Document for decision making or accompaniment of a project?

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1 Environmental Impact Assessment Manifest: Document for decision making or accompaniment of a project? Norma Fernández-Buces y Sergio López-Noriega Environmental Consultants, Mexico

2 Some regulatory background Environmental legislation : Federal State Municipal levels of government. All infrastructure projects are required to apply for and obtain: Environmental impact authorization and a land use permit. Environmental Impact Manifest (EIM) Document deals with: the impacts of construction and operation, the environmental mitigation, control and compensation measures to the satisfaction of authorities having environmental jurisdiction.

3 Situation E.I.M efficient procedure for evaluating and authorizing a project Points out: detailed project properties, landscape features, Estimated construction and operational impacts, proposed mitigation and compensation measures EIM for infrastructure projects in Mexico : Considers project design in its final stages little or almost none modification will be technically or economically accepted by promoter.

4 Problem Consequences Under the actual procedure, projects are forced into the environment seeking that most of its impacts can be reduced or restored, but little is done to AVOID such damage by selecting best environmental options for project location and attributes. EIM demands detailed project information only available when project is ready to be constructed EIA is being used as a decision aiding tool, rather than decision making tool for a YES/NO of a project SCOPING SCREENING PUBLIC PARTICIPATION It should be also used as a project definition and designing tool, as well.

5 Results Successful Experiences: Secretariat of Communications and Transportation in Mexico (SCT) Case 1: Route selection of highway Guadalajara-Colima, section: Atenquique Tonilá, Colima, Mexico. Case 2: Route selection of highway Compostela Puerto Vallarta, Nayarit, Mexico. Case 3: Modification of a bridge project design to cope with the flood plain of the Ameca s river in Nayarit and Jalisco.

6 Case 1:

7 Case 1: Route selection of highway Guadalajara-Colima Section: Atenquique Tonilá, Colima, Mexico. Aim: Search for the road alternative which will imply less environmental problems and therefore, a faster response by the environmental authorities. EIM included: An environmental feasibility analysis (a GIS and multivariate statistics based study).

8 METHOD Decision making base: Site quality map A. Environmental system delimitation (regionalization); B. Identification of 89 landscape units (GIS, Quick bird). C. Indicative variables qualified 1-6 on each l.u. (field/desk; standardized criteria). D. PCA of Site quality matrix for variable reduction and variance estimation. E. Cluster analysis to define 7 multivariate quality classes; a site quality map of 89 l.u. F. Best route options were those crossing larger surfaces of low site quality (GIS) SITE QUIALITY MATRIX 1. coverture, 2. dominant successional stage, 3. vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation, 4. diversity, 5. number of species under law protection, 6. habitat quality for food and reproduction, 7. soil depth, 8. type of soil 9. Soil structure, 10. erosion, 11. presence of human productive activities or infrastructure, 12. presence of other roads

9 LANDSCAPE UNITS DEFINITION OF STUDY SITE AND LANDSCAPE UNITS Group Observed species Hidrology Geology Species protected by NOM-059 Species reported for the state of Jalisco Observed species/total species reported for Jalisco (%) Amphibians Reptiles Birds 53 Soils Mammals Vegetation and 5 Total Land Use 9 Fauna

10 LANDSCAPE UNITS Other Aspects 89 LANDSCAPE UNITS Protected Areas Altern 1 Altern 2 Altern 3 Altern 4 Altern 5 Altern 6 Altern 7 Altern 8 ANP (Volcán Nevado de km km km 9.50 km 9.5 km 9.5 km 9.5 km 9.5 km Colima) El Platanar RTP (Manantlán-Nevado de 9.70 km 9.42 km 8.49 km Colima) Population opposing the RHP (Chapala-Cajititlánproject km km km km km km km km Sayula) AICA (Nevado de ColimA) km km km km km km km km Ecological Ordinance of Jalisco Protected Areas Socio economical trends Project opposition

11 LANDSCAPE UNITS MAP Integral Multivariate Site Quality Index

12 REGR factor score 1 for analysis 4 MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS Integrated Site quality map PCA First 3 Components = % variance REGR factor score 2 for analysis REGR factor score 3 for analysis Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 % of variance Cumulative % of variance accounted for % % % % CLUSTER ANALISYS Non hierarchical Clustering of landscape polygons helped group landscape units within 7 integrated Site quality classes

13 ROUTE SELECTION Site quality Alt. 12 Sup. (ha) Alt.1 Sup. (ha) Alt. 11 Sup. (ha) Alt. 3 Sup. (ha) Alt. 5 Sup. (ha) Alt. 6 Sup. (ha) Alt. 13 Sup. (ha) Alt. 14 Sup. (ha) Alt. 15 Sup. (ha) Very Low Low Moderate 1.35 Medium Medium- High High Very high Total All of the alternatives cross medium to medium-high quality sites, but alternatives 3, 5, 6, 13, 14 and 15 will affect less surfaces of such quality. None of the nine alternatives crossed through sites with high to very high quality

14 Case study 1: conclusion After this analysis, jointly with the SCT we concluded that alternative 15, would be the best route choice for the project and resulted in the chosen option for impact evaluation on the E.I. Manifest. The rest of the EIA study was done on a known basis of environmental feasibility, which in the long run will be reflected in a faster and probably positive resolution from the environmental authorities.

