Robert L. Boylestad Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 9e

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1 Fig Half-wave rectifier.

2 Fig Conduction region (0 T/2).

3 Fig Nonconduction region (T/2 T).

4 Fig Half-wave rectified signal.

5 Fig Effect of V K on half-wave rectified signal.

6 Fig Network for Example 2.16.

7 Fig Resulting v o for the circuit of Example 2.16.

8 Fig Effect of V K on output of Fig

9 Fig Determining the required PIV rating for the half-wave rectifier.

10 Fig Full-wave bridge rectifier.

11 Fig Network of Fig for the period 0 T/2 of the input voltage v i.

12 Fig Conduction path for the positive region of v i.

13 Fig Conduction path for the negative region of v i.

14 Fig Input and output waveforms for a full-wave rectifier.

15 Fig Determining V Omax for silicon diodes in the bridge configuration.

16 Fig Determining the required PIV for the bridge configuration.

17 APPLICATIONS OF DIODES Diodes are used in so many ways that we will not be able to discuss all of them. The major applications of the diodes that are within the scope of this book are (a) Rectifiers (b) Clippers or Limiters (c) Clampers (d) Voltage Multipliers

18 Half-Wave Rectifier

19 The difference between the maximum and the minimum values is called the peak-topeak ripple voltage. The peak-to-peak ripple is often expressed in terms of its percent ripple as In this case, percent voltage ripple is 100%.

20 Full-Wave Rectifier using a center-tapped secondary

21 Fig Network conditions for the positive region of v i.

22 Fig Network conditions for the negative region of v i.

23 Fig Determining the PIV level for the diodes of the CT transformer full-wave rectifier.

24 Fig Bridge network for Example 2.17.

25 Fig Network of Fig for the positive region of v i.

26 Fig Redrawn network of Fig

27 Fig Resulting output for Example 2.17.

28 CLIPPERS OR LIMITERS How to draw the output waveform How to draw the transfer function Series clipper.

29 Series clipper with a dc supply.

30 Fig Determining the transition level for the circuit of Fig

31 Fig Using the transition voltage to define the on and off regions.

32 Fig Determining v o for the diode in the on state.

33 Fig Sketching the waveform of v o using the results obtained for v o above and below the transition level.

34 Example : Draw Vout and sketch the transfer function

35 Fig Determining the transition level for the clipper of Fig

36 Fig Sketching v o for Example 2.18.

37 Fig Applied signal for Example 2.19.

38 Fig v o at v i = +20 V.

39 Fig v o at v i = -10 V.

40 Fig Sketching v o for Example 2.19.

41 Response to a parallel clipper.

42 Example : draw Vo and the transfer curve

43 Fig Determining the transition level for Example 2.20.

44 Fig Sketching v o for Example 2.20.

45 Fig Determining the transition level for the network of Fig

46 Fig Determining v o for the diode of Fig in the on state.

47 Fig Sketching v o for Example 2.21.

48 Clipping circuits.

49 Clamper.

50 Fig Diode on and the capacitor charging to V volts.

51 Fig Determining v o with the diode off.

52 Fig Sketching v o for the network of Fig

53 Example : For the given input signal, sketch the output voltage if : 1- Diode is ideal 2- Diode is silicon

54 Fig Determining v o and V C with the diode in the on state.

55 Fig Determining v o with the diode in the off state.

56 Fig v i and v o for the clamper of Fig

57 Fig Determining v o and V C with the diode in the on state.

58 Fig Determining v o with the diode in the open state.

59 Fig Sketching v o for the clamper of Fig with a silicon diode.

60 Fig Clamping circuits with ideal diodes (5 = 5RC >> T/2).

61 Example :Clamping network with a sinusoidal input.

62 Zener Diode A zener diode is a specially fabricated diode with heavily doped p- and n- type Semiconductors. It has relatively low reverse breakdown voltage. When the inverse voltage applied across s the Zener diode increases beyond its reverse breakdown voltage, the electric field thus created in the depletion cause s some electrons to go across the potent ia l barrier.

63 A zener diode behave s exactly like any other diode when i t is forward biased, i. e. the anode voltage is greater than the cathode voltage. There is no reason to use a zener diode for an application that calls for a regular, low-cost diode. Therefore, the zener diode is almost always reverse biased and is expected to carry cur rent in the reverse direction.

64 Fig Approximate equivalent circuits for the Zener diode in the three possible regions of application.

65 Fig Basic Zener regulator.

66 Fig Determining the state of the Zener diode.

67 Fig Substituting the Zener equivalent for the on situation.

68 Example

69 Let us first sketch the output voltage ignoring the presence of the zener diode. In terms of v (t) in, the output voltage i s When v in (t) 12 V, V o (t) = 8V Likewise, v in (t) =24 V, V o (t) = 16V

