Q1. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes. The number of carbon atoms in the molecules ranges from 1 to over 100.

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1 Q. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes. The number of carbon atoms in the molecules ranges from to over 00. (a) How does the boiling point change as the number of carbon atoms in the molecules increases?... () Name the method used to separate petroleum into fractions. () (c) The simplest hydrocarbon is methane, CH 4. Its structure can be represented: Draw the structure of ethane, C 2H 6. () (Total 3 marks) Q2. Atoms are made up of three main particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Use the periodic table on the data sheet to help you to answer these questions. (a) Sodium is in Group of the periodic table. (i) Why are potassium and sodium in the same Group of the periodic table? () Page

2 (ii) How many protons are in an atom of sodium?... () (iii) The atomic number of sodium is. How many neutrons are in an atom of sodium with mass number 23?... () (iv) Each sodium atom has electrons. Complete the electronic structure of sodium. (2) The chemical equation for a reaction of sodium is shown below. 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl Describe this reaction of sodium in terms of the names of the substances and the numbers of the atoms involved. (3) (Total 8 marks) Page 2

3 Q3. Use the Periodic Table of Elements on the Data Sheet to help you to answer this question. (a) Describe, in as much detail as you can, the structure of a fluorine atom (3) Complete the diagram to show the electronic structure of a magnesium atom. () (Total 4 marks) Q4. (a) Sulphur is a yellow element. It is a non-metal. (i) Complete the sentence. In an element, all the atoms..... () Page 3

4 (ii) Give two properties you would expect sulphur to have because it is a nonmetal (2) Use the names of metals from the box to complete the table. copper iron magnesium manganese zinc Use for electric wiring in a house Name of metal... for manhole covers... to galvanise iron... (3) (c) Copper is used to make hot water pipes. Both iron and steel are cheaper. Suggest two reasons why copper is used rather than iron or steel (2) (d) The drawing shows a container of a compound called sodium chloride. Page 4

5 (i) Which other element has combined with sodium to form this compound?.. () (ii) For every atom of sodium, how many atoms of the other element have combined with it?.. () (Total 0 marks) Page 5

6 M. (a) the more C atoms the higher the b.pt./temperature Allow just higher. Not answer based on melting point for mark (fractional) distillation/fractionation for mark (c) must include H atoms and lines not CH 3 CH 3 for mark [3] M2. (a) (i) both have one / electron in the outer energy level / shell allow both react in a similar way (ii) eleven / (iii) twelve / 2 Page 6

7 (iv) (2x) max if candidate changes the number of electrons in the first energy level / shell 8x (in second energy level / shell) x (in outer energy level / shell) two sodium atoms (react) two (bonded) chlorine atoms (react) allow one chlorine molecule (reacts) two sodium ions and two chloride ions (are produced) allow two molecules of sodium chloride (are produced) or two sodium chloride particles (are produced) [8] M3. (a) 9 protons /Proton Number 9 mass / atomic number is neutral 0 neutrons electron arrangement 2,7 / 9 electrons incorrect configurations neutral if no points scored, allow mark for nucleus surrounded by electrons or nucleus contains neutrons and protons Page 7

8 Mark is for 2,8,2 arrangements. accept electrons anywhere in correct orbit [4] M4. (a) (i) are identical / the same or have the same number of protons / the same proton number / electrons not similar (ii) any two of low melting point low boiling point brittle (solid) do not credit just solid poor conductor of heat or heat insulator poor conductor of electricity or electrical insulator accept just poor / low conductor or just insulator once only dull surface or not shiny cannot be hammered / bent (into shape) or not malleable cannot be stretched (into shape) or not ductile does not make a clanging sound (when struck) Page 8

9 or not sonorous acidic oxides low density 2 copper iron zinc correct symbols (c) can be bent (easily) or malleable or can be joined easily do not credit just can be joined not reactive or does not corrode or does not react (with hot water) accept does not rust 2 (d) (i) chlorine do not credit chloride (ii) one / same number / amount [0] Page 9

The table gives some information about a family of molecules in crude oil. Show information from the table in the most appropriate way on the grid.

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