UW Department of Chemistry Lab Lectures Online

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "UW Department of Chemistry Lab Lectures Online"

Transcription

1 Lab 5: Periodic Trends Part I: (Prelab) A Computer Study and Introduction to ChemDraw Part II: Acid-Base Properties of Period 3 and Group 5A Elemental Oxides Part III: Oxidizing Ability of the Elemental Halides Introduction The focus of this lab is learning about trends among the elements in the periods and groups of the Periodic Table. Some properties can easily be investigated in the general chemistry laboratory, as you will see in Parts II and III of this experiment. Others are not as easily measured within the scope of this course, but scientists have performed many of these measurements and the results have been compiled in various databases, which can then be used to search for the properties of elements and groups of elements. In Part I of this lab you will use database software, called KC Discoverer, to look up and compare several properties among elements on the Periodic Table. By using the program to plot the data, you will be able to identify the trends within the group, period, or property you select. The database contains information for many properties beyond those discussed in the Zumdahl text. You will be asked to comment on the trends (e.g., increases down a group, decreases across a period, or increases then decreases across a period with a maximum near X, where X is the symbol of an element or a group or period number. You will also sketch the graph that you see on the computer screen so that the data will be included in your report. While this should be a quick sketch, be sure to include the axis labels so it is clear your TA what data you have plotted. Finally, you will answer some questions and/or explain the reasons for the trends you have identified. In Parts II and III of this lab, you will perform experiments that will demonstrate the trends among several elements on the Periodic Table. In Part II, you will determine whether the oxides of the period 3 and group 5A elements are acidic or basic. The acid-base properties of the elemental oxides will be tested using the indicators phenolphthalein and bromothymol blue. Phenolphthalein is pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic or neutral solutions. Bromothymol blue is yellow in acidic solutions and blue in basic or neutral solutions. By using a combination of both indicators, you will determine whether an oxide is acidic, basic, or neutral in an aqueous solution. In Part III, you will determine the relative oxidizing abilities of the elemental halides. Consider the following reaction: 2KBr (aq) + Cl 2 (aq) Br 2 (aq) + KCl (aq) In this reaction Cl 2 oxidizes the bromide ions into bromine, Br 2. The conclusion must be that chlorine Cl 2 is a stronger oxidizing agent than bromine Br 2. In this case we have both reactions in aqueous solution. If we provide a non-aqueous phase (for example toluene, C 6 H 5 CH 3 ) at the time the reagents are mixed, after the reaction the non-polar products will 1 of 7

2 preferentially distribute into the non-aqueous (non-polar) phase (like dissolves like). The above reaction can therefore be written: 2KBr (aq) + Cl 2 (aq) + (toluene) Br 2 (toluene) + KCl (aq) where we indicate the non-aqueous phase by the use of brackets around the toluene. This separation of Br 2 into the toluene phase will result in an observed color change in the toluene layer - Br 2 is brown in color. It is important to clarify that the toluene is not actually changing color, but rather that the colored Br 2 product is moving from the aqueous phase into the nonpolar phase. If there is no change in color of the toluene layer, then you will know that the reaction did not proceed and you still have the same species in solution that you added to the test tube. In order to understand the trends you will be investigating in all three parts of this experiment, let s review several pieces of information from the Zumdahl text covered in Chem 152 and 162. The behavior of elements is dependent on the properties of the atoms. Remember that reactions and bonds involve the valence electrons of the individual atoms or ions, so the number of electrons, their proximity to the nucleus, and the resulting molecular structure all play roles in the physical and chemical properties of the elements. Electron configuration, atomic size, ionization energy, and electronegativity are among the commonly discussed atomic properties and periodic trends. For this experiment, we will also consider density, melting point, heat of fusion, polarizability, conductivity (both thermal and electrical), acid-base properties of elemental oxides, oxidation states, and oxidizing abilities. Before we review these various properties, recall that a major classification of elements in the Periodic Table is into metals and nonmetals, with the metalloids (or semimetals) located along the staircase that runs from the top of group 3A to the bottom of group 6A. The fundamental chemical property of metals is their tendency to give up electrons to form cations; the fundamental chemical property of nonmetals is their ability to accept electrons and form anions. The metallic character of elements increases going down a group and decreases moving from left to right across the Periodic Table. Keep this information in mind as we discuss the following properties. Electron configuration. This is the distribution of electrons among the energy levels and sublevels of an atom. The valence electrons are those in the outermost energy level of an atom and are the electrons that participate in bonding. The number and type of valence electrons determine an atom s chemistry, so atoms with similar electron configurations will exhibit similar chemical behavior. The differences between one element in a column and the one below it are systematic outer electron configurations are similar within a group, but different within a period. The number of valence electrons for the main group (representative) elements can easily be determined from the group numbers. For example, carbon, with an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2, is in group 4A and has 4 valence electrons (2s 2 2p 2 ). Atomic size. This is often discussed in terms of the atomic radius, which is calculated from the distance between the nuclei of atoms in a chemical compound. The number of electrons per orbital, the distance of the electrons from the nucleus, and the shielding of outer electrons by other electrons in the atom all contribute to the atomic size. In general, the atomic radius 2 of 7