15 Case 2:

16 Case 2: Route selection of highway Compostela Puerto Vallarta, Nayarit, Mexico. Aim: Route selection which will reduce habitat fragmentation (jaguars). EIM included: Landscape fragmentation evaluation considering fractal dimension 1 (a GIS based study). 1 Following Forman, Richard T.T Land Mosaics: The ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge, Louisiana No. United 104, Kingdom: Col. Nápoles, Cambridge Del. Benito Juárez, CP University Press.

17 STUDY SITE IMPORTANCE

18 METHOD This project crosses land of very high importance for fauna (Jaguar) conservation along the coast of Nayarit. Three possible routes were proposed by the SCT for the EIM: A, B, 0.

19 METHOD GIS fragmentation of study surface using all types of existing roads. Poligons defined above topographic line of 200 m.s.n.m 252 polygons were identified

20 METHOD Habitat fragmentation reduces native vegetation surfaces, increases human penetration and border effect, as each one of the small fragments have their own border (figure 1). Figure 1: Increase in border effect with road fragmentation. Fractal dimension value higher than 1 was considered as an increasing border effect on the landscape unit Border effect was estimated considering fractal dimension measurement following Forman (1999) using the perimeter/area relationship (Fd=log P/log A).

21 Case study 2: Results and Conclusion Fractal dimension intervals Border effect Present day Alternative 0 Alternative A Alternative B FD <0.631 None FD >0.631< FD >.730< FD >0.829<0.862 Low FD >0.862<0.927 FD >0.927<1.100 Medium FD >1.100<1.490 FD >1.490 lim 2.0 High 1 1 Number of total landscape units (polygons) Increase in fragmentation 5.95% 4.37% 2.78% After several meetings with the SCT, selected route was alternative A. This implied a gain of 5, ha of jaguar land for conservation. The EIA manifest was done considering the impacts and mitigation measures on this alternative and project was approved by authorities. 5, Hectares

22 Case 3:

23 Case 3: Modification of bridge project design to cope with the flood plain of the Ameca river in Nayarit and Jalisco. Aim: Re-define bridge length based on field evidence, as original project did not considered climate change. Modified chapter II in EIM : A new bridge design was proposed.

24 SITUATION SCT contracted an EIA manifest for a 200m bridge, connect two dead-end roads in the municipalities of Bahia de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta, allowing heavy trucks to cross the Ameca river instead of crossing by Puerto Vallarta. While doing EIA field work, evidence of a wider flood plain was observed and project adjustment had to be done in coordination with the promoter (SCT). 200 m

25 RESULTS Flood plain Upper terrace Original bridge Lower terrace The flood plain on this part of the Ameca river, is now much wider than 200m, possibly due to climate change. In several meetings with the SCT authorities, the projected bridge design and size was modified in order to guarantee the safety of users and the structure.

26 Case study RESULTS 3: Conclusion The final EIA manifest considered the 434 m long bridge and the environmental impacts and mitigation measures needed. A new 434 m long bridge was designed. EIA was done considering the new bridge.

27 Final Conclusions Does impact assessment practice lead to responsible development for infrastructure? We can say that the EIA Manifest, as the initial part of such practice, must be considered as an accompaniment tool for the design and definition of road projects, not only as an evaluation document for authorization, as it customarily is done in Mexico. A more environmentally adequate project, as well as a project with less social resistance makes it easier for decision makers to authorize such projects. Also less money needs to be invested in mitigation, as prevention measures and road design modifications were preferred.

28 Recomendations Modification of law articles and EIM guidelines so that EIA will be done at the before final project stages Artículo 3 Fr. XX.- Manifestación del impacto ambiental: El documento mediante el cual se da a conocer, con base en estudios, el impacto ambiental, significativo y potencial que generaría una obra o actividad, así como la forma de evitarlo o atenuarlo en caso de que sea negativo, CON EL FIN DE DEFINIR EL PROYECTO DEFINITIVO DE LA OBRA O ACTIVIDAD. ARTÍCULO 28.- La evaluación del impacto ambiental es el procedimiento a través del cual la Secretaría establece las condiciones a que se sujetará la realización de obras y actividades que puedan causar desequilibrio ecológico o rebasar los límites y condiciones establecidos en las disposiciones aplicables para proteger el ambiente y preservar y restaurar los ecosistemas, a fin de evitar o reducir al mínimo sus efectos negativos sobre el medio ambiente. Para ello, en los casos en que determine el Reglamento que al efecto se expida, quienes pretendan llevar a cabo alguna de las siguientes obras o actividades, requerirán PRESENTAR LOS ESTUDIOS DE IMPACTO AMBIENTAL DE SUS ANTEPROYECTOS QUE CONCLUYAN CON EL PLANTEAMIENTO DEFINITIVO DEL PROYECTO, para su autorización en materia de impacto ambiental de la Secretaría:

29 AKNOWLEDGMENTS Ing. Diana Hernandez from the SCT, for her valuable comments and support in the realization of several EIA manifest projects of this Secretariat. M.Sc. Oswaldo Gomez. Atenquique-Tonila project coordinator. M. Sc.Teresa Flores. Ameca river project coordinator. SIG department of our company.

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