Mission Viejo High School Model United Nations 33 rd Annual Conference Orbis Unum" Novice Crisis II. The Great Schism- Avignon Papacy

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1 Novice Crisis II The Great Schism- Avignon Papacy Hello delegates! My name is Isabelle Yu, and I will be your head chair for the MVHS MUN 2016 conference. This is my third year in MUN and it has been such an eye-opening experience so far. Besides MUN, I partake in other various clubs and activities such as CSF, NHS, Operation Smile, GMP, and the IB program. I am also currently VP of the Make-A-Wish Foundation chapter at Mission. Outside of school, I love visiting new places, trying new foods, and bike riding with my Dad. I am extremely excited to spend this day with you and see development of great ideas and enlightening debate in our Crisis Committee. If you have any questions or concerns please feel free to us at Hello delegates! My name is Brian Xie, and I ll be your vice chair for the MVHS MUN 2016 conference. This is my third year in MUN. I love community service, and manage my own environmental service club that runs the recycling program at our school. I also am part of a plethora of other clubs, as a board member or a regular member. I m one of those typical smart Asians that fit the stereotypical role of Honors, AP, IB, and everything else, with a lot of A s. Although I am decently athletic, I prefer to train my brain and gear myself toward fun academic competitions such as Science Olympiad and Orange County Academic Decathlon. I look forward to chairing this committee and hope to see some unique and interesting debates arise from your innovative minds.

2 I. Historical Background The Great Schism started from an early premise; the battle for superior power between the Roman Catholic Church and the state. During the 13th century, the papacy of the Roman Catholic Church reached the pinnacle of its power, which fully encompassed the idea of the Church as the spiritual head with a universal power greater than that of the secular leaders of the states. However, the rising influence of the secular monarchies began to clash with the supposed power of the Church. This argument for superiority was most strongly demonstrated with Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France. At this time, King Philip decided to tax the state including the clergy to raise revenue, however, Boniface refused, stating that the secular rulers, without the permission of pope, had no right to tax the clergy. Once again the conflict of universal sovereignty of the papacy battled the royal sovereignty. In 1302, the Unam Sanctam, a series of letters justifying the superiority of the Church, was issued by Pope Boniface. Before the obvious fate of excommunication, King Philip took matter into his own hands and forced the capture of Boniface and transferred him to France for trial. Italian nobles rescued the shock stricken Boniface but he died soon after. Because of the death of the pope, King Philip pressured the college of cardinals to elect the Frenchman, Clement V. Pope Clement V resides in Avignon, which was located on the Rhone River, geographically located in the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire but just on the borderline of the Holy Roman Empire and France. This was a sharp example of the papal prestige, as the pope served as bishop of Rome and yet was nowhere near the capital of Rome. What historians labeled as the Great Schism took place soon in Pope Gregory XI, the pope at this time returned the Rome to hopefully brighten up the view of the papacy. Shortly after his

3 transfer, he died and the college of cardinals were to name a new pope. The Roman people, angered that 113 of the 134 of the cardinals were French and fearful of another French pope, demanded a Roman or Italian Pope. An Italian bishop was chosen, Pope Urban VI, but 5 months later the college stated that Urban was not the true Pope because of his threats to eliminate the French cardinal majority and reform the papal curia. Thus the college of cardinals elected another French pope, Clement VII, who moved to Avignon. With both popes in power and both declaring each other as Antichrist - Urban in Rome and Clement in Avignon - the divide of European support between the two popes became known as the Great Schism. The supporters of Clement included France, Spain, Scotland, and Southern Italy, while England, Germany, Scandinavia, and most of Italy supported Urban; political lines that reflected the Hundred Year s War. For this particular crisis committee, our position would be geared toward supporting the Avignon Papacy rather than the Roman papacy. Our main objective is to try and provide a substantial view to declare ourselves the true papacy with support for Pope Clement VI. II. Possible Argument and Solutions The Avignon Papacy should be justified as the true papacy because it is still the traditional foundation for the Catholic church. Although the head of the Catholic Church has always resided in Rome to properly acknowledge and represent the Roman Catholic Church, it is not a surprise to house the pope in Avignon, as one of the previous popes, Pope Clement V, ushered in the era of the Avignon papacy by moving the Roman Curia, the central administrative

4 body, to Avignon. With residence in Avignon, the purity of the church can still be upheld and the support of the people and their belief in the church maintained. Location has no meaning as the people all share a common connection and beliefs. Possible solutions could be to wage war against the opposing sides, especially those that reside in Rome, whom support Pope Urban VI even after disapproval from the college and wish to see the Roman papacy rise to power. To accomplish this, attempts would have to be made to try and persuade those countries that have sided with the Roman papacy and encourage them to join our side through various forms of incentives so as to increase our military power and supplies as well as general support for the Avignon Papacy. We do have the support of the college of cardinals due to the majority of French cardinals, which may be able to convince others to support Pope Clement VI. Our goal, in essence, will be to utilize our resources and support to sway others toward our side. The college as well as the countries that support the Avignon papacy are a major benefit and should be used appropriately to make ends meet. III. Bloc Positions So as stated in the historical history, the two main opposing sides are the Roman Papacy and Avignon Papacy. But here is a basic outline portraying the views/intentions of the two sides. (even though as a committee we are the Avignon Papacy) Roman Papacy: Their countries include England, Germany, Scandinavia, and most of Italy. They support Italian Pope Urban VI and want Rome as the pope s residential capital.

5 Avignon Papacy: Our countries include France, Spain, Scotland, and Southern Italy. We support French pope, Clement VII, and want Avignon as the residence of the pope. IV. Questions to consider 1. Which papacy should be regarded as the true papacy and why? 2. Should the Avignon side of the Catholic Church engage militarily against secular leaders? 3. What is the Avignon papacy capable or not capable of? 4. In what ways should the Avignon papacy also increase support for themselves? 5. What can the different countries supporting the Avignon Papacy accomplish? V. Works Cited Great Schism. Theopedia. Christian Web Foundation, n.d. Web. 18 Nov SJS AP World History. SJS AP World History. SJS AP World History, n.d. Web. 20 Nov Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization Since 1300 AP Edition. 7 th ed. N.p.: Wadsworth Pub Western Civilization.

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