3 decreases as you move from left to right across the Periodic Table (Figure 1.). Because of increasing effective nuclear charge (due to decreased shielding), the valence electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus, decreasing the size of the atom. In general, the atomic radius increases as you move from the top of a group to the bottom because of the increasing orbital sizes in successive principle quantum levels outer electrons in higher periods are further from the nucleus. Figure 1. Atomic size data for the representative elements. This is Figure in the 6 th Edition of the Zumdahl text. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company all rights reserved. The difference in atomic size as you move down group 7A from fluorine to chlorine helps explain the unique properties of fluorine compared to the other halogens. Fluorine s small atomic size draws the valence electrons closer together around a relatively small nucleus. The large electron-electron repulsions that result contribute to the weakness of the F-F bond. This is just one example of how atomic size can affect chemical behavior. Ionization energy. The ionization energy (IE) is the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom or ion. Since the IE is related to the removal of electrons, electrons that are tightly bound to the nucleus will require more energy in order to be removed. The first IE is the energy needed to remove the highest energy electron, which is in the highest energy orbital. This IE typically increases as you move from left to right across the Periodic Table (Figure 2.). As you move to the right, the nuclear charge increases with each additional proton, resulting in less shielding and the valence electrons becoming more tightly bound to the nucleus. Electrons in lower energy orbitals will partially shield the outer electrons from the positive charge of the nucleus, but since electrons in the same energy level do not shield each 3 of 7

4 other well, the shielding becomes less effective as the nuclear charge steadily increases across the row. As you move from the top of a group to the bottom, each new principle quantum number means that the valence electrons will be farther away from the nucleus and, therefore, less tightly bound, so the first IE decreases as you move down a group. Figure 2. Ionization energies for Period 3 elements. This is Table 12.6 in the 6 th Edition of the Zumdahl text. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company all rights reserved. The relative magnitude of ionization energies influences the types of bonds atoms will form. Atoms with low IE easily give up electrons, while those with high IE prefer to share or gain electrons. This means that, based on the fundamental chemical properties of metals and nonmetals discussed earlier, metals will have smaller IE values than nonmetals and the smallest IE values will be found in the lower left corner of the Periodic Table where the most metallic elements are located. Also, since it is easier to remove an electron that is farther from the nucleus, IE and atomic size will have opposite trends smaller atoms in the top right corner of the Periodic Table will have higher IE values than the larger atoms in the bottom left corner. Second and third ionization energies have been determined for many atoms. The energy required for these successive ionizations is affected by the charge of the ion resulting from the previous ionization as well as the relative orbital energy of the electron being removed. Electronegativity. This is the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself. Electronegativity (EN) values range from 0.7 for francium in the bottom left corner to 4.0 for fluorine in the top right corner (Figure 3.). In general, nonmetals are more EN than metals, so the trends are that EN increases from left to right across the Periodic Table and decreases from top to bottom within a group. The increase in EN within a period is due to the higher effective nuclear charge resulting in shorter distances between the electrons and the nucleus. The increase in atomic size as you move down a group results in a greater distance between the electrons and nucleus, so the electrons experience a weaker attraction to the nucleus. In general, EN has a trend that is the opposite of atomic size. 4 of 7

