1 ETELÄ-KARJALAN LIITTO REGIONAL COUNCIL OF SOUTH KARELIA Kauppakatu 40 D, 1-floor FI Lappeenranta This Programme is funded by the EU, Russia and Finland.
2 Logical Framework base for your action Lappeenranta Jussi Kanner Kehys ry
3 Morning session objectives Getting familiar with Logical framework approach Logical framework matrix Participants will know the basics and can apply LFA in their projects
4 Project logic WHY and by WHOM is the project needed? WHAT improvement will the project bring? HOW to measure the improvement? WHAT to do? HOW the results will be achieved? WHAT resources are needed?
5 LFA What is it? LFA is an analytical process LFM (the Logical Framework Matrix) is the documented product of the analytical process aid to thinking tool for planning and managing development projects convenient, logical summary of the key factors of the project
6 When is it used? LFA can be used throughout the project management cycle: identifying and assessing activities that fit within the scope of programs preparing the project design in a systematic and logical way appraising project designs implementing approved projects; and monitoring, reviewing and evaluating project progress and performance As the project progresses and situations change, return to the logframe and revise it accordingly
7 Advantages of LFA LFA helps to ask questions & analyse weaknesses LFA presents information in a clear, concise, logical and systematic way establish systematic monitoring for the project facilitate communication between all parties involved identify how the success or failure of the project should be measured
8 Limitations of LFA provides no magic solutions must be used alongside other tools: target group analysis cost-benefit analysis time planning gender analysis environmental impact assessment etc. may be rigid if objectives are over-emphasized (can be avoided with regular project reviews)
9 Common problems & difficulties Preparation is seen as a bureaucratic box-filling, Done last, difficult to get it really logical if problem analysis is not done Becomes a burden rather than a help Finding measurable indicators (especially capacity building projects and advocacy projects) Relying on project reports as the main source of verification Inappropriate level of detail (too much/too little)
10 Two main phases of LFA 1. Analysis phase stakeholder analysis identifying & characterizing potential major stakeholders; assessing their capacity problem analysis identifying key problems, constraints & opportunities; determining cause & effect relationships objective analysis developing solutions from the identified problems; identifying means to end relationships strategy analysis identifying different strategies to achieve solutions; selecting most appropriate strategy.
11 2. Planning phase developing Logical Framework matrix - defining project structure, testing its internal logic & risks, formulating measurable indicators of success activity scheduling determining the sequence and dependency of activities; estimating their duration, and assigning responsibility resource scheduling - from the activity schedule, developing input schedules and a budget
12 Stakeholder analysis (1) A stakeholder analysis defines the interests and needs of different people and groups vis-à-vis the project. In the analysis it is possible to define gender aspects between and within different stakeholder groups.
13 Stakeholder analysis (2) A stakeholder is any individual, group, organisation or institution: - who is involved in the project - who has positive/negative effects on the project - which the project may affect in a positive/negative way A stakeholder can be e.g. beneficiaries local authorities regional authorities NGOs donors local (religious) groups other projects in the same area private sector media
14 Stakeholder analysis (3) 5 steps of a stakeholder analysis 1. Identify the general development policy or opportunity being addressed 2. Identify all those groups who have a significant interest in the (potential) project 3. Investigate their respective roles, different interests, relative power and capacity to participate (strengths and weaknesses). 4. Identify the extent of cooperation or conflict in the relationship between stakeholders. 5. Interpret the findings of the analysis and incorporate relevant information into project design to ensure that resources are appropriate management and coordination support stakeholder ownership potential conflicts of stakeholders are addressed
15 Stakeholder analysis (4) Question 1 What degree of influence can they have over the issue addressed/core problem (compared with the other stakeholders)? High Influence Medium Influence Low Influence
16 Stakeholder analysis (5) Question 2 How much do they agree or disagree with our objective? Strongly in favour (pp very pro) In favour (p pro) Neutral (n) Against (a anti) Strongly against (aa very anti)
17 Stakeholder analysis (6) Question 3 How important is this issue to them (compared with the other issues that they face)? High Importance Medium Importance Low Importance
18 Stakeholder Influence Attitude Importance L M H AA A N P PP L M H L M H AA A N P PP L M H L M H AA A N P PP L M H L M H AA A N P PP L M H L M H AA A N P PP L M H L M H AA A N P PP L M H AA = Very Anti; A = Anti; N = Neutral; P = Pro; PP = Very Pro L = Low; M = Medium; H = High
19 Influence of the stakeholder over the issue addressed High Medium Importance of the issue to the stakeholder High Medium Low Low Very Anti Anti Neutral Pro Attitude of the stakeholder to your idea Very Pro
20 Problem analysis (1) A problem analysis identifies the negative aspects of an existing situation not imagined, future or possible problems. It establishes cause-effect relationships between problems.
