Aspects of Normal Language. COMD 326, Intro. 1

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1 Aspects of Normal Language COMD 326, Intro. 1

2 Communication - exchanging information and ideas -encoding -transmitting (communication modes) -decoding COMD 326, Intro. 2 transmitting (communication modes) auditory-oral system (hearing and speech) visual-graphic system (reading and writing) visual-gestural system nonverbal communication manual communication augmentative communication communication b oards (low tech.) electronic communication aids (high tech.)

3 Communication/Language 1. paralinguistic - acts across sounds or words 2. nonlinguistic - not part of speech 3. metalinguistics COMD 326, Intro paralinguistic - acts across sounds or words intonation stress rate 2. nonlinguistic - not part of speech gestures posture facial expression eye contact body movement Distance 3. metalinguistics linguistic intuitions regarding acceptability of communication our ability to separate language from its context and judge it

4 Language -socially shared -symbolic code -arbitrary -rule governed -conveys meaning COMD 326, Intro. 4

5 Components of language -Syntax -Morphology -Phonology -Semantics -Pragmatics COMD 326, Intro. 5 Syntax - structure of the utterance noun phrase-verb phrase, articles come before nouns, adverbs modify verbs must know rules to use and generate language Morphology - internal organization of words morpheme - smallest meaningful unit of language how we produce tense, possession, number, etc. 2 classes (combination allows for creativity), Free - can stand alone, Bound - must have another part to function can be counted to judge level of language functioning MLU - collect sample (100), count morpheme, divide morphemes by utterances Phonology - structure, sequencing and distribution of sounds (IPA) phoneme - smallest distinctive unit of sound, vowels (diphthongs), consonants combined into words rules, [N] not at beginning of American English words, [h] not at end of American English words allophone - variation within a phoneme Semantics - meaning, relationship of words to objects, events, etc. words not reality, based on personal experience (cat, Protestant) multiword meanings, rely on context, combinations represent meaning beyond meanings of individual words (Mary + eat) Pragmatics - social use of language (language in context), functions for which language is employed Cohesion, fluency, turn-taking, presupposition, conversational repair, nonverbal aspects codes or styles

6 Language <--> Cognition Language Vygotski Whorf Piaget Johnson & Cromer Chomsky Thought COMD 326, Intro. 6

7 Strong Cognitive Hypothesis Piaget - Cognitive Determinism 4 stages of cognitive development Stage 1 - Sensorimotor Stage (birth --> 2) Stage 2 - Preoperational Stage (2 --> 7) Stage 3 - Concrete Operational Stage (7 --> 11) Stage 4 - Formal Operational Stage (11 --> 15) children progress through each, in order Weak Cognitive Hypothesis cognition important, but doesn t account for all of child s language abilities COMD 326, Intro. 7

8 Language Mediation of Cognition egocentric speech inner speech COMD 326, Intro. 8 egocentric sp eech inner sp eech sp eech coming from children thinking of themselves as the center of the universe thinking in words

9 Metacognition deliberate thought and/or control over one s own actions to achieve a goal COMD 326, Intro. 9 memorizing a list (select a way to learn) saying the list over and over using an acronym

10 Information Processing -Attention to stimuli -Sequencing -Rate -Discrimination -Memory COMD 326, Intro. 10 attention to stimuli auditory sensitivity (hearing) auditory processing auditory attention - ability to attend to speech stimuli and block out acoustic signals attracted more to native language than others attend to lip movements sequencing auditory sequencing - identifying temporal order of stimuli rate auditory rate- process acoustic information presented at varying speeds some evidence that language disordered children have trouble processing faster rate discrimination recognizing difference between sounds auditory discrimination - difference between sound stimuli memory episodic memory - recall of entire units despite of meaningfulness telephone number remembered long enough to call semantic memory - recalling based on association with already stored information auditory memory - ability to store speech stimuli mentally short term memory - severe limit chunking long term memory

11 Emergent Literacy -begins at birth -observation of literate activities -literate interaction -availability of books COMD 326, Intro. 11

12 School - Literacy Kindergarten - 1st Grade - 2nd Grade - 3rd Grade - 4th-6th Grades - Secondary - COMD 326, Intro. 12 Kindergarten - continued oral development and introduction of word recognition 1st Grade - formal instruction begins, letter/sound recognition, dictate stories 2nd Grade - spelling, recognition and comprehension skills 3rd Grade - more complex, longer stories, proofread and correct written work 4th-6th Grades - shift to learning info. from reading Secondary - written notes on lectures, and written exams

13 Whole Language Theory Concerns COMD 326, Intro. 13 Theory Concerns reading, writing, sp eaking listening all connected and the develop ment of one affects the others asp ects of all are learned as child interacts in context/relevant situations reading may not be learned in the same way as spoken language

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