What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element

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1 Date: Science Atomic Theory & Bonding What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element An atom = proton(s) + electron(s) + neutron(s) (PEN) Fun Fact: 50 million atoms, lined up end-to-end = 1 cm

2 An ELEMENT is made up of one type of atom The element, oxygen, is O IONS are atoms with a charge. The ion of oxygen is O 2- Atoms can join together to form MOLECULES. The oxygen molecules are O 2 COMPOUNDS are made up of 2 or more atoms Hydrogen and oxygen are atoms/elements H 2 O is a compound

3 Periodic Table & Ion Formation: Atoms gain and lose electrons to form ions Metals lose electrons & become positive ions (cations) Some metals can have more than one charge (multivalent) ie. Iron, Fe, loses either 2 (Fe 2+ ) or 3 (Fe 3+ ) electrons Non-metals gain electrons & become negative ions (anions) Atoms do this in an attempt to have the same number of valence electrons as the nearest noble gas to become stable

4 Bonding Types: When two atoms get close together, their valence electrons interact. Covalent Bonds (the sharing bond): Formed between two or more non-metals Electrons are shared between atoms + Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen Fluorine Electrons are shared

5 Ionic Bonds (the giving bond): Metals give electrons to non-metals (transfer of electrons) cations (+ ions) and anions (- ions) form For example, lithium and oxygen form an ionic bond in the compound Li 2 O + Lithium Oxygen Electrons are transferred from the cations to the anion Li + O 2- Li + Lithium oxide, Li 2 O

6 Lewis Diagrams: Like simplified Bohr diagrams Only valence electrons are shown Dots representing electrons are placed around the element symbols (on 4 sides, imagine a box around the symbol) Electron dots are placed singularly, until the fifth electron is reached, then they are paired. Example: Nitrogen atom

7 Lewis Diagrams: Note: the Lewis diagrams are the same (except for the symbols) for elements in the same family because they have the same number of valence electrons

8 Lewis Diagrams for Ions: For positive ions: one electron dot is removed from the valence shell for each positive charge of the ion. For negative ions: one electron dot is added to each valence shell for each negative charge of the ion. Square brackets and the charge are placed around each ion Example: Nitrogen ion

9 Lewis Diagrams For Ionic Bonds: Be Cl Each beryllium has two electrons to transfer away, and each chlorine wants one more electron Cl Be Cl Since Be 2+ wants to donate 2 electrons and each Cl wants to accept only one, two Cl ions are necessary Cl 2+ Be Cl The ionic compound Beryllium chloride is formed

10 Lewis Diagrams For Covalent Bonds: valence electrons are drawn to show sharing of electrons. Remember: All atoms like to have a full valence shell The shared pairs ( bonding pairs ) of electrons are usually drawn as a straight line lone pairs are the electrons not shared

11 Structure of an Atom: The nucleus is at the centre of an atom composed of protons (positive charge) and neutrons (neutral charge) Electrons (negative charge) exist in the space surrounding the nucleus

12 Subatomic Particles: Atoms are made up of smaller particles known as sub-atomic particles. Name Symbol Charge Location Atomic Mass Proton p 1+ nucleus 1 AMU Neutron n 0 nucleus 1 AMU Electron e 1 area surrounding the nucleus 1/1836 (0)

13 Numbers to Remember : # of protons = # of electrons in every atom AND ONLY IN ATOMS!!! (not ions) Nuclear charge = charge on the nucleus = # of protons Atomic number = # of protons = # of electrons in atoms

14 Families of the Periodic Table: Columns of elements are called groups, or families All elements in a family have similar properties bond with other elements in similar ways have the same number of valence electrons Family names (on the periodic table!): Group 1 = alkali metals Group 2 = alkaline earth metals Group 17 = the halogens Group 18 = noble gases Periods are horizontal rows on the periodic table

15 INCREASING REACTIVITY Where are the following? Atomic Number Period Group/Family Metals Non-metals Transition metals Metalloids Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Halogens Noble gases

16 Bohr Diagrams: Bohr diagrams show how many electrons appear in each electron shell around an atom. Each shell holds a maximum number of electrons (2, 8, 8, 18, 18) Electrons in the outermost shell are called valence electrons Except for the transition elements, the last digit of the group # = # of valence electrons Note: Think of the shells as being 3D like spheres, not 2D like circles!

17 Bohr Diagrams What element is this? It has = 18 electrons, and therefore 18 protons It has 8 electrons in the outer (valence) shell 18 p 22 n Argon!

18 Bohr Diagrams for the first 20 elements Note: The noble gas elements have full electron shells, and are very stable.

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