Management of Municipal Solid

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1 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Germany Dr. Jochen Amrehn King Mongkut sinstitute of Technology Ladkrabang

2 Overview Introduction Legal Framework Circular Economy Act Application of the Circular Economy Act German Technology for Waste Management Conclusion 2

3 Introduction What is waste? Wastes are transportable goods which are listed in appendix 1 of the waste management act and of which the owner wants to dispose of or for which the correct and safe collection, transportation and storage is necessary to avoid negative impacts on the public interests. Art. 1 Waste Management Act

4 Legal Framework Abfallverbringungsverordnung (Waste Shipment Directive) Beförderungserlaubnisverordnung (BefErlV) (Waste Transportation Act) Entsorgungsfachbetriebeverordnung (EfbV) (Act governing disposal companies) Batteriegesetz (Battery Act) Nachweisverordnung (Waste Manifest Act) Elektro- und Elektronikgerätegesetz (Electro and Electronic Appliances Act) Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz (1994,2013) (Circular Economy Act) 4

5 Circular Economy Act Act for the Support of the Circular Economy and the Securing of the Environmentally Sound Management of Waste Reduce the use of natural resources Ensure the environmentally sound management of waste Define the priorities for waste management

6 Circular Economy Act General regulations concerning waste minimization and waste management General responsibilities of waste generators and waste owners General responsibilities of the municipal waste authorities Responsibilities for products Responsibilities for planning Waste consulting Control and supervision Disposal companies Organization of operations, responsibilities and simplifications for disposal companies that undergo auditing 6

7 Circular EconomyAct Who has to dispose of waste? Everybody who produces waste Who has to pay for the disposal? The producer of the waste How to dispose of the waste? Control by the authorities Regulations for safe disposal

8 Waste disposal Commercial Waste Generators Private Waste Generators Private Service Municipal Waste Collection Waste Treatment Waste Treatment 8

9 Circular Economy Act Setting Priorities Avoiding / Reducing Utilization Preparation for recycling Recycling Other utilization (e.g. thermal) Disposal 9

10 Waste sorting In front of the house In the households #

11 Producer Responsibility Producer has to take back certain packaging materials Producer has to recycle a given percentage of the returned packaging material Problems for the producers and for the shops

12 Dual System Germany Green Dot 12

13 Dual System Co. Ltd. Aim: Reduction of packaging materials DualesSystem Deutschland GmbH Founded in 1991 Responsible for the collection and recycling of the licensed packaging materials Outsourcing to sub-contractors Selling of licenses to producers License fee depends on the amount of packaging and the effort required for recycling 13

14

15 Other Utilization Companies Interseroh Dienstleistungs GmbH VfW GmbH Landbell AG BellandVision GmbH Eko-Punkt (daughter company of Remondis) Redual GmbH ZENTEK GmbH & Co Recycling Kontor Dual GmbH & Co. KG Veolia Umweltservice Dual GmbH

16 Collection Responsibilities Municipalities or licensed private companies Dual System Germany Composting / Biogas Plant Incineration

17 Waste reduction 2006: More recycling materials than MSW #

18 Services Private Sector Involvement Collection and transportation of waste (MSW and commercial waste) Operation of waste treatment facilities Sorting plants Incinerators / MBT plants etc. Technology Provider Planning and construction of waste treatment plants Consulting of waste management authorities

19 Waste Sorting (mainly packaging waste) Inerts Wood Plastic PE PET PP PVC Paper Metals Copper Aluminium Iron Lead Rest (incinerator)

20 Problems for Waste Sorting in Vietnam Germany China

21 Waste Treatment 70 MSW Incinerators 46 MBT Plants

22 Incineration Energy Generation Delivery and Storage Incineration Flue Gas Treatment Source: Zweckverband Abfallwirtschaft Raum Würzburg Dr. Jochen Amrehn, HCMC 2014

23 Air Pollution from Incinerators Discontinuous Measurements 2011 (Line 1) Parameter [mg/m3] Legal Limit as half hour average Emission Measurement 1 Measurement 2 Measurement 3 Average Cd, Tl 0.05 < < < < Sb, As, Pb, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Sn 0.5 < < < < As, B(a)p, Cd, Co, Cr 0.05 < < < < PCDD/F [ng/m 3 ] 0.1 < < < <

24 Mechanical Biological Treatment

25 Products of MBT Anaerobic Treatment: Biogas Aerobic Treatment: Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) 25

26 Mechanical Biological Treatment

27 Mechanical Biological Treatment Mechanical pretreatment Mixed Paper, packaging MSW Metal separation BIODAMP ~90% Biological drying Exhaust gas treatment Electric current Co-generation 2 days 8 days RDF Mechanical separation Heat Anaerobic digestion 6 days Aerobic waste water treatment Inerts Solid recovered fuel

28 Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment MBT Kahlenberg 28

29 Process steps of the MBT Kahlenberg: Mechanical Preparation 29

30 Waste acceptance bunker: approx. 100,000 tons household waste per year from 570,000 residents 30

31 Heavy mineral fraction sorted out 31

32 Process steps of the MBT Kahlenberg: Biological Conversion 32

33 DAMP -Reactor Design Figures: 6 concrete DAMP -Reactors Lenght 21.5 m; Width 4.4 m; Height 5 m Filling Height 3.3 m Filling Volume 250 m³ (each) Retention Time in DAMP 2-3 days Aggregate of the Biological Conversion step / Biological step 33

34 Discharge from the Biological Conversion step, reduced in size, washed and homogenized 34

35 Aggregates of the Biological Conversion step: Presses 35

36 CHP Plant Aggregates of the Biological Conversion step: Biogas fermenters 36

37 Process steps of the MBT Kahlenberg: Biological Drying 37

38 Biological Drying step (moving-floor) 38

39 Conclusion Environmentally sound waste management requires good control by the authorities Producers have to take responsibility for their products Consequent waste sorting can significantly reduce the amount of MSW Vietnamese MSW requires treatment which is adapted to the Vietnamese MSW composition

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