21 Problem analysis (2) A problem is not the absence of a solution but an existing negative state/situation. Example: - fields lack protection against ants (wrong) - No pesticides are available. (wrong) - Crop is infested with pests. (right)
22 Problem analysis (3) The aim at this early stage is to establish an overview of the situation, later on the perspective will be narrowed and deepened. Keep all options open!
23 Effects Core problem Causes
24 Further Effect Further Effect Further Effect Further Effect Further Effect Further Effect Direct Effect Direct Effect Direct Effect Core Problem Direct Cause Direct Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause
25 Objectives Analysis (1) In an objectives analysis the problem tree will be transformed into a tree of objectives and analysed. A tree of objectives describes the future solutions (positive statements) of the problems.
26 Objectives Analysis (2) Working from top downwards, all problems are reworded, making them into objectives. Difficulties in rewording may be solved by clarifying the original problem statement.
27 Objectives Analysis (3) Working from bottom upwards, ensure that cause-effect relationships have become means-ends relationships. The objective tree should provide a simplified but robust summary of reality, a tool to aid analysis.
28 Objectives Analysis (4) 3 main steps of Objectives analysis: 1. Reformulate all negative situations of the problem analysis into positive situations that are desirable and realistically achievable. 2. Check the means-ends relationship to ensure validity and completeness of the hierarchy. 3. If necessary, revise statements, add new objectives, delete objectives which do not seem suitable or necessary.
29 Outcome Results Means
30 Strategy Analysis (1) The purpose of the strategy analysis is to define possible alternative strategies assess the feasibility of the strategies agree upon one project strategy.
31 Strategy Analysis (2) The strategy analysis can be the most challenging phase, as it involves synthesizing a lot of information and making a decision about the best implementation strategy to pursue.
32 Strategy Analysis (3) After identifying alternative strategies, assess the merits of those options. Key criteria for strategy selection could include: expected contribution to key policy objectives benefits to target groups (gender, age, vulnerability) complementarity with other projects cost-benefit contribution to institutional capacity building technical feasibility environmental impact
33 Strategy Analysis (4) The selected strategy will help to formulate the first column of the Logical Framework Matrix especially overall objective, purpose (specific objective) and potential results.
34 Phase 2: Planning Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) The results of the stakeholder, problem, objectives and strategy analysis are used as a the basis for preparing the LFA matrix.
35 LFM summarises, in a standard format what the project is going to achieve? what activities will be carried out to achieve its results and purpose? what resources are required? what are the potential problems which could affect the success of the project? how the progress and ultimate success of the project will be measured and verified?
36 When is it used? LFA can be used throughout the project management cycle: identifying and assessing activities that fit within the scope of country programs preparing the project design in a systematic and logical way appraising project designs implementing approved projects; and monitoring, reviewing and evaluating project progress and performance As the project progresses and situations change, return to the log frame and revise it accordingly
37 Overall objective: Impact Intervention logic Indicators Baseline The broader, long-term change which will stem from the project and a number of interventions by other partners. The Logical Framework Matrix Measure the longterm change to which the project contributes. To be presented disaggregated by sex. (incl. reference year) Ideally, to be drawn from the partner's strategy Current value Reference date Targets (incl. reference year) Ideally, to be drawn from the partner's strategy Sources and means of verification To be drawn from the partner's strategy. Assumptions Specific objective(s): Outcome(s) The direct effects of the project which will be obtained at medium term and which tend to focus on the changes in behaviour resulting from project Outcome = Oc (Oc 1; Oc 2; etc.) Measure the change in factors determining the outcome(s). To be presented disaggregated by sex The starting point or current value of the indicators. The value of the indicator at the indicated date The intended value of the indicators. Sources of information and methods used to collect and report (including who and when/how frequently). Factors outside project management's control that may impact on the outcome-impact linkage. Outputs The direct/tangible outputs (infrastructure, goods and services) delivered by the project. Outcome = Oc Op 1.1. (related to Oc 1) Op 1.2. (related to Oc 1) ( ) Measure the degree of delivery of the outputs. To be presented disaggregated by sex. Idem as above for the corresponding indicators. Idem as above for the corresponding indicators. Idem as above for the corresponding indicator. Factors outside project management's control that may impact on the output-outcome linkage. Op 2.1. (related to Oc 2) ( )
38 What are the key activities to be carried out, to produce the outputs? (Group the activities by result and number them as follows: A "Title of activity " A Title of activity " (related to Op 1.1.) Means: What are the means required to implement these activities, e. g. staff, equipment, training, studies, supplies, operational facilities, etc. Costs What are the action costs? How are they classified? (Breakdown in the Budget for the Action) Factors outside project management's control that may impact on the output-outcome linkage. Activities A "Title of activity " ( ) (related to Op 1.2.) A Title of activity " ( ) (related to Op 2.1.) ( )
