Chapter 16: Emotional and Social Development in Middle Adulthood. After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

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1 Chapter 16: Emotional and Social Development in Middle Adulthood After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 16.1 Describe Erikson s stage of generativity versus stagnation and related research findings, noting the generativity features of life stories. (pp ) 16.2 Discuss Levinson s and Vaillant s views of psychosocial development in middle adulthood, noting gender similarities and differences. (pp ) 16.3 Summarize research examining whether most middle-aged adults experience a midlife crisis. (pp ) 16.4 Describe changes in self-concept in middle adulthood, including possible selves, selfacceptance, autonomy and environmental mastery, and effective coping. (pp ) 16.5 Note factors that promote psychological well-being in midlife. (pp ) 16.6 Cite changes in gender identity (i.e., masculine and feminine traits) in midlife. (pp ) 16.7 Describe stability and change in the big five personality traits in adulthood. (pp ) 16.8 Describe midlife relationships with a marriage partner, adult children, grandchildren, and aging parents; define kinkeeper and sandwich generation. (pp ) 16.9 Describe midlife sibling relationships and friendships. (pp ) Discuss job satisfaction and career development in middle adulthood, including gender differences and experiences of ethnic minorities. (pp ) Describe career change and unemployment in middle adulthood. (pp ) Discuss the importance of planning for retirement, noting various issues that middle-aged adults should address. (pp ) Chapter 16 Practice Test 1. According to Erikson, the term encompasses everything accomplished that can outlive the self and ensure society s continuity and improvement. a. generativity c. autonomy b. stagnation d. eternity 2. According to McAdams, the more adults emphasize in their life stories, the higher their life satisfaction, self-esteem, and certainty that the challenges of life are meaningful, manageable, and rewarding. a. successful events c. redemptive themes b. positive events d. lofty ideals 1

2 3. In his mid-forties, Edgar felt enormous turmoil, dissatisfaction, and unhappiness with his life. He decided to quit his job, leave his family, and start a new life. Research on midlife crisis indicates that Edgar s experience is a. fairly common for men, but uncommon for women b. very unusual for middle-aged adults c. very common for people in midlife d. generative 4. Possible selves are the dimension of self-concept. a. positive c. temporal b. negative d. most inaccurate 5. When researchers surveyed over 2,000 middle-aged individuals about personality changes, the overwhelming majority said that they had, which. a. changed a great deal; reinforces the view of middle adulthood as a period of turmoil and change b. changed very little; reinforces the view of middle adulthood as a period of slowing down and digging in c. stayed the same or changed very little; contradicts the view of middle adulthood as a period of turmoil and change. d. changed a great deal; contradicts the view of middle adulthood as a period of slowing down and developing consistency 6. Today, a longer life expectancy means that many adults will spend as much as of their lifespan as grandparents. a. one tenth c. one third b. one quarter d. one half 7. Compared to adult men, adult women report a. a sense of obligation in their friendships b. less satisfaction with their friendships c. more friendships as they get older d. a greater number of close friends 8. Compared with younger workers, middle-aged workers who lose their jobs involuntarily are more likely to experience a. greater optimism and determination c. increases in their generativity b. greater psychological distress d. a sense of freedom and relief 9. An invisible barrier that effectively prevents many women and ethnic minorities from advancing to the top levels of their profession is called the a. quota system c. job marker b. network limit d. glass ceiling 2

3 10. The average retirement age in the United States is currently a. 60 c. 65 b. 63 d. 68 Note: Answers to practice tests are at the end of this document. Chapter 17: Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood 17.1 Distinguish between chronological age and functional age; define average life expectancy, average healthy life expectancy, and maximum life span. (pp ) 17.2 Summarize changes in sensory functioning during late adulthood, including vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. (pp ) 17.3 Describe cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune system changes in late adulthood. (pp ) 17.4 Describe sleep difficulties in late adulthood and ways to foster restful sleep. (p. 571) 17.5 Summarize changes in physical appearance and mobility, including elders adaptation to the physical changes of late adulthood and reactions to stereotypes of aging. (pp , 576) 17.6 Discuss health and fitness in late life, with special attention to nutrition, exercise, and sexuality. (pp ) 17.7 Define frailty and discuss common physical disabilities in late adulthood, with special attention to arthritis, adult-onset diabetes, and unintentional injuries. (pp ) 17.8 Define dementia; discuss Alzheimer s disease, cerebrovascular dementia, misdiagnosed dementia and reversible dementia. (pp ) 17.9 Discuss health care issues that affect senior citizens. (pp ) Explain selective optimization with compensation as an adaptation to physical and cognitive changes in adulthood. (pp ) Summarize age-related changes in various types of memory during late life, including implicit, associative, remote, and prospective memories. (pp ) Describe changes in language processing and problem solving in late adulthood. (pp ) Discuss the capacities that contribute to wisdom, noting how it is affected by age and life experience. (pp ) Identify factors related to cognitive change in late adulthood; define terminal decline. (pp ) Discuss the effectiveness of cognitive interventions in late adulthood. (p. 597) Describe the benefits of participation in education programs available to the elderly. (pp ) 3

4 Chapter 17 Practice Test 1. The is the genetic limit to length of life for a person who is free of external risk factors. a. life expectancy crossover c. maximum life span b. average life expectancy d. active lifespan 2. Which of the following is a useful strategy for an elderly person with hearing loss that impairs his speech perception? a. avoiding unnatural solutions such as hearing aids, which are generally ineffective b. acting as though there has been no change in hearing and guessing at words c. closing his eyes to minimize visual distractions while listening d. seeking out quieter environments for conversations 3. Which of these contributes to a higher incidence of sleep disturbances in men than in women? a. higher rates of sleep apnea c. neither a nor b b. enlargement of the prostate gland d. both a and b 4. Older adults fare best when they a. retain social status and opportunities for community participation, even when frail b. retire from community participation around the same time they retire from their careers c. are encouraged to sit back and let younger community members serve them d. live in highly individualistic societies 5. At age 72, your friend has just been told by his doctor that he shows signs of osteoarthritis. You can tell him that a. it is caused primarily by a lack of exercise b. he should increase his intake of dietary calcium c. this is a normal condition in older adults d. it is caused by an autoimmune reaction 6. A set of disorders that occurs almost exclusively in old age and in which many aspects of thought and behavior are so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted is referred to as a. Alzheimer s disease c. dementia b. emphysema d. epilepsy 7. In the United States, Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, at least 60 to 80 percent of all long-term care for older adults is provided by a. charitable organizations c. family members b. government assistance d. hospice 8. Laboratory studies of prospective memory typically show greater declines in old age than do real-life studies, primarily because a. elderly people make no attempt to perform well in laboratories b. older people set up systems to remind themselves in real life c. the lab tasks are focused more on recall than on recognition d. laboratories are often stressful places for older adults 4

5 9. A common technique used by many elders to compensate for their difficulties in producing language is to a. learn sign language to convey information more effectively b. speak more slowly and use simpler grammatical structures c. listen closely but avoid talking as much as possible d. speak more loudly and forcefully 10. Broad practical knowledge based on extensive experience, the ability to use it practically to solve life problems, and emotional maturity are important parts of a. crystallized intelligence c. generativity b. fluid intelligence d. wisdom Answers to Practice Tests Ch. 16: 1. a 2. c 3. b 4. c 5. c 6. c 7. d 8. b 9. d 10. b Ch. 17: 1. c 2. d 3. d 4. a 5. c 6. c 7. c 8. b 9. b 10. d 5

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