ANSWER KEY Representing Bonding using Lewis Dot Structures

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1 ANSWER KEY Representing Bonding using Lewis Dot Structures The diagram below shows the electrons for the first 20 elements as Bohr Models which show the electrons that are in each energy level of the elements. Notice that they are listed in this diagram in their respective families. Remember that the electrons in the outermost energy level (shell) are the valence electrons. The first 20 elements are in this diagram according to their representative groups which correspond to the common number of valence electrons. For example, H, Li, Na and K all have 1 valence electron. The number of valence electrons increases by one as you move from left to right across this diagram, just like for the Groups 1A through 8A on the Periodic Table. Notice that the transition metals have been omitted (left out) of this diagram. But, there s another way to represent and use this information. Lewis Dot Structures are an easy way to represent the valence electrons of an atom.

2 Valence electrons are those electrons that are found in the outermost shell (the last shell or energy level) of an atom. A fast way to determine the number of valence electrons for a given element is to look at the group (within the periodic table). Within a group, the number of valence electrons remains the same. For example, Hydrogen, Lithium, and Sodium all have 1 valence electron. Fluorine, Chlorine, and Bromine have 7 valence electrons. In a dot diagram, only the symbol for the element and the electrons in its outermost energy level (valence electrons) are shown (See the chart below for Lewis Dot Structures for the first 20 elements) Here is an example of how to draw Lewis Dot structures for Chlorine and Carbon Notice the number of dots corresponds to the number of valence electrons for each element. STOP! Get a copy of the Lewis Dot Structure chart from Mrs. Sparks. Fill out the Lewis dot structures for the first 20 elements. Use your color coded periodic table to help you complete it and then check your answers. Now look at the chart you created and compare it with the Energy Level Model (Bohr Model) chart above and answer these 2 questions: 1. Compare the dots around each symbol with the energy levels in your chart. What relationship do you notice between the dots in these two charts? The dots on the Lewis Dot diagram are only the valence electrons the same number of electrons in the outer shell of the Energy level model diagrams.

3 2. The number of dots near hydrogen and helium are the same in the Lewis Dot diagram as in the energy level chart. Why? Because He and H only have 1 energy levels, so their valence electrons is the same as the total number of electrons. Learning Goal: To recognize the similarities between energy level models (Bohr Models) and Lewis dot structures that show covalent bonding Covalent Bonding of Hydrogen These images below show both the energy level model and Lewis dot structure of two hydrogen atoms before and after bonding. In the dot diagrams (on the bottom), the electrons that are shared in the bond are placed between the symbol for each atom. The electrons between the two atoms are shared (covalent) and are counted as belonging to each atom. In the energy level models (on the top) for the hydrogen molecule, two electrons are shared. The Lewis dot diagram for the hydrogen molecule also shows that two electrons are shared. There is an even more shorthand approach that shows the bond as a line. The line represents one pair of electrons. Covalent Bonding in Water:

4 See the diagram of the atoms that make up a water molecule below. Notice that the number of dots around the oxygen atom in the Lewis diagram (on the bottom) is the same as the number of electrons in the outer energy level of the energy level model (on the top).the electrons between the atoms are shared and are counted as if they belong to each atom. Look at the two diagrams of the the water molecules below. The energy level model (top 2 diagrams below) for the water molecule, two pairs of electrons are shared. The Lewis dot diagram for the water molecule (bottom 2 diagrams below) also shows that two pairs of electrons are shared. The diagrams above represent the same bond. Notice that the diagram on the right has lines instead of two dots between O and H. The line represents one pair of shared electrons. Covalent Bonding in Oxygen

5 The energy level model for the oxygen molecule, two pairs of electrons are shared. The Lewis dot diagram for the oxygen molecule also shows that two pairs of electrons are shared. The remaining electrons are shown. In the alternate Lewis dot diagram, there are two lines because there are two pairs of electrons that are shared. In the alternate Lewis dot diagram, there are two lines because there are two pairs of electrons that are shared. Now you try it out.grab a piece of paper and follow along below. Covalent Bonds in Carbon Dioxide: Here are the energy level models and Lewis dot diagrams for the atoms that make up Carbon Dioxide. Use these diagrams to help draw the bonds yourself. In the energy level model for carbon dioxide, two pairs of electrons are shared with each oxygen atom. Draw the energy level model for Carbon Dioxide.

6 The Lewis dot diagram for carbon dioxide also shows that two pairs of electrons are shared. The remaining electrons are shown paired up around each oxygen atom. Draw the Lewis dot diagram for Carbon Dioxide. In the alternate Lewis dot diagram, there are two lines between each atom to show that two pairs of electrons are shared. Draw the alternate Lewis dot diagram showing pairs of electrons shared as lines instead of 2 dots for Carbon Dioxide.

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