Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company

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1 Chapter 2 Skeletal System

2 Objectives Describe the functions of the skeleton Differentiate axial and appendicular skeleton Recognize and describe the composition of bone Identify and explain the structure of the bone Recognize and identify the types of bones

3 Skeletal System Functions Support - for soft tissues of the body Movement - bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrum Protection - vital organs Mineral Storage - calcium and phosphorous Production of blood cells (hematopoiesis) Provide shape

4 Types of Skeletons Axial Skeleton - upright part of body; 80 bones of the head, thorax, and trunk Appendicular Skeleton bones of the extremities

5 Types of Skeletons Axial Skeleton Upright part of body; 80 bones of the head, thorax, and trunk

6 Types of Skeletons Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones of the extremities

7 Bones of the Human Body Axial Skeleton Single Paired Multiple Cranium (8) Frontal Parietal None Sphenoid Temporal Ethmoid Occipital Face (14) Mandible Maxilla None Vomer Zygomatic Lacrimal Inferior concha Palatine Nasal

8 Bones of the Human Body Axial Skeleton (cont d) Single Paired Multiple Other (7) Hyoid Ear ossicles None (3) Vertebral column (26) Sacrum (5)* None Cervical (7) Coccyx (3)* Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5) Thorax (25) Sternum Ribs (12 pairs) None True (7) False (3) Floating (2) *Bones are fused together.

9 Bones of the Human Body Appendicular Skeleton (cont d) Single Paired Multiple Upper extremity (64) None Scapula Carpals (8) Clavicle Metacarpals (5) Humerus Phalanges (14) Ulna Radius Lower Extremity (62) None Hip (3)* Tarsals (7) Femur Metatarsals (5) Tibia Phalanges (14) Fibula Patella *Bones are fused together.

10 Composition of Bones Among body s hardest structures, only dentin and enamel in teeth harder Dynamic and metabolically active throughout life Vascularized - self repairing and remodeling

11 Composition of Bones (cont d) An organ - made up of several different types of tissue fibrous, cartilaginous, osseous, nervous, and vascular function as integral parts of the skeletal system 1/3 Organic (living) material organic gives bone elasticity 2/3 Inorganic (non-living) material inorganic provides bone hardness and strength

12 Bone is a specialized connective tissue Composition of Bones (cont d) Consists of cells and an organic extracellular matrix of fibers and ground substances produced by the cells High content of inorganic materials, in the form of mineral salts, calcium, and phosphate Collagen composes ~95% or the extracellular matrix (25-30% of the dry weight) Water - abundant, 25% of total weight

13 Microscopic Level Composition of Bones (cont d) Osteon Fundamental unit of bone Haversian Canal Small channel at center of each osteon Contains blood vessels and nerve supply

14 Macroscopic Level Composition of Bones (cont d) Compact or Cortical Bone Hard, dense outer shell Completely covers bone Thick along shaft and plates of flat bones Thin at ends of long bones Cancellous or Trabecullar Bone Porous and spongy inside portion Same material as compact bone but, more porous and contains less solid material Loose mesh structure or pores filled with marrow lighter Makes up most of articular ends of bone

15 Structure of Bone Epiphysis Area at each end of the diaphysis Wider than the shaft Adult bones - osseous Growing bones - cartilaginous and called epiphyseal plate Epiphyseal plate - manufactures new bone

16 Structure of Bone (cont d) Diaphysis Main shaft of bone Primarily compact Medullary canal - passage for nutrient arteries Endosteum - for bone resorption Metaphysis - primarily cancellous, provides support

17 Structure of Bone (cont d) Periosteum Thin fibrous membrane Covering all of the bone except articular surface Contains nerve and blood vessels Function: Nourishment Growth in diameter of immature bone Repair of the bone Attachment for tendons and ligaments

18 Types of Bones

19 Types of Bones (cont d) Long Bones Length > width Tubular shaped with shaft and bulbous ends

20 Types of Bones (cont d) Short Bones Dimensions equal Cubical shape

21 Types of Bones (cont d) Flat Bones Broad surface Not thick Examples: Scapula Ilium

22 Types of Bones (cont d) Irregular Bones Variety of mixed shapes Examples Sacrum Vertebra

23 Types of Bones (cont d) Sesamoid Bones Small bones resembling sesame seeds Located where tendons cross long bones Change the angle of attachment Protect from excessive wear

24 Types of Bones (cont d) Appendicular Upper Skeleton Extremity Lower Extremity Axial Skeleton Long bones HumerusFemur Clavicle Radius Fibula Ulna Tibia Metacarpals Metatarsals Phalanges Phalanges Short bones Carpals Tarsals None Flat bones Scapula Ilium Cranial bones (frontal,parietal) Patella Ribs Sternum Irregular bones None None Vertebrae Cranial bones (sphenoid,ethmoid) Sacrum Coccyx Mandible Facial bones

25 Bone Markings Depressions and Openings Marking Description Examples Foramen Hole through which blood Vertebral foramen of vessels, nerves, and ligaments cervical vertebra pass Fossa Hollow or depression Glenoid fossa of scapula Groove Ditchlike groove containing a Bicipital (intercondylar) tendon or blood vessel groove of humerus Meatus Canal or tubelike opening in External auditory a bone meatus Sinus Air-filled cavity within a bone Frontal sinus in frontal bone

26 Bone Markings (cont d) Projections/Processes that Fit into Joints Marking Description Examples Condyle Rounded knuckle-like Medial condyle of femur projection Eminence Projecting, prominent part Intercondylar eminence, of bone tibia Facet Flat or shallow articular Articular facet of rib surface Head Rounded articular projection Femoral head beyond a narrow necklike portion of bone

27 Bone Markings (cont d) Projections/Processes for Attachment Marking Description Examples Crest Sharp ridge or border Iliac crest of hip Epicondyle Prominence above or on a Medial epicondyle of condyle humerus Line Less prominent ridge Linea aspera of femur Spine Long, thin projection Scapular spine Trochanter Very large prominence for Greater trochanter of muscle attachment femur Tubercle Small, rounded projection Greater tubercle of humerus Tuberosity Larger, rounded projection Ischial tuberosity

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