5 Figure 3. Trends in electronegativity values. This is Table 13.3 in the 6 th Edition of the Zumdahl text. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company all rights reserved. Differences in the electronegativities of the atoms in a bond are related to the type of bond that occurs. For atoms that are identical, as in N 2 or Cl 2, there is no difference in electronegativity so the electrons are shared equally and there is no polarity in the bond this is a covalent bond. The greater the difference in the electronegativities of atoms bonded together, the greater is the ionic component of the bond (e.g. the atoms in NaCl have very different EN values: Na = 0.9 and Cl = 3.0). Polar covalent bonds exist when there is unequal electron sharing but the differences in EN are not as large as in ionic bonds. Density. Since density is the ratio of mass to volume, the density of an element can be related to the ratio of atomic mass to atomic size. Atomic mass increases with the addition of each proton and electron as the atomic number increases. Many groups show an increase in density as you move from the top of a group to the bottom, often because the increase in atomic mass out-paces the increase in atomic size (volume). However, you will find that the trends in density vary quite a bit for the different groups and periods. Some trends are smooth, or regular, while others are not. Heat of fusion. As you learned earlier in this course, the melting point of a substance is related to the intermolecular forces present in the solid. Metals are solids with strong metallic bonding in crystal structures. Metalloids, or semimetals, and carbon are solids that experience covalent bonding in extensive networks. The lighter nonmetals are gases; they are smaller atoms with less polarizability and experience weak dispersion forces. The heavier nonmetals are liquids or soft solids; they are larger atoms, more polarizable, and experience stronger dispersion forces. Molecular compounds, experiencing non-polar intermolecular interactions, have low melting and boiling points and require less energy for phase transitions (solid to liquid and liquid to gas). These compounds are gases, liquids, and low-melting solids at room temperature. Ionic compounds have very strong intermolecular interactions and will typically have very high 5 of 7

6 melting points and boiling points, as well as have large enthalpies of fusion and vaporization. Network covalent compounds have extremely strong forces, have extremely high melting and boiling points, and require larger amounts of energy at phase transitions than ionic compounds do. Polarizability. Large atoms with more electrons are more polarizable than smaller atoms with fewer electrons. The greater the polarizability of an atom, the greater the dispersion forces the atom experiences. If polarizability is related to atomic size and the number of electrons, then we would expect polarizability to increase down a group as both the size and number of electrons increase. Conductivity. Metals are characterized by their abilities to conduct heat and electricity. As such, we can expect the trends in conductivity to mirror those of metallic character as well as ionization energies (see earlier discussion of IE). Acid-Base Behavior. The metallic behavior and electronegativity of an element determine the type of bonding within its elemental oxide, which is the basis for the acid-base behavior of the oxide. Metals, elements with low EN values, form basic oxides that react with water to release OH - ions and acids to form a salt and water. Nonmetals, elements with high EN values, form acidic oxides that react with water to release H + ions and bases to form a salt and water. Amphoteric oxides, which react with both acids and bases, are oxides containing elements with intermediate EN values (metalloids/semimetals). In general, the acid-base behavior of an elemental oxide is a good indicator of metallic/non-metallic character. Oxidizing ability. The oxidation-reduction behavior of an element is its relative ability to gain or lose electrons when reacting with other elements. Remember from Chem 142 that oxidation is the loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons. Also, an oxidizing agent is a reagent that accepts electrons from another reagent, while the reducing agent is the electron donor. With this in mind, as well as the descriptions of ionization energy (the energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion) and electronegativity (the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons in a bond), we can say that elements with low IE and EN values are strong reducing agents and those with high IE and EN values are strong oxidizing agents. In chemical compounds, the oxidation states for the individual atoms indicate the number of electrons that have shifted away from an atom (positive oxidation number) or towards it (negative oxidation number). The oxidizing ability of an element describes its tendency to facilitate the oxidation of another element and is related to the relative attraction of electrons to its atoms the lower the EN of an element, the weaker its pull on electrons, so it has a lower oxidizing ability. 6 of 7

