4.1 Cell Division and Genetic Material pg The Cell Theory is a central idea to Biology and it evolved in the 1800 s. The Cell Theory States:

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1 4.1 Cell Division and Genetic Material pg. 160 The Cell Theory is a central idea to Biology and it evolved in the 1800 s. The Cell Theory States: 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the smallest units of living organisms. 3. New cells come only from pre-existing cells by cell division. Cells that come from pre-existing cells must have genetic information similar to the parent cell. Traits found in the parent cell must be passed onto the daughter cells. These traits are passed on by genetic material known as Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). Genetics is the study of heredity and variation of living organisms and how genetic information is passed from one generation to the next. The Cell Cycle Somatic Cell is a plant or animal cell that forms the body of the organism; excludes reproductive sex cells (sperm & ovum). The Cell Cycle is a process where the cell grows, performs functions, and undergoes cell division. At the end of one complete cycle one cell becomes two. The Cell Cycle has three functions in multicellular organisms; growth of the organism, repair of tissues and organs, and the maintenance to replace dying or dead cells. The length of the cell cycle depends on the type of cell. Liver cells can take up to a year to complete its cell cycle, red blood cells 120 days, and skin cells are replaced daily.

2 Stages of the Cell Cycle It is important for the cell cycle to function properly and produce normal and healthy cells. The cell has a series of checks and balances that monitor the cells development. If some should interfere with the cells development could lead to uncontrollable growth and rapid cell division, cancer. Interphase is the stage during which a cell carries out its normal functions, grows, and makes copies of its genetic material in preparation for cell division. Interphase is divided into three phases; G1 this is the phase of major cell growth, increase in volume, and number of organelles. S this is the phase where DNA is synthesized or replicated. Doubling the number of chromosomes found in the nucleus. G2 during this phase the cells continue to growth and perform cellular functions in preparation for cell division. Figure 4.2: Interphase is the stage of growth and intense cell activity. Mitosis and cytokinesis involve the division of genetic material and cell contents.

3 Mitosis (four phases of Nuclear division) Mitosis is the stage during which a cell s nucleus and genetic material divide. Mitosis is made up of four phases. During Mitosis the genetic material (double number of chromosomes after replication) will be separated equally between two new forming daughter cells. The two daughter cells are genetically identical to each other and the formal parent cell. Figure 4.5: Chromosomes in prophase are actually pairs of sister chromatids that are attached at the centromere. Prophase Chromosome is a structure in the nucleus that contains DNA. Sister Chromatid is one of two chromosomes that are genetically identical and held together at the centromere. Centromere is the region where two sister chromatids are held together. Spindle Fibre is a microtubule structure that facilitates the movement of chromosomes within a cell. Centrosome (centriole) is a structure that helps to form the spindle fibre.

4 During prophase the chromatin condenses into sister chromatids, held together at their centromere. The centrosomes start to migrate to opposite poles (north and south). Spindle fibres are formed and appear to radiate out from the centrosome, creating a spindle apparatus. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappears, releasing sister chromatids into the cytoplasm. Metaphase During metaphase the spindle fibres appear to be attached to the centromere of each pair of sister chromatids and aligns them up along an imaginary equator. (Sister chromatids are considered to be a single chromosomes if they are joined by the centromere). Anaphase During anaphase the spindle fibres appear to pull apart the sister chromatids at their centromere. The individual chromosomes now migrate towards opposite poles. By the end of anaphase there is a complete set of chromosomes at each of the poles. Telophase During telophase the chromosomes start to lengthen and inter-wind into chromatin. The spindle fibres disappear and the nuclear membrane forms around the genetic material, forming a nucleus.

5 Figure 4.4: These illustrations and light micrographs show what happens during interphase and mitosis. Cytokinesis Cytokinesis begins near the end of mitosis and involves the division of the cell cytoplasm and pinching in of the cell membrane creating two new daughter cells. After mitosis, nuclear division, cytokinesis occurs. Here the organelles and cytoplasm are divided up into the newly forming daughter cells. Once the two daughter cells have formed, they will begin their cell cycle with interphase. In animal and plants cells, cytokinesis is different. Animal cells begin to pinch (cleavage) in at the equator. The indentation will continue until two cells are formed.

6 Figure 4.6: Cytokinesis begins with a furrow that pinches the cell and eventually splits the two cells apart. This transmission electron micrograph shows two identical kidney cells forming. Plant cells have a cell wall. Instead of pinching in, the cell wall forma a cell plate between the two new nuclei. Cell walls form on either side of the cell plate. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus and divide through a process called Binary Fission. Learning Check, questions 1 6, page 164 The Structure of Genetic Material Genome is the complete DNA sequence of an organism. DNA is a molecule of genetic information, consisting of a double helical strand, with each strand running in opposite directions (anti-parallel). DNA molecule is made up of repeating sub-units called nucleotides. There are four different nucleotides. The building blocks for a nucleotide are one phosphate group, a deoxyribose sugar, and a nitrogen base (adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine). (purines and pyrimidines)

7 To create a double strand molecule, specific nucleotides can bond to each other, adenine bonds to thymine and guanine bonds to cytosine, at hydrogen bond sites. These are called complimentary base pairs. A genetic mutation occurs when there are errors in the complementary base pairings. DNA exists in the strands of chromatin fibre, the entangled genetic mass found in the nucleus during interphase. During mitosis chromatin condenses into distinct chromosomes (1 23). Figure 4.7: DNA is part of chromatin fibre, which condenses to form chromosomes.

8 Making exact copies of DNA During interphase, specifically S phase, DNA is replicated. The double helix unwinds, and unzips, revealing each strand, which acts as a template for a new strand. Each new DNA molecule replicated is made up of one original strand bonded to a new strand. This process is called semi-conservative replication. Figure 4.8: A new DNA molecule has one original strand. Chromosomes are Paired Sex chromosomes are an X or Y chromosome, which determines the genetic sex of an organism. Autosome is a chromosome that is not involved in determining the sex of an organism. Each cell of an organism has the same type and number of chromosomes in their nucleus. Different organisms have different number and type of chromosomes. Somatic cells in humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs, two of each type) One chromosome is donated by the father and the other from the mother (paternal and maternal). Chromosome pair numbered 23 is known as the sex chromosomes, males ( ) have an X and Y, and females ( ) have a pair of X s.

9 Chromosomes numbered 1 through to 22 are known as autosomes. Chromosomes are paired based on their length, centromere location and similar characteristics. Homologous Chromosomes Contain Alleles Homologous Chromosome is a chromosome that contains the same sequence of genes as another chromosome. Gene is apart of a chromosome that governs the expression of a trait and is passed onto offspring; it has a specific DNA sequence. Allele is a different form of the same gene. Karyotype is a photograph of pairs of homologous chromosomes in a cell. Figure 4.9: Homologous chromosomes have several characteristics in common. However, they are not identical to one another. For example, they can carry different forms of the same gene, called alleles.

10 Examining Chromosomes: The Karyotype The chromosomes that a person has, is called the person s karyotype. The karyotype of a cell is collect when the cell cycle is in mitosis, specifically metaphase. The chromosomes are then sorted into their homologous pairs. Chromosomes 1 22 are autosomes and chromosome 23, sex chromosomes X or Y. Figure 4.10: This is a human karyotype. The chromosome pairs are arranged and numbered in order of their length, from longest to shortest. The sex chromosomes are placed last in a karyotype. Note that the banding patterns between homologous chromosomes are different in this image because of the type of dye that is used. Section 4.1 Review, questions 1 18, page 168

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