39 LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Intervention Objectively verifiable Sources and means of Assumptions logic indicators of achievement verification Overall What are the overall broader What are the key indicators related What are the sources of objectives objectives to which the action to the overall objectives? information for these indicators? will contribute? Specific What specific objective is the Which indicators clearly show What are the sources of Which factors and conditions outside objective action intended to achieve to that the objective of the information that exist or can be the Beneficiary's responsibility contribute to the overall objectives? action has been achieved? collected? What are the methods are necessary to achieve that required to get this information? objective? (external conditions) Which risks should be taken into consideration? Expected The results are the outputs envisaged to What are the indicators to measurewhat are the sources of What external conditions must be met results achieve the specific objective. whether and to what extent the information for these indicators? to obtain the expected results What are the expected results? action achieves the expected on schedule? (enumerate them) results? Activities What are the key activities to be carried outmeans: What are the sources of What pre-conditions are required before and in what sequence in order to produce What are the means required to information about action the action starts? the expected results? implement these activities, e. g. progress? What conditions outside the Beneficiary's (group the activities by result) personnel, equipment, training, Costs direct control have to be met studies, supplies, operational What are the action costs? for the implementation of the planned facilities, etc. How are they classified? activities? (breakdown in the Budget for the Action)
40 LFA: the Matrix
41 LFA: the Matrix If-then causality IF adequate resources are provided, THEN activities can be undertaken; IF the activities are undertaken, THEN results can be produced; IF results are produced, THEN the purpose will be achieved; IF the purpose is achieved, THEN this should contribute towards the overall objective.
42 Overall objective (1) An overall objective describes the anticipated long term objective towards which the project will contribute (not necessarily achieve). It refers to a broad policy-level target at a national or sectoral level.
43 Overall objective (2) Ensure that the overall objective is consistent with the development policy of the country is consistent with the donor's policy guidelines represents a sufficient justification for the project is not too ambitious target groups are explicitly defined is expressed as a desired end, not as a process is expressed in verifiable terms
44 Purpose / Specific Objective (1) The purpose describes the intended effects of the project for the direct beneficiaries as a precisely stated future condition. A common problem is that the purpose is too ambitious, unclear or complex.
45 Purpose / Specific Objective (2) Once the puropse has been defined, assure that it consists of one single objective the target groups of the project are specified it can be expected to contribute significantly to the fulfillment of the goal it is realistic = likely to occur at the end of the project it is outside the immediate control of the project itself it is formulated as a desired state, not a process it is precisely and verifiably defined
46 Purpose / Specific Objective (3) The specific objective is not a sum of results. It is the consequence of results.
47 Results (1) Results refers to the direct results/outputs (goods and services) that the project delivers. Results are largely under project management's control. Common difficulty to distinguish objectives and results from each other.
48 Results (2) Once the results have been identified, ensure that: all essential outputs necessary for achieving the purpose are included only the results which can be guaranteed by the project can be included each result can be seen as a means to achieve the purpose all results are feasible within the resources available the results are precisely and verifiably defined.
49 Activities (1) Activities are the tasks that need to be carried out to deliver the planned results. For each result there will be one or more activities.
50 Activities (2) Once activities are described, ensure that: all essential activities necessary to produce the anticipated results are included all activities contribute directly to the output level above only activities performed by the project are included activities are stated as actions being undertaken rather than completed outputs the time available for each activity is realistic the activities are appropriate to the situation in the country (culture, technology, ecology, gender)
51 Assumptions (1) Assumptions describe situations, events, conditions or decisions which are necessary for project success, but which are largely or completely beyond the control of the project management.
52 Assumptions (2) Important assumptions: can be derived from the objectives tree are formulated as positive conditions are linked to the different levels in the matrix are weighted according to the importance and probability
53 Assumptions (3) Once the assumptions have been formulated, ensure that: they are formulated as desirable, positive conditions they are linked to the correct project level assumptions which are not important are not included assumptions which are very likely to occur are not included if there are assumptions which are both important and unlikely to occur (killer assumptions) the project should either be redisigned to avoid them or abandoned the remaining assumptions are precisely and verifiably defined
54 Assumptions (4)
55 Indicators (1) An indicator defines the performance standard to be reached in order to achieve the objective. Indicators provide a basis for monitoring and evaluation during project execution.