7 Helpful information The information summarized here and necessary for understanding the periodic trends is located in several sections throughout the Zumdahl text (chapters refer to 6 th edition): o Chapter 4: basics of oxidation-reduction reactions o Chapter 12: atomic theory, electron configurations, orbitals, and periodic trends o Chapter 13: electronegativity o Chapter 16: intermolecular forces, types of solids, bonding, structures, and changes of state o Chapter 18: properties of main-group/representative elements In addition to learning about several periodic trends by using the KC Discoverer database, the prelab assignment also includes an introduction to ChemDraw, a software program useful for creating illustrations of chemical compounds. In Part II, when dissolving the bismuth oxide, Bi 2 O 3, know that it is only slightly soluble in water. Your entire sample will most likely not dissolve completely, but as long as some of it dissolves you will be able determine the acidity/basicity of the solution. Safety Considerations Some reagents used in Part II of this experiment should only be handled by the TAs because of their high reactivity: sodium oxide (Na 2 O), tetraphosphorus decoxide (P 4 O 10 ), and concentrated nitric acid (HNO 3 ). In Part II, when you are burning the strip of Mg to create MgO, do not look directly at the bright flame the ultra-violet light can damage your eyes In Part II, keep the beakers containing the reactions generating SO 2 and NO 2 in the hood at all times. The 6M HCl used in the generation of SO 2 in Part II is corrosive. If you get any on you, immediately rinse your skin and any contaminated clothes with plenty of water. In Part III, the liquid bromine (Br 2 ) that is used is corrosive and causes severe burns. Only perform the reaction in the hood and if you do get any on you, immediately rinse your skin and any contaminated clothes with plenty of water. All of the waste from this experiment is considered hazardous and should be collected in the labeled waste bottles in the hood. 7 of 7

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Organizing the Periodic Table In a grocery store, the products are grouped according to similar characteristics. With a logical classification system, finding and comparing

More information

Periodic Table Study Guide

Periodic Table Study Guide Chemistry Periodic Table Name: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Periodic Table Study Guide Directions: Please use this packet as practice and review. DO NOT try to answer these questions during presentations, take

More information

Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds

Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds Sec. 5.1 Simple Ions 1. Relate the electron configuration of an atom to its chemical reactivity. 2. Determine an atom s number of valence electrons, and use the

More information

Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet.

Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet. CHEMISTRY TEST: THE PERIODIC TABLE Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet. 1. Which of the following

More information

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

More information

Periodic Table and Trends Test Review KEY

Periodic Table and Trends Test Review KEY Periodic Table and Trends Test Review KEY Describe the common characteristics and uses of the following families: 1. Alkali metals (# of valence electrons = 1) Most reactive metals that do not occur freely

More information

Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry

Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry Name Student # Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry 1. Which element reacts with oxygen to form ionic bonds? 1) calcium 2) hydrogen 3) chlorine 4) nitrogen 2. Element X reacts with chlorine

More information

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia 1. If the electronegativity difference between the elements in compound NaX is 2.1, what is element X? bromine fluorine chlorine oxygen 2. Which bond has the greatest degree of ionic character? H Cl Cl

More information

Unit 6: The Periodic Table & Bonding

Unit 6: The Periodic Table & Bonding Unit 6: The Periodic Table & Bonding Student Name: Class Period: Website upload 2014 Page 1 of 49 Page intentionally blank Website upload 2014 Page 2 of 49 Unit 6 Vocabulary: 1. Alkali metal: An element

More information

Matter and the Periodic Table Chemical Families and Periodic Trends

Matter and the Periodic Table Chemical Families and Periodic Trends Matter and the Periodic Table Purpose The purpose of this station is to reinforce students understanding of the organization and predictive power of the Periodic Table of the Elements and students ability

More information

TRENDS OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN PERIODIC TABLE Sixth Course (General Chemistry) by Dr. Istadi 1 Trends in Atomic Size All physical and chemical behavior of the elements is based ultimately

More information

Packet 3b: The Periodic Table

Packet 3b: The Periodic Table Click: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/hunting-elements.html Periodic Table: Organizes and classifying the elements Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian chemist who arranged according to their increasing atomic.