70 Fig Zener diode regulator for Example 2.26.

71 Fig Determining V for the regulator of Fig

72 Fig Resulting operating point for the network of Fig

73 Fig Network of Fig in the on state.

74 Fig Voltage regulator for Example 2.27.

75 Fig Voltage regulator for Example 2.27.

76 Fig Voltage regulator for Example 2.27.

77 Fig Voltage regulator for Example 2.27.

78 Fig Voltage regulator for Example 2.27.

79 Fig V L versus R L and I L for the regulator of Fig

80 Fig Regulator for Example 2.28.

81 Fig V L versus V i for the regulator of Fig

82 Fig Waveform generated by a filtered rectified signal.

83 Practical Zener diode Thevenin theorem helps us replace the circuit with an equivalent circuit

84 Example When the input voltage is 12 V, Likewise, when the input voltage i s 24V,

85 Half-wave voltage doubler.

86 Fig Double operation, showing each half-cycle of operation: (a) positive half-cycle; (b) negative half-cycle.

87 Full-wave voltage doubler.

88 Fig Alternate half-cycles of operation for full-wave voltage doubler.

89 Voltage tripler and quadrupler.

90 Fig Battery charger: (a) external appearance; (b) internal construction.

91 Fig Electrical schematic for the battery charger of Fig

92 Fig Pulsating response of the charger of Fig to the application of a headlamp as a load.

93 Fig (a) Transient phase of a simple RL circuit; (b) arcing that results across a switch when opened in series with an RL circuit.

94 Fig (continued) RL circuit. (a) Transient phase of a simple RL circuit; (b) arcing that results across a switch when opened in series with an

95 Fig (a) Inductive characteristics of a relay; (b) snubber protection for the configuration of part (a); (c) capacitive protection for a switch.

96 Fig (continued) (a) Inductive characteristics of a relay; (b) snubber protection for the configuration of part (a); (c) capacitive protection for a switch.

97 Fig (continued) protection for a switch. (a) Inductive characteristics of a relay; (b) snubber protection for the configuration of part (a); (c) capacitive

98 Fig Diode protection for an RL circuit.

99 Fig (a) Diode protection to limit the emitter-to-base voltage of a transistor; (b) diode protection to prevent a reversal in collector current.

100 Fig (continued) (a) Diode protection to limit the emitter-to-base voltage of a transistor; (b) diode protection to prevent a reversal in collector current.

101 Fig Diode control of the input swing to an op-amp or a high-input-impedance network.

102 Fig (a) Alternate appearances for the network of Fig ; (b) establishing random levels of control with separate dc supplies.

103 Fig (continued) (a) Alternate appearances for the network of Fig ; (b) establishing random levels of control with separate dc supplies.

104 Fig (a) Polarity protection for an expensive, sensitive piece of equipment; (b) correctly applied polarity; (c) application of the wrong polarity.

105 Fig (continued) (a) Polarity protection for an expensive, sensitive piece of equipment; (b) correctly applied polarity; (c) application of the wrong polarity.

106 Fig (continued) (a) Polarity protection for an expensive, sensitive piece of equipment; (b) correctly applied polarity; (c) application of the wrong polarity.

107 Fig Protection for a sensitive meter movement.

108 Fig car. Backup system designed to prevent the loss of memory in a car radio when the radio is removed from the

109 Fig Polarity dector using diodes and LEDs.

110 Fig EXIT sign using LEDs.

111 Fig Providing different reference levels using diodes.

112 Fig (a) How to drive a 6-V load with a 9-V supply (b) using a fixed resistor value. (c) Using a series combination of diodes.

113 Fig (continued) (a) How to drive a 6-V load with a 9-V supply (b) using a fixed resistor value. (c) Using a series combination of diodes.

114 Fig (continued) (a) How to drive a 6-V load with a 9-V supply (b) using a fixed resistor value. (c) Using a series combination of diodes.

115 Fig Sinusoidal ac regulation: (a) 40-V peak-to-peak sinusoidal ac regulator; (b) circuit operation at v i = 10 V.

116 Fig Simple square-wave generator.

117 Fig PSpice Windows analysis of a series diode configuration.

118 Fig The circuit of Fig reexamined with I s set at 3.5E-15A.

119 Fig Output file for PSpice Windows analysis of the circuit of Fig

120 Fig Network for obtaining the characteristics of the D1N4148 diode.

121 Fig Characteristics of the D1N4148 diode.

122 Fig Verifying the results of Example 2.13 using Multisim.

123 Fig Problems 1 and 2.

124 Fig (continued) Problems 1 and 2.

125 Fig Problems 2 and 3.

126 Fig Problem 4.

127 Fig Problem 5.

128 Fig Problems 6 and 49.

129 Fig Problem 7.

130 Fig Problem 8.

131 Fig Problem 9.

132 Fig Problems 10 and 50.

133 Fig Problem 11.

134 Fig Problem 12.

135 Fig Problems 13 and 51.

136 Fig Problem 18.

137 Fig Problem 19.

138 Fig Problem 20.

139 Fig Problem 21.

140 Fig Problems 22 through 24.

141 Fig Problem 24.

142 Fig Problem 25.

143 Fig Problem 26.

144 Fig Problem 27.

145 Fig Problem 29.

146 Fig Problem 30.

147 Fig Problem 31.

148 Fig Problem 32.

149 Fig Problem 33.

150 Fig Problem 34.

151 Fig Problem 35.

152 Fig Problem 36.

153 Fig Problem 37

154 Fig Problem 38.

155 Fig Problem 39.

156 Fig Problem 40.

157 Fig Problem 41.

158 Fig Problem 42.

159 Fig Problem 43.

160 Fig Problems 44 and 52.

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