56 Indicators (2) The Objectively Verifiable Indicator (OVI) means that the information collected should be the same if collected by different people. Sources of Verification (SOV) refers to the means which are used to collect and verify the information.
57 Indicators (3) Indicators should specify: target group (for whom) quantity (how much) quality (how well) time (by when) location (where)
58 Indicators (4) Example: Literacy rate among 15 to 25-year-old women has increased in four towns of the Chipata region from 40% to 85% by 2008.
59 Indicators (5) A good indicator is SMART: Specific to the objective it is supposed to measure Measurable Available at an accepted cost Relevant to the information needs of managers Time-bound to know when we can expect the target to be achieved
60 Indicators (6) Avoid the trap of including too many indicators! (1-3 per intervention logic level. NOTE: Main emphasise on results!) Guiding principle: minimum amount of information required to help project managers and evaluators determine whether objectives are being/have been achieved.
61 Indicators (7) The starting level of the indicator must be definded for the beginning of the project. Otherwise the change can not be measured. If the starting level is not available, redefine the indicator. The starting level can be analysed with a baseline study (remember to budget if not done before application).
62 Overall objective: Impact Intervention logic Indicators Baseline The broader, long-term change which will stem from the project and a number of interventions by other partners. The Logical Framework Matrix Measure the longterm change to which the project contributes. To be presented disaggregated by sex. (incl. reference year) Ideally, to be drawn from the partner's strategy Current value Reference date Targets (incl. reference year) Ideally, to be drawn from the partner's strategy Sources and means of verification To be drawn from the partner's strategy. Assumptions Specific objective(s): Outcome(s) The direct effects of the project which will be obtained at medium term and which tend to focus on the changes in behaviour resulting from project Outcome = Oc (Oc 1; Oc 2; etc.) Measure the change in factors determining the outcome(s). To be presented disaggregated by sex The starting point or current value of the indicators. The value of the indicator at the indicated date The intended value of the indicators. Sources of information and methods used to collect and report (including who and when/how frequently). Factors outside project management's control that may impact on the outcome-impact linkage. Outputs The direct/tangible outputs (infrastructure, goods and services) delivered by the project. Outcome = Oc Op 1.1. (related to Oc 1) Op 1.2. (related to Oc 1) ( ) Measure the degree of delivery of the outputs. To be presented disaggregated by sex. Idem as above for the corresponding indicators. Idem as above for the corresponding indicators. Idem as above for the corresponding indicator. Factors outside project management's control that may impact on the output-outcome linkage. Op 2.1. (related to Oc 2) ( )
63 Indicators (8) Indicators should be designed and chosen together with the stakeholders and partners of the project to assure common grounds on what is being measured with the indicators: what kinds of values are highlighted? that previous experiences are taken into consideration unanimity and ownership of the appropriate indicators, sources of verification and cost-benefit
64 Indicators (9) Once indicators have been specified, ensure that: they are specific the means of verification is available, if not, it must be generated at a reasonable cost it is relevant as a measurement of the achievement of objectives the means of verification is reliable and up-to-date the collection, preparation and storage of information in an activity within the project
65 Indicators (10) Indicators can be quantitative or qualitative. Use both kinds, as they are complementary. Quantitative: e.g. Number of, frequency of, % of etc. Qualitative: e.g. Presence of, quality of, extent of, level of etc.
66 Qualitative Indicators A qualitative indicator can not be counted, but is always evaluated. A qualitative indicator is reliable if questions of the evaluation have been well planned and directed analysis and interpretation are open processes
67 Examples of indicators Expected result: The level of knowledge about the innovative farming methods has increased among men and women Quantitative indicator: the number of women and men participated in training activities during the project Source of verification: attendance lists of trainings Qualitative indicator: the attitudes & knowledge of men & women towards innovative methods at the beginning and end of project Source of verification: interviews with men & women of the community at the beginning and end of project
68 Sources of Verification Is the information available? Does the info need to be collected separately? Who collects it? Is the information reliable? How will it be collected? How often? How will it be analysed?
69 Sources of Verification A source of verification can be e.g.: Official statistics Interviews Research results Reports (also project reports) Monthly/bi-annual etc. surveys
70 Project logic WHY and by WHOM is the project needed? PROBLEMS BENEFICIARIES WHAT improvement will the project bring? HOW to measure the improvement? WHAT to do? HOW the results will be achieved? OVERALL OBJECTIVE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE Indicators RESULTS Indicators ACTIVITIES WHAT resources are needed? MEANS