More information

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

More information

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

More information

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties 324 Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe and explain the observed trends

More information

Introduction to Ionic Bonds

Introduction to Ionic Bonds Introduction to Ionic Bonds The forces that hold matter together are called chemical bonds. There are four major types of bonds. We need to learn in detail about these bonds and how they influence the

More information

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the

More information

Chemistry I: Bonding Unit Worksheet. Period Date Chemical Bonding

Chemistry I: Bonding Unit Worksheet. Period Date Chemical Bonding Name Chemistry I: Bonding Unit Worksheet Period Date Chemical Bonding IONIC AND METALLIC BONDING SECTION 7.1 IONS (pages 187 193) This section explains how to use the periodic table to infer the number

More information

Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements

Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements Chemistry 25 Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements Experiencing Atoms What is ATOM? Atoms are incredibly small, yet they compose everything. Atoms are the pieces of elements. Properties of the atoms determine the

More information

UNIT-3 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties

UNIT-3 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties UNIT-3 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties One mark questions:. For the triad of elements A, B and C if the atomic weights of A and C are 7 and 39. Predict the atomic weight of B..

More information

Coincidence? I Think Not! 0 As you have realized, the Periodic Table provides a great deal more information than just atomic number and atomic mass!

Coincidence? I Think Not! 0 As you have realized, the Periodic Table provides a great deal more information than just atomic number and atomic mass! Coincidence? I Think Not! 0 As you have realized, the Periodic Table provides a great deal more information than just atomic number and atomic mass! 0 Each period (row) corresponds to an energy level 0

More information

Ch. 14 The Periodic Table p. 390-406

Ch. 14 The Periodic Table p. 390-406 Name Period PRE-AP 14-1 Development of the Periodic Table Ch. 14 The Periodic Table p. 390-406 Dmitri Mendeleev published the first periodic table in 1869. He organized the elements by atomic mass. He

More information

Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Class XI Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Chemistry Question 3.1: What is the basic theme of organisation in the periodic table? The basic theme of organisation of elements

More information

Periodic Properties of the Elements. Effective Nuclear Charge, Zeff

Periodic Properties of the Elements. Effective Nuclear Charge, Zeff Key Concepts: Periodic Properties of the Elements 1. Understand and be able to predict and explain trends in effective nuclear charge, Z eff. 2. Understand and be able to predict and explain the periodic

More information

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS 1. The 3 types of chemical bonds are IONIC, COVALENT, and METALLIC bonds. 2. When atoms have 8 valence electrons they are most stable. (exception 2 for

More information

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons)

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atomic Number equal to the number of protons Mass Number protons + neutrons Charge when # of electrons # of protons Negatively Charged Ion

More information

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure There are three types of strong bonds: Ionic Covalent Metallic Some substances contain both covalent and ionic bonding or an intermediate. 4.1 Ionic bonding Ionic

More information

Chapter 5: The Periodic Law

Chapter 5: The Periodic Law Chapter 5: The Periodic Law Section 5.1: The History of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) first person to organize the elements in a chart Organized about 70 elements by increasing atomic mass

More information

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends Unit 1 The Periodic Table: Periodic trends There are over one hundred different chemical elements. Some of these elements are familiar to you such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Each one has

More information

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

Development of Periodic Table

Development of Periodic Table Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements Learning Outcomes: Explain the meaning of effective nuclear charge, Z eff, and how Z eff depends on nuclear charge and electron configuration. Predict the

