8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration

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1 Metabolism Cellular Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Aerobic cellular respiration requires oxygen, produces carbon dioxide Blood vessel Electrons transferred by Electrons transferred by Cytoplasm Anaerobic Fermentation does not require oxygen Carrier protein Glucose Plasma membrane Glycolysis glucose pyruvate Transition Reaction Electrons transferred by and FADH2 Citric Electron Acid Transport Cycle Chain Oxygen Mitochondrion Extracellular fluid +2 ATP +2 ATP +32 ATP 36 ATP Figure 3.27 Aerobic Cellular respiration In aerobic cellular respiration cells take in sugar (glucose) and breaks it down to into carbon dioxide and water, this requires oxygen. This process produces energy in the form of ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 +6H 2 O + Energy Aerobic Cellular respiration There are four steps of aerobic cellular respiration: 1. Glycolysis 2. Transition Reaction 3. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) 4. Electron Transport Chain 1

2 Cellular Respiration - Glycolysis Phase 1: Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm Splits one glucose into two pyruvate molecules Generates a net gain of 2 ATP and 2 molecules Does not require oxygen and FADH 2 are important carriers of electrons Cellular Respiration - Glycolysis Glycolysis Glycolysis (in cytoplasm) Starts with glucose Cytoplasm Ends with 2 ATP, 2, 2 pyruvate During the first steps, two molecules of ATP are consumed in preparing glucose for splitting. 2 ATP Glucose During the remaining Energy- steps, four molecules investment phase 2 ADP of ATP are produced. 4 ADP 4 ATP The two molecules of pyruvate then diffuse from the cytoplasm into the inner compartment of the mitochondrion, where they pass through a few preparatory steps (the transition reaction) before entering the citric acid cycle. 2 Pyruvate Energyyielding 2 phase 2 Two molecules of nicotine adenine dinucleotide (), a carrier of high-energy electrons, also are produced. Figure

3 Cellular Respiration Transition Reaction Phase 2: Transition reaction In Cytosol Occurs within the mitochondria Coenzyme A combines with pyruvate and CO 2 is removed from each pyruvate Forms 2 acetyl CoA molecules Produces 2 Transition Reaction Transition Reaction Transition Reaction (in mitochondrion) Start with: 2 pyruvate (3 carbon molecules) 2 Coenzyme A End with: 2 CO Acetyl CoA (2 carbon molecule) Pyruvate (from glycolysis) One carbon (in the form of CO 2) is removed from pyruvate. A molecule of is formed when gains two electrons and one proton. CO2 Coenzyme A (electron passes The two-carbon to electron molecule, called transport chain) an acetyl group, binds to coenzyme A (CoA), forming CoA acetyl CoA, Acetyl CoA which enters the citric acid cycle. Citric Acid Cycle Figure 3.24 Cellular Respiration Citric acid cycle Citric Acid Cycle Phase 3: Citric acid cycle Occurs in the mitochondria Acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle Releases 2 ATP, 2 FADH 2 and 6, 4 CO 2 molecules Requires oxygen Also called the Krebs Cycle Start with 2 Acetyl CoA End with: 4 CO 2 2 ATP 6 and 2 FADH 2 3

4 Citric Acid Cycle Cellular Respiration Citric Acid Cycle (in mitochondrion) Acetyl CoA, the tw o-carbon compound formed during the transition reaction, enters the citric acid The citric acid cycle also cycle. yields several molecules of FADH 2 and, carriers of high-energy electrons that Acetyl CoA enter the electron transport CoA chain. CoA Oxaloacetate Citrate CO 2 leaves cycle Malate Citric Acid Cycle FADH2 ATP ADP + Pi FAD Phase 4: Electron transport chain Electrons of FADH 2 and are transferred from one protein to another, until they reach oxygen Releases energy that results in 32 ATP Requires oxygen Succinate -Ketoglutarate CO 2 leaves cycle The citric acid cycle yields One ATP from each acetyl CoA that enters the cycle, for a net gain of tw o ATP. Figure 3.25 The Big Pay Off Electron Transport Chain The Big Pay Off Electron Transport Chain and FADH 2 are important carriers of electrons Electron Transport Chain produces ATP using the ATP synthase protein molecule They donate electrons to the electron transport chain The Electron Transport Chain produces 32 ATP At the end of the chain oxygen accepts the electrons. Electron Transport Chain Electron Transport Chain (inner membrane of mitochondrion) The molecules of and FADH2 produced by earlier phases of cellular respiration pass their electrons to a series of protein molecules embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. High As the electrons are transferred from one protein to the next, energy is released and used to make ATP. Potential energy FADH2 FAD Membrane proteins Eventually, the electrons are passed to oxygen, which combines with two hydrogens to form water. H2O Low Energy released is used for synthesis of ATP 2 H O2 Figure

5 How is ATP made using the ETC 1. In the mitochondria, the and FADH donate electrons to the electron transport chain (ETC) 2. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor from the ETC 3. The ETC uses the energy from the electrons to transport H + against the concentration gradient, transporting them from the lumen of the mitochondria to the intermembrane space. How is ATP made using the ETC 4. The ATPsynthase transports the H + back to the lumen of the mitochondria. 5. The H + falling through the ATPsynthase provides the energy for the ATPsynthase to catalyze the reaction of ADP + P ATP Table 3.5 One molecule of glucose is broken down and 36 ATP are generated. Glycolysis: Starts the process by taking in glucose. Produces 2 ATP Oxygen is used by the electron transport chain it accepts electrons from the ETC The Transition Reaction produces CO 2 and Carbon dioxide is produced by the Transition Reaction and the Citric acid cycle The Citric acid cycle: Produces 2 ATP but also produces lots of and FADH 2. Produces CO 2. 5

6 Electron transport chain Takes electrons from and FADH 2 and uses them to produce ATP using the ATP synthase molecule. Requires oxygen. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor on the electron transport chain Complex Carbohydrates must first be broken down into glucose before entering glycolysis Fats and proteins enter the process at different steps One glucose can produce a total of 36 ATP Oxygen Cellular respiration requires oxygen this is aerobic cellular respiration Sometimes organisms, including humans, need to produce energy without using oxygen When you need energy quick, or if there is not enough O 2 then the cell will use only glycolysis Anaerobic Fermentation Breakdown of glucose without oxygen Takes place entirely in the cytoplasm It is very inefficient - results in only two ATP Anaerobic Fermentation Fermentation in Animals Anaerobic Fermentation: Anaerobic pathway to produce ATP from glycolysis without the Krebs and ETC When cells need energy quick they will use this pathway for a short time 2 pyruvic acid lactate and 2 End result = lactate and 2 ATP produced (from glycolysis) and is regenerated 6

7 Important Concepts Read Ch 4 What is Cellular respiration and Anaerobic Fermentation and what are the differences between them. What are the four steps of aerobic cellular respiration, what happens in each step, what are the starting molecules, what comes out of each step, where in the cell does each step occur, how many ATP and /FADH 2 are produced in each step. Important Concepts Describe in detail how is ATP made using the electron transport chain What is the role of ATPsynthase, H +, O 2, and FADH 2 and the electron transport chain in ATP production? Know the overall picture of cellular respiration (summary slides) Important Concepts What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration, what steps produce carbon dioxide What is anaerobic fermentation, what steps are involved in fermentation, what end products are produced in humans, is oxygen required? when is it used. Definitions Aerobic cellular respiration, anaerobic fermentation, ATP synthase, metabolism 7

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