krater, calyx krater, lekythos (LEAKY-thos), kylix Plan of the Parthenon: LABEL: Peristyle colonnade, cella, pronaos, opithodomos, stereobate, stylobate
3 POSSIBLE FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS: Know the difference between Egyptian religious complexes and Greek sanctuaries (102) Contrast the primary purpose of Egyptian funeral art with that of Greek funeral art (104) Know differences between Egyptian figurative sculpture (Menkaure) and Greek (Kouros) (114) Know about Perikles and how he affected the High Classical Period (128) Know the ways in which Late Classical sculptors changed how sculpture was created (143) Know how Praxiteles Hermes and the Infant Dionysos (144) is sculpturally different from Polykleitos Spear Bearer (134). What was the aftermath of Alexander the Great s death? What was the affect on the citystates and democracy, as well as Alexander s lasting legacy on Greek culture (142). What are some key differences between Hellenistic art and Classical Art? How are they each meant to be interpreted? (149) Three general concepts of Greek Classical Art (119):
4 GREEK GODS AND GODDESS: (Know the myths and symbols associated with each deity) (104): Zeus: Hera: Poseidon: Hades: Ares: Apollo: Athena: Aphrodite: Hermes: Dionysus: Nike: GREEK SCULPTORS THAT WE KNOW BY NAME: (Know the titles of some of their major works of art) Polykleitos: Pheidias: Skopas: Praxiteles: Lysippos:
5 HISTORY OF GREEK CIVILIZATION: Mycenaeans came to Greece around 2000 BCE, tribes came from north around 1100 BCE Greece divided into many city-states in constant warfare (hard to unify due to geography) Main centers of power were Athens and Sparta (Sparta had the most powerful military): Athens attempted to begin a system of democracy Athens and Sparta fought for supremacy in Peloponnesian War ( BCE) Sparta won, but Greece was left weak and divided, culture soon declined Greece was conquered by Alexander the Great (as was Egypt) Greek architecture, sculpture and painting are direct ancestors of Western civilization THREE MAIN PERIODS OF GREEK PRE-CLASSICAL ART: Geometric Style BCE Geometric Style represents the formative phase of Greek civilization First Olympic Games in 776 BC (starting point in Greek recorded history) Greeks were more concerned with literature than art at this point, art was very basic Geometric Style had only pottery and small statues, no architecture Geometric Style pottery has been found in Italy and ANE, a sign of strong sea trade Pottery was very large (sometimes 5 feet tall) and served as grave monuments Orientalizing Style BCE Greece was continually trading with the Near East and Egypt Pottery began to reflect styles (animals, organic shapes) from these regions Figures gain power and expression and designs include new shapes and motifs Orientalizing pottery was less stable that Geometric Style, more a period of transition Archaic Style BCE First appearance of Greek artistic genius (included pottery painting and architecture) Archaic Style was the greatest age of Greek vase painting Pottery pieces became much smaller and no longer served as grave markers Artists began to sign pieces; artistic conventions of individuals can be traced Sudden interest in stone sculpture (blocky figures w/ slim bodies & limited mobility) Greeks probably learned this on trips to Egypt (there were Greek colonies there) Kore is female (never nude), Kouros is male (almost always nude) Details of figure are hidden beneath solid masses of clothing (when clothed) Both were made in large quantities and were used as votive statues or grave markers Began decorating pediments with sculptures, figures used as columns (caryatids) Unlike Egyptian, all stone was removed that was not a part of the figure Greek figures are full of life and tense, not under a calm spell like Egyptian Greek eyes are huge and have a direct stare, not a faraway gaze like Egyptian
6 ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE: Greeks were first to integrate works of sculpture within architecture Figures were positioned and sized to fit snugly within the confines of the pediment Figures were sometimes used as columns themselves (caryatids) Eventually architectural sculpture became narrative (told a story of battles won, etc.) GREEK ARCHITECTURE: Greek architecture is divided into three Classical Orders (110) Very structured and universally organized, showing consistency and unity Greeks adhered to the rules of the orders so much that they were not willing to adapt Temples were meant to house the deity/spirit, not large numbers of worshippers Temples were meant to be viewed from the outside, not from