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

Trends in Periodic Table

Trends in Periodic Table Name: Date: 1. In the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing A. atomic number B. mass number C. oxidation number D. valence number 6. As the elements in Group IA are considered

More information

Page Which element is a noble gas? (1) krypton (3) antimony (2) chlorine (4) manganese

Page Which element is a noble gas? (1) krypton (3) antimony (2) chlorine (4) manganese 1. Which characteristics describe most nonmetals in the solid phase? (1) They are malleable and have metallic luster. (2) They are malleable and lack metallic luster. (3) They are brittle and have metallic

More information

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? 12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

More information

The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups

The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups MiraCosta College Introductory Chemistry Laboratory The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups EXPERIMENTAL TASK Observe a number of chemical and physical properties of various elements. Relate the observed

More information

Using Periodic Properties to Identify Group 2A Cations and Group 7A Anions

Using Periodic Properties to Identify Group 2A Cations and Group 7A Anions Using Periodic Properties to Identify Group 2A Cations and Group 7A Anions Objectives The objectives of this lab are as follows: To observe the solubility properties of various ionic compounds containing

More information

Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification

Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification Elements of the Lewis Theory Chemical Bonding Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification 1. Valence electrons play a fundamental role in chemical bonding 2. Sometimes bonding involves the TRANSFER

More information

GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING. Key Concepts. X-planation

GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING. Key Concepts. X-planation GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Bonding Covalent bonding Electronegativity in covalent bonding

More information

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems 1. What are the SI units for a. Wavelength of light b. frequency of light c. speed of light Meter hertz (s -1 ) m s -1 (m/s) 2. T/F (correct

More information

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I.

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Element Review THE SEVEN DIATOMIC MOLECULES ( Super Seven ): H 2 F 2 O

More information

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Element Review THE SEVEN DIATOMIC MOLECULES ( Super Seven ): H 2 F 2 O

More information

Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity

Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8-1 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8.1 Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms 8.2 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic

More information

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date:

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: 1. At STP, fluorine is a gas and bromine is a liquid because, compared to fluorine, bromine has 1) stronger covalent bonds 2) stronger intermolecular forces

More information

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song:  (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs) Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron

More information

Chapter 2: You must understand chemistry to understand life

Chapter 2: You must understand chemistry to understand life Chapter 2: You must understand chemistry to understand life 1. Describe the difference between the terms element and atom. What are chemical symbols, and what is the periodic table? 2. Draw a model of

More information

CHAPTER-3 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS

CHAPTER-3 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS CHAPTER-3 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS Mandeleev s Periodic Law:- The properties of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses. Moseley, the English

More information

2. What happens to the number of protons and electrons in atoms across a period on the periodic table?

2. What happens to the number of protons and electrons in atoms across a period on the periodic table? Name Period Date Honors Chemistry - Periodic Trends Check Your Understanding Answer the following, formulating responses in your own words. (This helps you better understand the concepts) 1. Define shielding

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Why do TiCl 4 and TiCl 3 have different colors?... different chemical properties?... different physical states? Chemical Bonding and Properties Difference in

More information

Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds

Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Topic Using the Periodic Table Metals, Non- Metals & Metalloids I can Explain and identify the periods of the Periodic Table.

More information

Name Date Class THE PERIODIC TABLE. SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages )

Name Date Class THE PERIODIC TABLE. SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages ) 6 THE PERIODIC TABLE SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages 155 160) This section describes the development of the periodic table and explains the periodic law. It also describes the classification

More information

Lecture 22 The Acid-Base Character of Oxides and Hydroxides in Aqueous Solution

Lecture 22 The Acid-Base Character of Oxides and Hydroxides in Aqueous Solution 2P32 Principles of Inorganic Chemistry Dr. M. Pilkington Lecture 22 The Acid-Base Character of Oxides and Hydroxides in Aqueous Solution Oxides; acidic, basic, amphoteric Classification of oxides - oxide

More information

Test 8: Review Questions

Test 8: Review Questions Name: Thursday, February 14, 2008 Test 8: Review Questions 1. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? 1. CH OH 3. CaCl 3 2 2. C H 4. CCl 6 14 4 2. Which compound contains ionic

More information

Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1

Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Unusual electron configurations Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Examples: Cr and Cu Transition metal ions: s and d energy levels change

More information

Organizing the Elements

Organizing the Elements The Periodic Table Organizing the Elements A few elements, such as gold and copper, have been known for thousands of years - since ancient times Yet, only about 13 had been identified by the year 1700.

