AP Chem Unit 1 Assignment 3 Chemical Equations

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1 Symbols used in chemical equations: Symbol Meaning + used to separate one reactant or product from another used to separate the reactants from the products - it is pronounced "yields" or "produces" when the equation is read used when the reaction can proceed in both directions or reversible- this is called an equilibrium arrow and will be used later in the course (g) indicates that the substance is in a gaseous state an alternative way of representing a substance in a gaseous state (s) indicates that the substance is in a solid state an alternative way of representing a substance in a solid state (aq) indicates that the substance is dissolved in water - the aq comes from aqueous; the term solution almost always indicates (aq) indicates that heat is applied to make the reaction proceed Phase symbols are required only when the information is known (ex: from lab observations or given information Diatomic elements: Elements that, when alone (not part of a compound with another element), are coupled: H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I Physical change vs chemical change: chemical changes ALWAYS involve a change in the arrangement of the atoms, which requires chemical bonds to be broken a/o formed. Writing Complete Equations Practice do ALL For each of the following, translate the word equation into a balanced formula equation. In THESE examples, there is enough info to include phase symbols. You do NOT need to indicate if the reaction is reversible. 1) When solid lithium hydroxide pellets are added to a solution of dihydrogen sulfate, aqueous lithium sulfate and water are formed. 2) When solid potassium reacts with water, aqueous potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is formed. 3) Tricarbon octahydride (aka propane) is heated in the presence of oxygen gas, resulting in the formation of water vapor and carbon dioxide gas.

2 Balancing Chemical Equations Balance the equations below. You are only required to balance the equations in bold. 1) N 2 + H 2 NH 3 2) KClO 3 KCl + O 2 3) NaCl + F 2 NaF + Cl 2 4) H 2 + O 2 H 2 O 5) Pb(OH) 2 + HCl H 2 O + PbCl 2 6) AlBr 3 + K 2 SO 4 KBr + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 7) CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 8) C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 9) C 8 H 18 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 10) FeCl 3 + NaOH Fe(OH) 3 + NaCl 11) P + O 2 P 2 O 5 12) Na + H 2 O NaOH + H 2 13) Ag 2 O Ag + O 2 14) S 8 + O 2 SO 3 15) CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 16) K + MgBr 2 KBr + Mg 17) HCl + CaCO 3 CaCl 2 + H 2 O + CO 2 18) HNO 3 + NaHCO 3 NaNO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 19) H 2 O + O 2 H 2 O 2 20) NaBr + CaF 2 NaF + CaBr 2 21) H 2 SO 4 + NaNO 2 HNO 2 + Na 2 SO 4

3 Word Equations Write the word equations below as chemical equations and balance. Do not include phase symbols. You are required to do those in bold. 1) Zinc and lead (II) nitrate react to form zinc nitrate and lead. 2) Aluminum bromide and chlorine gas react to form aluminum chloride and bromine gas. 3) Sodium phosphate and calcium chloride react to form calcium phosphate and sodium chloride. 4) Potassium metal and chlorine gas combine to form potassium chloride. 5) Aluminum and hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride) react to form aluminum chloride and hydrogen gas. 6) Calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid (trihydrogen phosphate) react to form calcium phosphate and water. 7) Copper and sulfuric acid (dihydrogen sulfate) react to form copper (II) sulfate and water and sulfur dioxide. 8) Hydrogen gas and nitrogen monoxide react to form water and nitrogen gas.

4 Word Equations Answer Key Writing Complete Equations Practice do ALL For each of the following, translate the word equation into a balanced formula equation. In THESE examples, there is enough info to include phase symbols. You do NOT need to indicate if the reaction is reversible. 1) When solid lithium hydroxide pellets are added to a solution of dihydrogen sulfate, aqueous lithium sulfate and water are formed. Unbalanced: LiOH(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) Li 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Balanced: 2 LiOH(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) Li 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O (l) 2) When solid potassium reacts with water, aqueous potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is formed. Unbalanced: K(s) + H 2 O (l) KOH (aq) + H 2 (g) Balanced: 2K(s) + 2H 2 O (l) 2KOH (aq) + H 2 (g) 3) Tricarbon octahydride (aka propane) is heated in the presence of oxygen gas, resulting in the formation of water vapor and carbon dioxide gas. Unbalanced: C 3 H 8 + O 2 (g) H 2 O (g) + CO 2 (g) Balanced: C 3 H O 2 (g) 4H 2 O (g) + 3CO 2 (g)

5 Balancing Chemical Equations Answer Key Balance the equations below: 1) 1 N H 2 2 NH 3 2) 2 KClO 3 2 KCl + 3 O 2 3) 2 NaCl + 1 F 2 2 NaF + 1 Cl 2 4) 2 H O 2 2 H 2 O 5) 1 Pb(OH) HCl 2 H 2 O + 1 PbCl 2 6) 2 AlBr K 2 SO 4 6 KBr + 1 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 7) 1 CH O 2 1 CO H 2 O 8) 1 C 3 H O 2 3 CO H 2 O 9) 2 C 8 H O 2 16 CO H 2 O 10) 1 FeCl NaOH 1 Fe(OH) NaCl 11) 4 P + 5 O 2 2 P 2 O 5 12) 2 Na + 2 H 2 O 2 NaOH + 1 H 2 13) 2 Ag 2 O 4 Ag + 1 O 2 14) 1 S O 2 8 SO 3 15) 6 CO H 2 O 1 C 6 H 12 O O 2 16) 2 K + 1 MgB 2 2 KBr + 1 Mg 17) 2 HCl + 1 CaCO 3 1 CaCl H 2 O + 1 CO 2 18) 1 HNO NaHCO 3 1 NaNO H 2 O + 1 CO 2 19) 2 H 2 O + 1 O 2 2 H 2 O 2 20) 2 NaBr + 1 CaF 2 2 NaF + 1 CaBr 2 21) 1 H 2 SO NaNO 2 2 HNO Na 2 SO 4

6 Word Equations Answer Key 1) Zinc and lead (II) nitrate react to form zinc nitrate and lead. Zn + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + Pb 2) Aluminum bromide and chlorine gas react to form aluminum chloride and bromine gas. 2 AlBr Cl 2 2 AlCl Br 2 3) Sodium phosphate and calcium chloride react to form calcium phosphate and sodium chloride. 2 Na 3 PO CaCl 2 6 NaCl + Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 4) Potassium metal and chlorine gas combine to form potassium chloride. 2 K + Cl 2 2 KCl 5) Aluminum and hydrochloric acid react to form aluminum chloride and hydrogen gas. 2 Al + 6 HCl 3 H AlCl 3 6) Calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid react to form calcium phosphate and water. 3 Ca(OH) H 3 PO 4 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) H 2 O 7) Copper and sulfuric acid react to form copper (II) sulfate and water and sulfur dioxide. Cu + 2 H 2 SO 4 CuSO H 2 O + SO 2 8) Hydrogen gas and nitrogen monoxide react to form water and nitrogen gas. 2 H NO 2 H 2 O + N 2

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