APPENDIX H CONVERSION FACTORS


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1 APPENDIX H CONVERSION FACTORS A ampere American Association of State AASHTO Highway & Transportation Officials ABS (%) Percent of Absorbed Moisture Abs. Vol. Absolute Volume ACI American Concrete Institute AE AirEntrained AEA AirEntrained Admixture aggr. Aggregate AMP ampere Are 100 m 2 ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials bbls. Barrels (Measurement of Cement) c centi (102 ) C. A. Coarse Aggregate cem. cement C. F. Cement Factor conc. Concrete cu cubic cu. ft. cubic foot cu. ft. 3 cubic feet cu. in. cubic inch cu. in 3 cubic inches c. y. cubic yard d deci (101 ) da deka (10) deg., degree dm decimeter (metric) dm 2 ; dm 3 eq equal ex example F Fahrenheit F. A. Fine Aggregate Ft. Foot or Feet F. M. Fineness Modulus g. gram (metric) h hecto (102 ) ha hectare In. inch(es); in. 2 in. 3 k kilo (10 3 ) K. Kelvin (absolute scale of temperature) kg. kilogram (metric) kg/m 3 kilograms per cubic meter thousand (kilo) pounds kip (structural) km kilometer (metric); km 2 ; km 3 kw Kilowatt(s) kwh kilowatt hour L Liter (metric) lb. pound lb. ft. poundfoot lb./ft. 2 pounds per square foot Abbreviations lb.in. poundinch lb/in 2 pounds per square inch lin. foot linear foot m meter (metric); milli (102 ) m 2 square meter m 3 cubic meter m. mass M Mega (10 6 ) max maximum mg milligram (metric) ml milliliter (metric) mm millimeter (metric) Mg Megagram (metric ton) mpa MegaPascal Mat ls Materials min. minimum mod. modified n Nano (109 ) oz ounce(s) Pa Pascal PCA Portland Cement Association pcf pounds per cubic foot psi pounds per square inch sp. gr. specific gravity (density) SI system international (metric system) SSD Saturated Surface Dry sq. square, as in sq. yd. sq. ft., ft 2 square foot or feet sq. in., in 2 square inch or inches t metric ton VDOT Virginia Department of Transportation VTM Virginia Test Methods W/C Water/Cement ratio wt. weight yd. yard yd 2 sq. yd. square yard(s) yd 3 cu. yd. cubic yard(s) H1
2 Signs and Symbols + plus, or more than  minus, or less than ± plus or minus Feet Inches > is greater than < is less than is greater than or equal to is less than or equal to # number, if before a figure; pounds if after a figure / per, as kg/sq.ft.; of; after; to; upon; proportion 123 superior figures (exponents) indicate the power to which a given number is to be raised, as 12 2 (squared), 10 3 (cubed) degree; F degree Fahrenheit; C degree Celsius % Percent µ micro (106) H2
3 Temperature Conversion Table To convert from degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit or vice versa, the following formulas may be used: F = 9/5 (C + 32) C = 5/9 (F  32) The following table may be used for quick conversion of temperatures in the most common working ranges. The numbers in the center of each column refer to temperatures in either degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. In the center, find the known temperature, and the corresponding Celsius or Fahrenheit temperatures is then found at the sides. C F C F Metric unit of temperature = Kelvin (K) = C (The terms Celsius and Centigrade have the same meaning, but Celsius is the preferred term.) H3
4 U. S. A. Standard Sieve Series Standard Sieve Designation Alternative Nominal Sieve Opening, In. 50 mm 2 in mm 1 ½ in mm 1 ¼ in mm 1 in mm ¾ in mm 5/8 in mm ½ in mm 3/8 in mm 5/16 in mm ¼ in mm No mm No mm No mm No mm No mm No mm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No µm No H4
5 Weights and Measures (English and Metric) Metric Units Metric Prefixes Length = meter m 10 9 = 1,000,000,000 = giga = G Mass = kilogram kg 10 6 = 1,000,000 = mega =M Time = second s 10 3 = 1,000 = kilo = k Electric Current = ampere A 101 = 0.1 = deci = d Thermodynamic Temperature = Kelvin K 102 = 0.01 = centi = c Amount of Substances = mole mol 103 = = milli = m Luminous Intensity = candela cd 106 = 0.000,001 = micro = µ Conversion Tables Metric to Inchpound Inchpound to Metric Linear Measure 1 m = in. 1 in. = meters 1 m = in. 1 ft. = meters 1 km = mile 1 mile = kilometers Surface Measure ( 1 hectare = 10,000 square meters) 1 mm 2 = in 2 1 in 2 = mm 2 1 cm 2 = in 2 1 in 2 = cm 2 1 dm 2 = ft 2 1 ft 2 = dm 2 1 m 2 = ft 2 1 ft 2 = m 2 1 m 2 = yd 2 1 yd 2 = m 2 1 hectare = acres 1 acre = hectares 1 hectare = mi 2 1 mi 2 = hectares Volume Measure 1 cm 3 = in 3 1 in 3 = cm 3 1 dm 3 = ft 3 1 ft 3 = dm 3 1 m 3 = yd 3 1 yd 3 = m 3 Mass (Weight) Measure 1 g = oz. 1 oz.= g 1 g = lb. 1 lb. = g 1 kg. = lb. 1 lb.= kg 1 metric ton = net ton (2000 lb. ton) 1 net ton = metric tons H5
6 Liquid Measure 1 L = oz. 1 oz. = L 1 L = qt. 1 qt. = L 1 L = gal. 1 gal. = L 1 m 3 = gal. 1 gal. = m 3 Force & Stress Measure 1 N (Newton) = lb. (f) 1 lb. (f) = N 1 N/m = lb/ft 1 lb/ft = N/m 1 Pa (Pascal) = psi 1 psi = 6, Pa 1 kpa = psi 1 psi = kpa 1 mpa = psi 1 psi = mpa 1 Pa = psf 1 psf = Pa 1 kg/m 3 = lb/ft 3 1 lb/ft 3 = kg/m 3 1 kg/m 3 = lb/yd 3 1 lb/yd 3 = kg/m 3 H6
7 Lineal Meters Covered by One Metric Ton at Various Application Rates Rate of Width of Application Application (Meters) (kg/m 2 ) Note: For rates of application other than 100 kg/m 2, divide lineal meters per metric ton for 100 kg/ m 2 by one hundredth of rate of application. Example: Rate of application = 125 kg/m 2. Width of application = 3.6 meters 2.78/1.25 = 2.22 meters / metric ton H7
8 Distance in Meters Covered by 1000 Liters Application Rate (Liters per Square Meter) Width of Spread (Meters) H8
9 Reinforcing Steel ASTM Standard Reinforcing Bars Nominal Nominal Dimensions Round Sections Bar Size Mass Diameter Cross Sectional Perimeter Designation (kg/m) (mm) Area (mm 2 ) (mm) # # # # # # # # # # H9
10
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