More information

Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules. Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana.

Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules. Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana. Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana www.slpsorg.com Chemical Bond: The force of attractions which holds atoms or ions together is called chemical bonds.

More information

X-ray diffraction: Electron density map of NaCl

X-ray diffraction: Electron density map of NaCl 4. Bonding Ionic Bonding Evidence for the existence of ions X-ray diffraction: Electron density map of NaCl These maps show the likelihood of finding electrons in a region The contours are lines of equal

More information

Unit 4 Bonding Exam. 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl

Unit 4 Bonding Exam. 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl Unit 4 Bonding Exam Name Multiple Choice 2 pts. each 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl 2) Generally, how many valence electrons

More information

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges. Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

More information

Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule.

Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule. Covalent Bonds The bond formed when atoms share electrons is called a covalent bond. (Unlike ionic bonds, which involve the complete transfer of electrons). A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

More information

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonds Three types: Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms Ionic Bonding

More information

Chemistry 3012 Foundational Chemistry Laboratory Manual

Chemistry 3012 Foundational Chemistry Laboratory Manual Chemistry 3012 Foundational Chemistry Laboratory Manual Table of Contents Page Experiment 1. Experiment 2. Experiment 3. Experiment 4. Experiment 5. Experiment 6. Experiment 7. Experiment 8. Determining

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity

More information

Answer Sheet Quarterly Review Questions

Answer Sheet Quarterly Review Questions Answer Sheet Quarterly Review Questions 1. Compared to the charge and mass of a proton, an electron has a. the same charge and a smaller mass b. the same charge and the same mass c. an opposite charge

More information

CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE Problems: 5,9,11,13,17,27,29,31,33,35,41,43,47,49,59,61,63,65,67,69, 75,77,79 6.1 CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS Dimitri Mendeleev (1869) arranged elements in a table in order

More information

Periodic Table & Periodic Trends I. Importance of Classification II. History & Development law of octaves III. Periodic Law

Periodic Table & Periodic Trends I. Importance of Classification II. History & Development law of octaves III. Periodic Law Periodic Table & Periodic Trends I. Importance of Classification A. Makes large sums of information manageable. B. In chemistry, it reduces the number of reactions that need to be studied. II. History

More information

Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water

Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water Biology is the study of living things, and it is important to understand their chemical nature. The processes that allow life to exist follow

More information

Periodic Table Extra Practice

Periodic Table Extra Practice Periodic Table Extra Practice 1. Which of the following elements in Period 3 has the greatest metallic character? 1) Ar 3) Mg 2) Si 4) S 2. Which sequence of atomic numbers represents elements which have

More information

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart Non-Covalent Molecular Forces 2/27/06 3/1/06 How does this reaction occur: H 2 O (liquid) H 2 O (gas)? Add energy H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart H 2O liquid: bonding between molecules Use heat

More information

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur?

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur? PSI AP Chemistry Periodic Trends MC Review Name Periodic Law and the Quantum Model Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06

More information

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes The Organization of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to organize the elements by their periodic properties. In 1871 he arranged the

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemical Context of Life. AP Biology

Chapter 2. The Chemical Context of Life. AP Biology Chapter 2. The Chemical Context of Life Why are we studying chemistry? Biology has chemistry at its foundation The Basics Everything is made of matter Matter is made of atoms Atoms are made of: protons

More information

Noble Gases are the most elements. Why? Notice that this makes a full outer energy level have electrons.

