Classical Conditioning

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1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending Pavlov s Understanding Pavlov s Legacy 3 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 1

2 Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. Learning thus is more flexible, unlike genetically programmed behaviors of say, Chinooks. 4 How Do We Learn? We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence. Aristotle, 2000 years ago, suggested this law of association. Then 200 years ago Locke and Hume reiterated this law. OBJECTIVE 21 1 Define learning, and identify two forms of learning. 5 Stimulus Stimulus Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another. 6 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 2

3 Stimulus Stimulus Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another. 7 Response Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 8 Response Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 9 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 3

4 Classical Conditioning Ideas a of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories, however it was a Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work became seminal for later behaviorists like John Watson and B. F. Skinner. Sovfoto Ivan Pavlov ( ) 10 Pavlov s Experiments Before conditioning food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). The tone (neutral stimulus) does not. OBJECTIVE 21 2 Explain how an unconditioned stimulus (US). 11 Pavlov s Experiments During conditioning, neutral stimulus (tone) and US (food) are paired resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that automatically and naturally triggers a response. Unconditioned Response (UCR): A unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, like salivation in the dog when food is in the mouth. 12 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 4

5 Acquisition The initial stage in classical conditioning. during which association between a neutral stimulus and a US takes place. 1. Neutral stimulus needs to come before the US for conditioning to occur (most cases). 2. The time between the two stimuli should be about half a second. OBJECTIVE 21 3 Describe the timing requirements for the initial learning of a stimulus response relationship. 13 Acquisition The CS needs to come half a second before the US to cause acquisition. 14 Extinction When a US (food) does not follow a CS (tone) CR (salivation) starts to decrease and at some point goes extinct. OBJECTIVE 21 4 Summarize the processes of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination. 15 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 5

6 Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers and if CS (tone) persists alone becomes extinct again. 16 Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to CS is called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) to the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog s body, salivation dropped. 17 Stimulus Discrimination Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a US. OBJECTIVE 21 5 Discuss the survival value of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization and discrimination. 18 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 6

7 Extending Pavlov s Understanding Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness or mind not fit for scientific study of psychology. However, they underestimated the importance cognitive processes and biological constraints. 19 Cognitive Processes Early behaviorists believed that learnt behaviors of various animals could be reduced to mindless mechanisms. However, later behaviorists suggested that animals learn predictability of a stimulus, thus learn expectancy or awareness of a stimulus (Rescorla, 1988). OBJECTIVE 21 6 Discuss the importance of cognitive processes in classical conditioning. 20 Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar across all animals. Learning in a pigeon and a person was not different. However, later behaviorists suggested that learning was constrained by animal s biology. OBJECTIVE 21 7 Describe some of the ways that biological predisposition can affect learning by classical conditioning. 21 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 7

8 Biological Predispositions Garcia showed that duration between CS and US can be long (hours) and yet result in conditioning. Biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning and not others (light or sound). John Garcia Courtesy of John Garcia 22 Biological Predispositions Even humans develop classically conditioned nausea. 23 Pavlov s Legacy Pavlov s greatest contribution to psychology is isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective scientific procedures. Ivan Pavlov ( ) OBJECTIVE 21 8 Summarize Pavlov s contribution to our understanding of learning. 24 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 8

9 Applications of Classical Conditioning Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations including Maxwell House, making coffee break an American custom. John B. Watson Brown Brothers 25 OBJECTIVE 21 9 Describe some uses of classical conditioning to improve human health and well being. Applications of Classical Conditioning 1. Alcoholics can be conditioned (aversively) partly reversing their positive associations with alcohol. 2. A drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response, can lead the taste to invoke the immune response through classical conditioning. 26 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 21 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 9

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