the inside like Egyptian ones GREEK VASE PAINTING: DORIC: The most popular order of the three, more muscular than later orders Highest point in Greek architecture was rebuilding of Acropolis in Athens Acropolis rebuilt, 400 BCE by Perikles in the sacred hills above the city Greatest temple is Parthenon (dedicated to Athena, virgin goddess) IONIC: More feminine than Doric, volute scrolls resembles a growing plant Generally used only for small temples, proportions are more slender overall Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, is an example of Ionic temple The finest example is the Erechtheum CORINTHIAN: Emphasis on ornament in Greek culture caused invention of Corinthian Main feature is the leaves of acanthus plant Not used much in Greece, but was the capital of choice for Romans BLACK FIGURE STYLE: (came before Red Figure) Principal method of decorating in Greece in 6 th century BCE Entire design is silhouetted in black against reddish clay background Very bold style, but certain effects were limited due to the black figures RED FIGURE STYLE: (gradually replaced Black Figure) Artist left figures red and created black in the background Allowed for more precise foreshortening and recording of small details
7 EARLY CLASSICAL PERIOD BCE This period followed the Greeks victory in the Persian Wars, gave the Greeks confidence Human figure was portrayed in painting and sculpture with greater accuracy Figures seem more alive and fleshy; the Archaic Smile is no longer used Figures are sometimes clothed; the clothing reflects the behavior of real cloth Large, freestanding statues are the most important accomplishment of this time HIGH CLASSICAL PERIOD BCE Corresponds to a period of conflict between Athens and Sparta Balance of symmetry (proportion and structure) and rhythm (composition and movement) LATE CLASSICAL PERIOD BCE Sometimes called Pre-Hellenistic period More creative and expressive, physical likeness not as important HELLENISTIC PERIOD BCE Hellenistic; term for spread of Greek culture to Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Egypt and India Difficult to trace because sculpture was being done on such a wide scale by so many artists Generally, Hellenistic has a more pronounced realism and expressiveness
8 LECTURE SLIDES: TITLE TIME PERIOD YEAR Map of Ancient Greece Line Art Image of Mount Olympus, Greece modern photograph Various images of Greek gods and goddesses various imagery Name that god/goddess activity various imagery Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game (Exekias) Archaic BCE Suicide of Ajax (Exekias)* Archaic BCE Sanctuary of Zeus, Olympia Discus Thrower (Myron)* Early Classical 450 BCE Minotauros (Myron?) Early Classical 450 BCE Funerary Krater* Geometric BCE COMPARE TO: Kamares Ware Jug Minoan Old Palace 2,000-1,900 BCE Centaur Proto-Geometric 900 BCE Man and Centaur Geometric 750 BCE Olpe (pitcher)* Orientalizing BCE Olpe (pitcher) Orientalizing 650 BCE Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi* Archaic BCE Dephi High School Oracles mascot Modern imagery (DCSC website) Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi Line Art BCE Treasury of the Siphnians Line Art BCE Battle Between the Gods and Giants (Titans), Treasury of the Siphnians Archaic BCE Temple of Hera I (plan) Archaic Line Art BCE Temple of Hera I* Archaic BCE Temple of Hera II Archaic BCE Temple of Aphaia Archaic 500 BCE Temple of Aphaia (Reconstruction drawing) Archaic Line Art 500 BCE Temple of Aphaia (Plan of complete complex) Archaic Line Art 500 BCE Elements of Architecture: The Greek Orders* Line Art West Pediment of Temple of Aphaia Archaic BCE
9 Dying Warrior, West Pediment of Temple of Aphaia Archaic BCE Dying Warrior, East Pediment of Temple of Aphaia* Archaic BCE Archer, West Pediment of Temple of Aphaia Reconstruction 2004 CE Archer, West Pediment of Temple of Aphaia Archaic BCE Herakles, East Pediment of Temple of Aphaia Archaic BCE Metropolitan Kouros** Archaic 600 BCE COMPARE TO: Menkaure and Queen EGY Fourth Dynasty 2,490-2,472 BCE Berlin Kore* Archaic BCE Anavysos Kouros Archaic 530 BCE Peplos Kore* Archaic 530 BCE Kore Archaic 520 BCE Rampin Head Archaic 560 BCE Greek Vessels* Line Art Dionysus with Maenads (Amasis Painter)* Archaic 540 BCE Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game (Exekias) Archaic BCE Death of Sarpedon (Euphronios-painter, Euxitheos-potter) Archaic 515 BCE Herakles Driving a Bull to Sacrifice (Lysippides Painter) Archaic BCE Herakles Driving a Bull to Sacrifice (Andokides Painter) Archaic BCE Apollo with Battling Lapiths and Centaurs, Sanctuary of Zeus Early Classical Line Art BCE Apollo with Battling Lapiths and Centaurs, Sanctuary of Zeus Early Classical BCE Athena, Herakles and Atlas, Temple of Zeus Early Classical 460 BCE Kritios Boy** Early Classical 480 BCE Reconstruction drawing of Tomb of the Diver Early Classical Line Art 480 BCE Symposium Scene, Tomb of the Diver Early Classical 480 BCE A Diver, Tomb of the Diver Early Classical 480 BCE A Bronze Foundry (Foundry Painter) Early Classical BCE Dionysus on a Boat (Exekias) Archaic 540 BCE Charioteer* Early Classical 470 BCE Zeus Early Classical BCE Riace Warrior* Early Classical BCE Portrait Head, from Delos Hellenistic 80 BCE