Noble Gases are the most elements. Why? Notice that this makes a full outer energy level have electrons. NAME: Mods: Now that we know proper formula writing and naming of chemical compounds so we can speak the language of Chemistry, let s move on to understanding how and why these compounds are put together!

More information

Chapter Two Periodic Table

Chapter Two Periodic Table Question (1) Chapter Two Periodic Table Choose the correct answer for each statement of the following:- 1- The elements of same vertical group are identical in the number of----------- a valence electrons

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence

More information

Periodic Table. September 22, Periodic Table.notebook

Periodic Table. September 22, Periodic Table.notebook Grab your notebooks off the lab table and copy down the EQ's Unit 4 Periodic Table Essential Questions: 1. Why are elements placed in a particular period or group on the periodic table? 2. Which elements

More information

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment.

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment. Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The

More information

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE Electron configurations determine organization of the periodic table Next properties of elements and their periodic behavior Elemental properties determined

More information

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing.

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing. CHAPTER EIGHT BNDING: GENERAL CNCEPT or Review 1. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the

More information

Trends of the Periodic Table Basics

Trends of the Periodic Table Basics Trends of the Periodic Table Basics Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

More information

CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE Problems to try in the textbook. Answers in Appendix I: 5,9,13,15,17,19,21,25,27,29,31,33,35,41,43,45,47,49,55abcde,57,59,61,63,65,67,69,71,73,75,89,91 6.1 CLASSIFICATION

More information

Periodic Table Instructional Background Patterns in Element Properties (History): Elements vary widely in their properties, but in an orderly way.

Periodic Table Instructional Background Patterns in Element Properties (History): Elements vary widely in their properties, but in an orderly way. Periodic Table Instructional Background Patterns in Element Properties (History): Elements vary widely in their properties, but in an orderly way. In 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev produced

More information

Biology Summer Work 2015: This packet has been put together by your. successful in Biology.

Biology Summer Work 2015: This packet has been put together by your. successful in Biology. Biology Summer Work 2015: This packet has been put together by your Biology teachers for you to work on during the summer. It will help you review topics that you have learned in 9 th grade and will help

More information

8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table

8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 11 Review PERIODIC Table Recall, Mendeleev and Meyer organized the ordering the periodic table based on a combination of three components: 1. Atomic Number

More information

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements 1. Elements in the modern version of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing. (a). oxidation number (b). atomic mass (c). average atomic mass

More information

TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom

TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: 61960 GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Chemistry ES 1.3 Page 1 of 10 Student: Class: Date: 1. The electron configuration of an

More information

Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces

Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces that hold like molecules together. Strong intermolecular forces result in a high melting point and a solid state at room temperature. Molecules that are

More information

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties:

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons

More information

National 4/5 Chemistry Learning Outcomes (what you need to know ) Ah! (280) The Element of Surprise! Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure

National 4/5 Chemistry Learning Outcomes (what you need to know ) Ah! (280) The Element of Surprise! Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure National 4/5 Chemistry Learning Outcomes (what you need to know ) 123 Ah! (280) The Element of Surprise! Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure Unit 1 Revision Planner Topic Mini-test result /10 Topic revised

More information

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 INTRODUCTION A. Electrical Conductivity A substance can conduct an electrical current if it is made of positively and negatively charged particles that are

More information

M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 6

M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 6 M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 6 Periodic properties Q1. According to modern periodic law the properties of elements repeat at regular intervals when the elements are arranged in order of: (a) decreasing

More information

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

More information

Chapter 8. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements

Chapter 8. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Chapter 8 Periodic Relationships Among the Elements This chapter presents a qualitative view of the periodic (repeating) relationships of the elements in the periodic table. Upon completion of Chapter

More information

Chapter 5, Section 5.1 History of the Periodic Table

Chapter 5, Section 5.1 History of the Periodic Table i) Objectives Chapter 5, Section 5.1 History of the Periodic Table ii) Mendeleev and Chemical Periodicity iii) Moseley and the Periodic Law i) The Modern Periodic Table Objectives i) Explain the roles

More information