10 Frolicking Satyrs (Douris)* Early Classical 480 BCE Aphrodite, Eros and Pan Hellenistic 100 BCE A Youth Pouring Wine into Kylix of a Companion (Douris) Early Classical 480 BCE Plan of Acropolis, Athens High Classical Line Art BCE Acropolis, Athens* High Classical BCE Model of Acropolis, Athens High Classical BCE Stoa of Attalos in the agora modern photograph Stoa imagery modern photograph Zappeion 19 th century CE Parthenon* High Classical BCE Reconstruction drawing of Parthenon High Classical Line Art BCE Plan of Parthenon High Classical Line Art BCE Reconstruction of Pheidias Huge Gold and Ivory Figure Toronto The Parthenon when it contained a Mosque (Revett) modern drawing 1765 CE East pediment of the Parthenon High Classical BCE Lapith fighting a Centaur, metope of the Parthenon* High Classical BCE Horsemen, frieze on the Parthenon High Classical BCE Spear Bearer (Polykleitos)* Early Classical BCE Marshals and Young Women, frieze on the Parthenon High Classical BCE Phedias and Frieze of Parthenon (Lawrence Alma-Tadema) Neoclassical painting 1868 CE Monumental Entrance to Acropolis High Classical BCE The Propylaia (Acropolis)* High Classical BCE Temple of Athena Nike (Acropolis)* High Classical BCE Erechtheion (Acropolis)* High Classical BCE Erechtheion, Porch of the Maidens (Acropolis) High Classical BCE Nike Adjusting her Sandal** High Classical 410 BCE Tholos, Sanctuary of Apollo Late Classical BCE COMPARE TO: Tholos, Treasury of Atreus Mycenaean 1,300-1,200 BCE Women at a Fountain House (Priam Painter) Archaic BCE Reconstruction Drawing of Agora, Athens High Classical 400 BCE Plan of Miletos, Turkey (orthogonal plan) Line Art
11 Grave Stele of a Little Girl* High Classical BCE Grave Stele of Ktesilaos and Theano High Classical 400 BCE Funerary Stele of Citizen Thraseas and his wife Euandria Early Classical BCE Grave Stele of Hegeso * High Classical 400 BCE Woman and Maid (lekythos) (Achilles Painter)* High Classical BCE Map of Hellenistic Greece Line Art DISCUSS: School of Athens (Raphael) Renaissance in Italy 1511 CE Hermes and the Infant Dionysos (Praxiteles)* Late Classical 400 BCE COMPARE TO: Spear Bearer (Polykleitos) Early Classical BCE Aphrodite of Knidos (Praxiteles)** Late Classical 350 BCE COMPARE TO: Aphrodite of Cyrene (Praxiteles) High Classical COMPARE TO: Inanna-Ishtar relief carving Ancient Near East BCE Man Scraping Himself (Lysippos)* Late Classical BCE COMPARE TO: Spear Bearer (Polykleitos) Early Classical BCE Apollo Belvedere* Late Classical 350 BCE The Weary Herakles (Farnese Hercules) (Lysippos)* Late Classical 350 BCE Alexander the Great (Lysippos) Late Classical BCE Alexander the Great, Four-Drachma coin Hellenistic BCE Earrings Late Classical 330 BCE Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at Battle of Issos Late Classical 310 BCE Ceramic Painter/Assistants Crowned by Athena and Victories (Leningrad Pntr) High Classical 450 BCE Stag Hunt (Gnosis) High Classical 300 BCE COMPARISON CHART: CLASSICAL vs. HELLENISTIC Seated Boxer* Hellenistic BCE Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Athens Hellenistic 132 CE Reconstruction Drawing of Theatre at Epidaurus Line Art Theatre at Epidauros* Hellenistic 350 BCE and later Reconstruction drawing of Monument of Attalos I Hellenistic 230 BCE Dying Gallic Trumpeter (Epigonos)* Hellenistic 220 BCE COMPARE TO: Dying Warrior, Temple of Aphaia Archaic BCE Gallic Chieftain Killing his wife and himself* Hellenistic 220 BCE
12 Torc, Soucy, France Celtic Gaul 3 rd to 1 st century BCE West front of the Altar from Pergamon Hellenistic BCE Athena attacking Giants (Pergamon frieze) Hellenistic BCE Laocoön and his Sons** Hellenistic 100 BCE Nike of Samothrace (Winged Victory)* Hellenistic 180 BCE Old Woman* Hellenistic 100 BCE Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo)* Hellenistic 100 BCE Veiled and Masked Dancer Hellenistic 150 BCE *Possibly a slide-identification question. Know the title (and artist if indicated) and time period. **Know the title, (and artist if indicated), time period and YEAR.